Howard Malcolm.

A dictionary of the most important names, objects, and terms, found in the ... online

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cious as to be constantly
striking at every object with-
in its reach. When put to-
gether, they iminuediately de-
stroy each other. In general.



it does not exceed three or
four inches in length, though,
in some hot countries, they
are said to become eight or tea



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226



SCR



inches long. Some are yel-
low, others brown, and some
black. The sting is in the
tail. Rev. ix. 10. It has
eight legs, and four eyes, per-
haps more. The torment pro-
duced by their sting is dread-
ful. Rev. iz. 5. In Africa,
some grow to the size of a
very small lobster, which they
resemble in shape, as is seen
by the picture.

ThesoaUi border of Judea,
and the desert between that
and Egypt, was much infest-
ed with scorpions. Deut. viii.
15. They delight in stony
places, and in .old ruins.

Wicked men are called
scorpions. E^ek. ii. 6. The
statements of some authors,
that the only cure for its bite
is to crush the reptile on the
wound—that the young ones
instantly kill their mother,
&.C., are absurd. The folly
and cruelty of Rehoboam in
threatening to rule Israel as
with scorpions, is very strik-
ing. What father would give
his child such a reptile, when
it " asked of him an egg V
Luke xi 12. The complete
security of Christ's followers
is forcibly seen when he gives
them power to " tread on
scorpions'' unharmed. Luke
X. 19.

SCOURGE, a whip, a
lash 5 an instrument of disci-
pline or punishment. In the
punishment of the scourge,
the offender was stripped
from his shoulders to his
waiif; and tied by his arms to



a low pillar, that he migliS
lean forward for the conve-
nience of the executioners.
The law directed them not to
exceed forty stripes; and the
Jews, in order to prevent the
command being broken, al-
ways limited the number of
lashes to thirty and nine.
Deut, XXV. 2,3. When the
scourge had three lashes, as
was common, thirteen blows
made out the " forty stripes,
save one.'' This was done
to Paul five times. 2 Cor.
xi. 24.

SCRIBE, (1.) A clerk, or
writer, like our secretary of
state. 2 Sam. viii. 17. (2.)
A person skilled in the Jewish
law, who copied, taught and
explained the Scriptures.
Our Saviour classes the
scribes wKh prophets and
wise men. The estimation
in which they were held by
the people, appears in Matt,
xvii. 10 ; Mark xii. 35, &c.
The injury done to true re-
ligion by the traditions of
these interpreters' and preach-
ers of the law, may be gath>
ered from the severe rebuke
which Christ ^ve to their
obtrusive question. Matt. xv.
2, 3, &c. Our Saviour gave
various instances of their ir-
regular and unjust dealings.
Matt, xxiii. 2, 3, 4, &c. He,
therefore, on the mount,Wams
his audience of the dangers
they were exposed to from
such teachers. Matt. v. SM).
They existed as a separate
class of men as early as the



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2S7



SEA



days of Deborah. Most of
them were of the tribe of Levi.

SCRIP, a bag or purse.
According to its size, &c., it
was used for food or for
mooey. 1 Sam. xvii. 40.

SCRIPTURE, that which
is written. The Old and
New Testaments, which con-
tain the whole will of God
necessary to be known for
our salvation, are called tlie
Scripture, or the Writingg,
the Bible f or the Book, by way
of eminence, because they
far extel all other writings.
Though written by divers
men at different times, yet
they all agree, as if written
by one man. *^ All Scripture
is given by inspiration of
Ood," 2 Tim. iii. 16, "and
is profitable, for doctrine,'' to
declare and confirm the truth ;
" for reproof," to convince of
sin. and confiite errors; "for
correction," to reform the
life J and " for instruction in
righteousness/' that is, to
teach us to make a further
progress in the way to heaven,
or to instruct us in the true
righteousness revealed, by the
gospel of Jesus Christ, in
which we may appear with
comfort before God. It is
probable that the apostles
used the term in reference to
the Old Testament only.

Every mark of authenticity
which we can demand is
found in the Scripture. Its
oneqaaHed authority and ma^
jcsly of style j depth, purity,
•ad benevolence of matter 5



its tendency to glorify God>
and correct the corrupt incli-
nations of man $ the obvious
candor of the writers in re-
lating their own -weaknesses
and faults; their amazing,
harmony, though of very dif-
ferent stations, ages, charac-
ters, and circumstances; its
entire superiority ,as tomorals,^
above any thing ever pub-
lished by man; its abundant
attestation by vast numbers
of public and incontestable
miracles, by important and
authentic history, and by
the cheerful martyrdom of a
multitude of iU witnesses;
its wonderful preservation
upon earth ; its amazing suc-
cess in purifying the most
dissolute, and restraining the
most furious of men; iv
civilizing nations; in com-
forting, eniigfaiening and en-
nobling all who receive it;
the exact fulfilment of its nu-
merous and circumstantial
prophecies, &;c. are so many
infallible proofs that it is in-
deed the Word of God. 2
Tim* iii. 16—17.

SCYTH'IA. No country
under this name, and embracr
ing the same territory, now
exists. It comprehended Tar-
tary, Asiatic Russia, the Cri-
mea, Poland, part of Hunga-
ry, Lithuania, Sweden, Nor-
way, and the northern parts
of Germany. Col. iii. 11.

SEA, a large collection
of waters. The Hebrews
applied this term to lakes
of moderate siae ; and the



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S£A



moderi inhabitaafs of Pal-
estine 0tiH reUufi the same
phraseology.

1. The S£A OF Galilee
was ancietttly called the Sea
of Ciimereth, Numb, xzxiv.
11, or Cinneroth, Josh. zii.
3 1 nt the trme of the Macca-
bees, Oenesar, 1 Mace. ti.
67) asfd in the days of our
Saviour, the 8ea of Tiberias,
John vi. 1, from the great
. city Of that name which stood
on its banks ; and Gennesareth,
from the neighboring district
of the same name, Mark vi.

63. See OElfKtSARETH.

ti The Dead Sea \^as
anciently ealled the Sea of
the PMn, Dent. iv. 49} the
Salt Sem, Deut. iri. 17 ; Josh.
XV. 5; and the I^ast Sea,
Esek. xtvii. 18 -, Joel ii. 20.
ByJosephus and other writ-
ers, it is called LaJteAspfuU-
Htes, from the bitumen found
in it. It is about 7d miles
long, and 18 broad. The
term Deaid Sect seems to have
been given to rt from the
opinion, (erroneous, though
general,) that no Hying crea-
ture, eovrid exist in its waters,
and t&at «vea birds fell dead
into the waiter in attempting
lo fly over. Its waters are
clear, but very salt, and the
mud of the bottom black and
fetid. . Wood thrown into it
is said to become petrified.
It is sometimes called Sea
of Sodom, because it oc-
cupies the site of that place,
and the other cities of the
plain Which were destroyed



for their wickedness in ib4
days of Lot, viz. Gomorrah;
Admah, and Zeboim. It is
said that the ruins of thes«
cities may now be discerned
under the water when it if
low. See DeaI) Sea.

3. The Great Sea is the'
Mediterranean, called some-
times the Hinder Sea, in con*
tradistinction to the Red Sea,
)vhich is called the Former
Sea, Zech. xiv. 8^ because
Orientals commonly call the
east be/ore, the we^ bekindf
the left hand nor^A, and the
right hand south. The word
beyoitd, for the same reason,
means east. The Mediter*
ranean Sea is about 2000
miles long, and yaries in
breadth from 80 to 500 miles,
beautifully sprinkled with
islands, and bordered by fer-
tile and opulept countriies.
No tides are perceptible in it,
except in narrow straits.

4. The Red Sea is that
arm of the Indian Ocean
which runs alting the south-
west side of Arabia, and the
east of Ethiopia and Egypt,
to the length of 1200 miles,
now called the Arabian Gulf,

< As the Edomites ha.d lon^ the
property and use of it for
their shipping, it came to be
called the Sea of Mdom,
which the Greeks translated
into the Red Sea, Edom sig-
nifying red. Hence origi-
nated the mistake, that its
water, or its bottom, was
reddish.
SE'AH;a Hebrew meas



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229



SEC



we, containing about two and
ahalfgaJlons.

SEAL, an engrayed stamp ;
ako the impression made by
such a stamp. Formerly,
writings was a trade by itself 3
and even princes eonld not
sign their name. Henee the
use of a seal to authenticate
documents. The transfer of
Pharaoh's seal to Joseph, pat
him in possession of the entire
royal authority. The same
was done to Haman. The
expression, 2 Tim. ii. 19, " the
ftondation of God standeth
sure, having this seal, [secu-
rity,] the Lord ifrunoeih them
UuU are hiSf" seems to allude
to a certified instrument.
John iii. 33. See Book.

SEARED, burnt off, or
burnt hard, as flesh is with
a hot iron. Men have their
conscience seared, when it
is so stupified with the load
of unpardoned guilt, and
power of inward corruption,
that it regards nothing, how-
ever horrid and abominable.
1 Tim. iv. 2. '

SEAT, abode, station.
<< Moses' seat'' means the
station of authority, occupied
by those who interpreted and
ezpoundecl the word of God.
Matt, xxiii. 2.

SECT, a party of persons
united together under some
leader, or professing the same
tenets or opinions. The
Jews, in the time of our Sa-
viour, were divided into the
•ects of PharUeeSf Saddu-
eeu, MitHneSf Herodians, and
20



Zealots, These are described
under their respective name*,
except the Essenes, which are
not expressly mentioned in
Scripture.

The EssEirxs were a very
ancient sect^ spread through
Syria, Palestine, Egypt, and
the neighboring countries.
They seem to have made
religion to consist chiefly in
quietness and contemplation ;
regarding a serene mind as
the most acceptable offering
to God. AH agreed, there-
fore, in avoiding the snares
of cities and of traffic- Some
dwelt in villages, pra^etising
agriculture and the mechanic
arts ; others, retiring to des-
erts, gfave tbiemselves Wholly
to solitude and devotion.
They set a high value on the
Old Testament, and addicted
themselves to its peruseil ; bui
did not practise any of the
ceremonies, considering them
allegorical. They refused to
take oaths, but were remark-
able for uprightness and ve-
racity. Their dress and diet
were plain and cheap, their
lives inoffensive, and in doc-
trinal views, they nearly
coincided with the Pharisees.
Slavery, which has always
been common in the East,
they regarded as repugnant
to nature.

The Therapeutjb, who
were numerous near Alexan-
dria, seem to have been a
branch of this sect, differing
from them /but little either
in sentiments or habits.



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S30



BEL



These seeU have gradu-
ally become extinct; and the
principal present divisions of
the Jews are into Rabbinic
col, who iiold to the multitude
of traditions and commenta-
ries ; and Karaites j who ad-
here to the simple text of the
Old Testament. Beside these
there are the sects of Polish
Jews, which include those of
Germany and Russia; the
Spanish Jews, or Sephixrtim,
which include those of Portu-
gal 5 and the Italian JeiDS,
which include all the Levant.
They keep separate, and have
different synagogues, even in
the Holy Land. The Spanish
Jew considers his party so
exalted above the others, that
if any of them marry among
the other sects, he is excom-
municated, and his friends go
in mourning for him, as though
he were dead*

SEER, a prophet, so call-
ed from his foresight of
the future. 1 Sam. ix. 9.

SEETHE, to boil any
thing. Ex. xxiii. 19. The Jew-
iefa prohibition " thou shalt not
Seethe a kid in its mother's
milk,'' is regarded by the Jews
as a general prohibition of the
luxury of boiling any flesh in
milk. Cud WORTH shows an
additional reason for the pro-
hibition in the fact that it was
an idolatrous rite. •

SE'LA, called by the Jews
Jokteelf is. probably the ^lace
called Kerek in Burckhardt^s
travels. In Greek authors, it
is called Petra, and was the



celebrated capital of Arabia
Petrea. 2 Kings xiv. 7.

SELAH, a word of doubt-
ful import. Some suppose it
to mark the beginning of a
new paragraph ; others that it
indicates an elevation of voice.
It is probably no more than a
nota bene, calling for particu-
lar attention.

SELEU'CIA. There were
sever^ cities of this name in
Asia. One in Mesopotamia,
on the same site, or very
near to it, is the present city
of Bagdad. The Scripture
mentions only that of Syria,
near the river Orontes, which
was built by Seleucus Nica-
nor, the first Syro-Greoian
monarch. From its proximity
to Mount Pierius, it is called
in profane history Pieria.

SELF-EXAMINATION,
that indispensable calling of
ourselves to zecoount, which is
so expressly commanded in
the New Tesfament. 2 Cor.
xiii. 5. It consists in fully
considering our heart and life,
comparing them with Scrip-
ture requirement, and sincere-
ly desiring perfect rectitude.
Times of trouble, birth-days,
communion seasons,&c.,ought
to be especially improved for
t^is purpose.

SELL. The^Hebrews might
sell themselves or their chil-
dren, Lev. xxv^ 39 ; Ex. xxi.7 5
but were not to be treated as
common slaves. Lev. xxv. 44
—46. Insolvent debtors and
their children were sold, 2
Kings iv. 1 ; Matt, zviii. 26,



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231



SEP



aft were also thieves not able
to make restitution, ,Ez.xxii.3.

SENNACH'ERIB, a king
of Assyria, successor to Shal-
maneser. The kings of Judah
having refused to pay tribute
to him, he laid waste their
country. Taking part of his
army to invade Egypt, he left
Rabshakeh in the command
of the army in Judah, whose
blasphemy and insults we read
in2KingsxviIi.l9. Hezekiah
and Isaiah resorted to prayer,
and an angel destroyediSd^OOO
ef the Assyrians in one night.
The remnant of the invaders
returned to Nineveh, where,
shortly after, Sennacherib was
slain by his sons, as we are
told in 2 Kings xviii. During
the reign of this monarch,
^EVECHUS was king of Egypt,
and Deioces king of Media.
About this time, also, Romulus
laid the foundation of Rome.

SENSE means, (1.) That
faculty of a dving creature,
whereby it ^ceives the im-
pression of material objects ;
(S.)The impression of an object
upon the senses ; (3.) Meaning
or import ; (4. ) Common sense,
or those general notions aris-
ing in the minds of men, by
which tl^ey apprehend or un-
derstand things alike, or in
common.

SENSUAL, belonging to
the senses Persons addicted
to animal gratifications, arc
sensual. James iii. 15. Chris-
tians are to rise superior to
any slavery to their body. 1
Cor. ix . 27. The mortification



of unreasonable appetites is a
great part of religion. Rom.
viii. 13. Col. iii. 6.

SEPHARVA'IM, or Sk-
PHARviFES. They seem to
have originally dwelt north of
Media, or about Siphora, on
the River Euphrates. Senna-
cherib,king of Assyria, ravag-
ed the country about the days
of Hezekiah,and after destroy-
ing great numbers, colonized
most of the remainder in Ca-
naan, where they at length
became a tribe of Samaritans.

SEP'ULCHRE, a place for
receiving the dead. Every
vault, tomb, or grave, may be
termed a sepulchre. The Jewf
invariably placed them with*
out the cities, as they always
should bo, on account of the
noxious effluvia rising from
them. The royal family only
was buried in Jerusalem. 2
Chr. xziv. 16. Natural caves
were often used for interment;
and in these, thieves and lunap
tics sometimes resided. Hence
the grave is called a pU. Ps.
lxxxviii.3— 12. Okir Saviour's
sepulchre was " hewn out of a
rock;" and the door being
sealed, it was impossible he
should be stolen without the
knowledge of the guards. The
size^f the stone which formed
the door was itself an ample
security. It was " a great
stone," that was generally se-
lected for this purpose. Matt.
xxvii. 60. Clarke, in his
travels in Greece and the Holy
Land, informs us that " on the
reputed tomb of Agamemnon



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SET



k plafoed a stone twenty-seven
feet in length, seventeen in
Hreadth, and four feet seven
inches in thicknes».'' See
Tomb.

SERAPHIM, the plural of
SxRAPH. The word seems
to be derived from Jlamey and
to mean Jiery cnui, or those
who excel in love and zeal.
Isa. vi . 1—7. It plainly means
an order of heavenly beings ;
bnt what is their special rank
Of employment, we know not.

SERPENT. . There are
many kinds of serpents. The
only remarkable kind men-
tioned in Scripture is the Jlif
hig serpentf thought by some
lo be so called from their swifij
darting motion. They were
called fenfj from their color
and their venom. ^ Isa. xxx. 6.
Several profane authors men-
tion serpents found in the East,
Mith wings like a bat. Herod-
otus affirms that he saw such
at the city of Butus, and de-
scribes them minutely. Bo-
■CBART quotes many authors
to prove that they are the same
jas the hydra of the Greeks
and Latins. The craft of this
reptile is often alluded to in
Scripture. Gen. Hi. 1. Matt,
jt. 16.

The serpent was worship-
iped in Chaldea, Egypt, Rome,
and other Oriental nations. Es-
culapius was adored at Epi-
4aurus,under the form of a seir-
.pent. See Adder, Incha NT-
Bits, and Cockatrice.

SERVANT. TheHebrews
fcad several kmds of servanU.



(l.)The slaves for life,wli»
were strangers, bought or ta-
ken in war. Lev.xxv.44, &e.
(2.) Hebrew slaves or bond-
servants, who could only at
first be bound six years, and
then were to be dismissed
with presents. Slavery was
common before the deluge;
and some of the patriarchs,
as Job and Abraham, appear
to have owned thousands of
slaves; but they seem to have
been treated with great ten-
derness, and often to have had
wages, and much confidence
placed in them. Among the
Romans, they were often
branded, for security ; but this
was forbidden to the Jews.
The New Testament requires
servants to be faithful, Matt,
xxiv. 46 'y Tit. ii. }0 ; and diU-
gent, 1 Thess. iv. 11. They
must obey their employers in
all things, except what is con-
trary to morality, or beyond
their power, or not according
to their engagement. See
Sell.

SERVE, to labor, do work
for, or help a person in any
employment ; to attend or
wait upon a person, in order
to obey and assist "him. To
serve God, is to obey him, not
only by worshipping him, as
required, in spirit and in truth,
but also by studying to know
and do his will, on all occa-
sions, however opposed to our
depraved inclinations, or at
variance with our apparent
temporal interests.

SEVEN, a number wbicji



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SHE



in Scripture is used sd oilen
aud so remarkably, as obvi-
ously to have an especial im-
port. Gen. viii. xli. &c. The
term often denote:! a perfect
or complete number. Job v.
19. Lev. xzvi. 24. Ps.xii. 6.
Seven/old, or seven times,
often only means abundantly,
completely. Gen. iv. Id, 24.
Lev. xxvi. 24. Ps. xii. 6. Sev-
enty times seven is a still
higher superlative.

SHALMANESER, a king
of Assyria, who, succeeding
Tiglath-PiLezer, began his
-reign a. m. 3267, and reigned
14 years. He conquered Is-
rael when Hoshea was its king,
and three years aftefrward,
finding out a negotiation with
Egypt to set themselves free
from his yoke, he overrun Is-
rael with his armies, ravaged
tiie country, destroyed the
fenced cities, killed many of
the inhabitants, captured Sa-
maria, the metropolis, and
transported Hoshea and the
chief citizens to Media and
other eastern parts of his em-
pire. 2 Kings xvii. Among
these vrasTobitf whose history
is given in the Apocryphal
book which bears his name.
At this time Hezekiah reign-
ed in Judah y and Sabacus in
Egypt. Thesu'^essorofShal-
maneser was Sennacherib.

SHAME^ (1.) Confusion
arising from conscious guilu
Gen. ii. 25. Ezra ix. 6. (2.)
Reproach, ignominy. Ezek.
fxzvi. 6. Prov. ix. Great
iQodesty is called shame'
20*



facednesSf and is recommend
ed to women. 1 Tim. ii. 9.

SHA'RON, a beautiful dif-
trict near Carmel, along the
sea coast. Cant. ii. 1. Tlie
name became proverbial to
express a place of great ler-
tility or beauty. Modem trav-
ellers give the name Shar^m
to the plain between Ecdippe
and Ptolemais.

SHAVE. Shaving the head
or beard, amon^ the Jew8,was
a sign of moummg. Isa. xv. S.
Jer. xli. 5. They preserved
their beards from their youth,
with great care, so that to lose
it was a great humiliation.^
2 Sam. X. The Lord'& threat*
ening to shave Israel with '' a
hired razor/' means that for-
eign troops should utteriy
scrape or despoil the land.
Isa. vii. 20. Short hair has
always been considered un-
becoming in women. . 1 Cor.
xi. 6.

SHEBA, or SeBa. There
were several of this name >—
(L)The son of Ct<«A,who gave
the name to a country in Ara-
bia. Gen. X. 7. Psalm Ixxii. 10.
(2.) The grandson of Cush.
Gen. X. 7. (3.) The son of
Joktan. Gen. X. 29. (4.) The
grandson of Abraham. Gen.
XXV. 3. . All these seem to have
taken up their residence in
Arabia^ and perhaps moft of
them in the south part of it.
One or more of these Shebas
gave name to the eomiti^
whose queen eame to, visit
Solomon, bringing htm laift
preseqts of gold, spieM^ wd



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SHE



;]^recioot stones. But whether
this Sheba was situated in
Arabia the Happy, or in Abys-
sinia, is doubtlul. (d.)Theson
«f Bichri, a Jew, who beaded
A revolt ia the reign of David.
2Saai.zx. (6.) The name of a
famous weU, sometimes called
Sheba, and sometimes Beer-
•htba, Geo. xxvi. 33.

SHECHEM, a vfery an-
cient city, 35 miles north of
Jerusalem, which the sons of
Jacob cruelly ravaged, to re-
venge the injury done to their
■sister by its prince. Gen.
xxziv. Near it was '' Jacob's
mfA/* John iv. 6, and his pur-
chased burial place, where
the .remains of Joseph, Elea-
WK ^d Joshua were deposit-
ed. Next to Jerusalem, this
is, perhaps,,the most interest-
.ing spot in Palestine. Mount
Genxim rises near the town
on the south, and Mount Ebal
on the north. After the ruin
of the city of Samaria, She-
ehem became the metropolis
.of SamfM-ia, and was called
Sychar,, Near it oceurved our
vSaviour's conversation with
4he Samyuilan woman, which
resulted in the conversion of
jm many, of (he cilixens. John
ir. Matthew Konry observes,
<' Sfaechsw yielded the first
pfosel3rt^ to th* church of
Jirari, (Gen. aiatxiv.^ and it
wms the firsli pi«ce where the
mpel' wms preached out of
lumV * h was enlarged and
famntified byVespasiaB, about
foKtyyev»ater€2hrist'8 death,
Mm k vim bj Imcalltd Neapo- .



/is, or the New City. It is, at
this day, a fine town, coo-
tainmg 10,000 inhabitants, of
which about 100 are nominal
Christians. The Samaritans
are diminished to about 30
families. The Jews are still
fewer. In the Samaritan
synagogue is a famous M. S.
of the Pentateuch, which they
suppose to be 3000 years old,
and an exact copy of it 800
years old. They were shown
to Dr. Huntingdon, English
chaplain at Aleppo, and more
recently to Mr. Jowett, agent
of the Bible society. This
city is now called Naplowe.
See Samaria.

SHEEP, a well-known ani-
mal, of great utility, and famed
for meekness. In Syria are
two varieties of sheep— one
differing little from ours ; the
other, more common and more
esteemed, having* a tail of ex-
traordinary bulk, often weigh-
ing 12 or Id pounds, and
sometimes more. It seems to
consist of a substance between
fat and marrow, and was com-
manded to be oQered in sacri-
fice to God. Lev. iii. 9. The
wealth of ancient kings, and
other great men, consisted
chiefly in flocks and herds, S
Kings iii. 4; and this is stiH Uie
casein some Eastern countries,
especially where the people
are few, and pastures luxuri-
ant. Christians are compared
to ttuepf for their innocence
and excellence. Christ is " tl|e
Lamb of Godj^'that is,theeTeat
atoning sacrific«. John i. tl^



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SHEK^EL, a weig^bt among
the Hebrews ; but its preeise
lieaviness is not agreed on.
The common shekel of mon-
ey was equal to a half dollar.
The sb^el of the sanctuary
was possibly double that sum.,

8HEM, the second son of
Noah, was bom a. m. 1668,
about 98 years before the del-
uge. His posterity, of which
the Jews are a part, peopled
the greater part of Asia. It is
thought by some that he was
the Pluto of the iieathen.

SHEM'INITH, a stringed
instrument ; or possibly a spe-
cies of music ; or a particular
part of the composition. Ps.
vi. xii. &c.

' SHEW, or Show, an ap-
pearance or pretence; also
any public sight.

Christ made a shew of prin-
cipalities and powers. Col. ii.
15, when he openly triumphed



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