Howard Malcolm.

A dictionary of the most important names, objects, and terms, found in the ... online

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BO human being lives at Ephe-

sus ! Hy-scUttck, which mmy
be considered another name
for Ephesus, does not stand
on the same place, and con-
tains only a . few wretched
Turkish huts. The candle-
stick has been removed out
of its place ! ** How doth the
city sit solitary that was fjU
of people I'' The apostle John
spent most of his life, and
closed it here.

EPHOD, ao ornamental
uppee garment, which made a
part of the official dress of
the Hebrew priest. That of
the common priest was made
of linen, and that of the high
priest was richly embroider-
ed, and contained . the sacred
bremtjtlatt^ It was without
sleeves, and eonsisted of two
parts, one banging before, the
other behind.' See Brxast-


EPHRAIM. (1.) The
younger son ef Joseph, bom
2293, and head of a tribe in
Israel, which, at the time of
their deliverance out of E^
gy pt, amounted to 40,500 per-
sons. {%.) The lot of Ephraim,
lying in the heart of the Holy
Land. (3.)* The maurUairu
of EpkraiMf highly fertile,
except where they approach
the Jordan in rocky preci-
pices. A spur of this range ap-
proaches Jericho, the passes
of which have ever been in-
fested by robbers. (4.) There
was a forest of Ephraimf
where Absalom's army was
routed. 2 Sam. xviii. &— 17.
(5.) From the day« of Jerc

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houa til) the ten tribes were
carried away captive by ^al-
maneser, the whole land, not
included under Judah, was
often called Ephraim. Jer.
Kxxi. 6. (6.) The city of
Ephraim, where Christ retir-
ed with his disciples not long
before he suffered. John xi.54.

EPICU'REANS, philoso-
phers who adopted the^ doc-
trine of Ejneurus, who 'flour-
ished at Athens, Bbout a. h.
3700. They denied that God
governs the worid, or in the
least condescends to interfere
with creatures below. They
denied also the immortality of
the soul, and the existence of
angels. They maintained that
the world was not formed by
God, not with any design, but
by the fortuitous concourse
of fctoms. They maintained
that Jiappiness consisted in
pleasure.; but some of them
placed this pleasure in the
tranquillity and joy of the
mind, arising from the prac-
tice of moraJ virtue, which is
thought, by some, to have
been the true principle of Epi-
curus } others understood him
in a grosser sense, and placed^
all their happiness in sensual*

EPISTLE, or Letter.
Twenty-one of the books of
the 'New Testament^are eoW-
Gd epistle*. The first fourteen
were written by Paul 5 the
other seven were written, one
by James, two by Peter, three
by John, and one by Jade.
The messages to the Aeven

churches of Asia recorded ia
the book of Revelation, are
called epistles. Rev. ii. and
iii. Tounderstand the epistles,
we must consider the time, OC'
casixm, design, and partiet

ERASTUS, a disciple of
Paul, and chamberlain, that
is, treasurer, of the city of Cor-
inth. He resigned his office,
and became an assistant to
Timothy. Rom: xvi. 23.

ESA'IAS, the same as
Isaiah, which see.

third son of Sennacherib, who
sacceeded his father about the
22d year of the reign of Hez-
ekis^. In him the kingdoms
of Assyria and Babylon be-
came united ; after which he
invaded Judah, and carried
Manasseh away in chains ;
which was the occasion of the
repentance and reformation
of that wicked prince. 2 Kiqgs
xxi. He reigned over Assyria
39 years, and over Babylon
13, and died 668 years before
the birth of Christ.

ESAU. See Eoom.

EStoRAE'LON, a noble
plain, about 15 miles scpiare;
near Mount Carlnel, famous
in all ages for the great bat-
tle fought upon it. It was
once exceedingly populous,
but is now almost a desert.

ESPOUSALS, the act or
ceremony of marriage. Jer. ii.
2. Espousing sometimes meant
in Scripture only betrothing,
or making a matrimonial en-
gagement. See Betroth.

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ESTHER, the name of a
queen of PenU, and also of
one of the historical books of
the Old Testament. Her his-
tory is recorded in that inspir-
ed narrati ve,writtea,probably,
by Mordecai. The king, her
husband, was, as some think,
ArtaxerxeaLongimanus ; but
was more probably Dariut

ETERNITy,strictIy speak-
ing, is duration without begin-
ning or end. God alone is
therefore truly eternal. See
. ETHIOPIA is sometimes
called, in the Old Testament,
Cuth, from the oldest son of
Ham, whose posterity settled
the country on the south-west
of the Red Sea. Acts Viiu
27. It bordered on Egypt,
and was once a most powerful
kingdom, with many noted
cities. It is now called Aln/g^

EUNUCH, the name given
to certain officers who served
in the inner courts and cham-
bers of kings.

EUPHRA'TES, the most
famous river in Western Asia.
From its source ip the moun-
t^ns of Armenia, its course is
westward 3 aAer which, at the
foot of Mount Taurus, it bends
southward,receives the Melas,
nuis along the east side of Sy-
ria, and, aAer having watered
Ghaldea, proceeds south, and
joms the Tigris, just above
where the ancient Paro^ice is
supposed to have stood. A-
bout 60 miles, farther south,

the united riven duehuft
themselves into the PersiaB
Gulf. Like the Nile, it is sub-
ject to an annual overflow, by
which it imparts great fertility
to its valley. On its banks
stood Babylon. Now called
Epherat of Phrat. Bussorah,
about fifty miles from its
mouth, is sow a place of some

lent and dangerous north-east
wind, common in the Medi-
terranean about the beginning
of winter. Acto zxvii. 14- It
is called by sailors a X10-


EVANGELIST, a bringer
of good news. It was ap-
plied first to the inspired
historians of the gospel of Je-
sus Christ, and, also, in the
primitive church, to those who
went from place to place, to
preach the glad tidings of tho
ever blessed gospel. Tha
term is now used to signify a
minister who travels, and is
not settled with any particu-
lar people.

EVEN, EvsNiHO. The
Jews had two evenings. The
first was the after part of the
day ; tlye second was the hour
or two immediately after dark.
Where the word occurs in Ex.
xii. 6, Numb. ix. 3, and laviii.
4, &.C. it reads in tl|e original
** between the evenings,'^ and
means the ttoilighL This was
the time the passover was to
be sacrificed. Deut. xni. 6.

ing forever } eternal, God it

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•ver|astng,EKod. xr, 18; and
the coveaanl of f^race, Heb.
xiii. SO ; and the fntore bless-
edness of the righteous, Luke
zri. 9 3 2 Cor. iv. 17 ; and the
punishment of the wieked,
Matt. XXV. 46.

Our finite minds eannot em-
brace the thought of everlast-
ing dnration. Millions of milr
lions of years, multiplied' to
the furthest |>owers of ieompu-
tation, nxe as nothing to eter-
nity. Any period we can
compute will as certainly
come to an end as a single
day, and then the space be-
yond is not diminished! O
*^ who can dwell in everlast-
ing burnings V^

EVIL, an action contrary
to the law of God ; any wrong
done by one man to another.
Matt. v. 39. It is put for
the afflictions or punishments
which God sends, Job ii. 10 }
for sin and its sufferings,
Matt. vi. 15. To have an
evil eye, Prov.. zxiii. 6, is to
be covetous, and grudge the
grace that is dispensed to
others. Evil days, Eccl. xii.
1, signify the time of old age,
which is calamitous in itself,
and often saddened with the
lemembrauce of youthful fol-
fics. To '' put fs^r away the
et)il day," Amos vi. 3, means
to drive away the thoughts of
approaching judgment and
death. Satan is called the
evil one, or evil spirit ; he is
the author of sin ; he perpet-
nally works wickedness, and
I trooble. John xvii. 15.

Acts XIX. It. AncetfUsMis
a season of much
danger, and trouble.
V. IS.

ing defamatory falsehoods, or
reproachfully and uaneeessa*
rily speaking of real faults.
It is a deplorably prevalent
vice, even among those who
pride themselves on their mo-
rality. It is scarcely, if at all,
less smful to listen with pleas-
ure to sueh cobversatioa. 1
Cor. V. 11. and vi. 10.

EXACTEK. An officer
whose business it was to col-
lect fines levied by the courts,
and sometimes also to gather

EXAMINE. See Sblf-


EXCLUDE, to shut oat.
The word excommmnieeiU,
which is now common, is not
found in our translation,
though the expression ** caet
out," in John ix. 34, might be
so rendered. Exclusion from
a church is an awful eenswe
which Christ empowers his
visible ' people to inflict on
members who are incorrigible,
or who have committed scan-
dalous offences. Excluded per-
sons forfeit, (1.) The fellow-
ship of the church, Matt, xviii.
17; (2.) The common society
of the members, except so far
as civil relations- require it, 2
Thess. iii. 6; 14 ; Rom. xvi.
17 5 (3.) The inward privi-
leges of the professed people
of God. The design of ex-
clusion is, (1.) To purge the

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•hiirekj {ft.) To warn other
memben; (3.) To reclaim

EXHORT, to urge others
to the performance of known
daty. It is a Christian re-
quirement; Heb. iii. 13, and
waft the constant practice of
Christ and die apostles. Luke
iii. 18. Acts xt. 23. Some
may be useful in this way who
are not called to the ministry.
Rom. zii. 8.

EXODlfS, the second
book of Moses, so calted
from its name in the Greek
version, which signifies de-
parture ; because it relates to
the history of the departure of
the Israelites from Egypt. It
|s a narrative of the transac-
tions of about 145 years, from
the death of Joseph, a. m.
2369, to the erection of the
tabernacle, in 2514. It de-
scribes the history of Moses,
the plagues of Egypt, the
journey of Israel, the dispen-
sation of the law, the construc-
tion of the tabernacle, and
the entrance into Canaan.

EX'ORCIST, one who
drives away evil spirits, or
casts out devils. Our Sa-
viour, when he sent out his
disciples to preach the gos-
pel, gave them power over
junclean spirits, to cast them
put, Matt. z. 1 3 by which gift
they gained repute among the
people, and gave proof that
they were sent of God. But
those Jewish exorcists, men-
tioned Acts xix. 13, were im-
postors, deludinjp ijie people

by imposture, witefaenft •»
diabolical agency.

EXPIATION, atonement.
The "great day" of ezina^
tion was the 10th of the
month Tlzri. The ceremony
is described Lev. xvi. When
expiation is made, the guilt is
removed, and the obhgation
to punishment is can^Ued.
See Propitiation.

EYELIPS were painted
by ancient Jewish females,
and stin are in Arabia, &e.
This is what Jezebel did, 2
Kings iz. 30. The edge of
the lids, between the hair imd
the eye-ball, ii made black, ta
increase the size and vivacity
of the eye. Jer. iv; 30> may
refer to this custom or to the
streaking of the hce by
pricking a dark pow^
through the skin, as sailors
now do on their arms. This
practice remains in Arabia,
and various other countries.

E2EKIEL, one of the
greater prophets ; he was the
son of Buzi, a descendant of
Aaron, and of course belong-
ing to the priesthood. Qeing
carried away by Nebuehad-
jiezzar among the captives,
he settled on the banks of the
Chebar, in Mesopotamia, and
was there favored with his
extraordinary revelations. Ho
seems to have exercised his
prophetic office about twenty

The Book o/Ezekul is sim-
ilar to that of Jeremiah in its
scope, but very different in
siyifi, being more pointed aM

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It pradieto the dread-
iU ealanities to be miBcted
OB Judea and Jenvalem, for
idolatry aad wickedness ; the
judgments that would be seat
upon the false prophets, who
deluded the people with vain
hopes, and winked at their
mas ; the punishments which
should befall Ammoa, Edom,
Pluhstia, Tjre and Egypt;
the restoration of Israel and
Judah; and the blessedness
of the gospel church under
the Mesnah.

EZRA, a captive . JFew, of
the sacerdotal fiixnily, who, by
wisdom and inte^ty, rose
to eminence m the Persian
court. By authority of his
sovereign, he assembled a
large colony of his country-
men, and went to repair Jeru-
salem, and rebuild the tem-
ple. To' Ezra is ascribed the
important work of coUectnig
the different inspired books,
arranging, combining, and
correcting them, and so form-
ing the complete canon of the
Old Testainent.

The Book of Ezra was
doubtless written by him. It
consists of two principal divis-
ions : the first gives the nar-
rative of the return of the
Jews from Babylonia; and
the second describes the great
reformation of religion which
took place among Uie people.
It materially elucidates the
prophecies of Haggai and
Zeebariah. Comjf>are Ezra
▼. with Hag. i. 12, and Zecb.
ti. 14.


FAITH, a dependence «■
the truth of an assertion.
Divine faith is a firm belief
upon the authority of divine
revelation. It is thus we are
persuaded to beKeve all truths
relating to Qod, revealed to
us in the Scriptures. Justify-
ing, or saving faith, is a grace
wrought in the soul by the
Spirit of Ood, whereby we re-
ceive Christ, as he is revealed
in the gospel, to be oar Proph-
et, Priest and King ; trust ia
him ; and rely upon his righte-
ousness atone ibr salvation.
This faith beg^ets a sincere obe-
dience in life and conversation.
^' Faith which worketh by
love/' Gal. v. 6, is faith wMcb
shows itself by producing in
us love to God and to our
neighbor. Faith is put for a
belief and profession of the
gospel, Rom. i. 8.

FALL, to drop down, to
be ruined, to apostatize. By
way of eminence, man's first
disobedience, and consequent
degradation, is called tfu
FtUt. By it our whole race
has lost the image of God,
and, being totally destitute of
any natural tendencies to holi-
ness, vre** are estranged irora
the womb.'^ Ps. H. 5, and
Iviii. S. Isa. Iviii. 8. Frcmi
this awful condition, and its
consequences, we are deli^r-
ed by " the second Adam.'*

FAN, an instrument fat.

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wparating chaff from grain,
formerly made in the shape of
a wooden shovel, with a long*
handle. The shape and man-
ner of using^ it afe shown in
the picture of a threshing
floor. With this the grain
was tossed in the air when the
wind blew, so that the . chaff
was driven away. As it fell
round the place, it was cus-
tomary to sweep it together
and bum it. See Matt. iii. 12.

FARTHING, a coin used
by the Romans. Our transla-
tors give this English to
both Awapiov {asaarion) and
KaipavmSf {quadranteSf) but
these were different. The
first was a tenth part of a Ro-
man penny, or about two
cents. Matt. z. 29. The lat-
ter was equal to two piiles,
and is about a fourth part of
our cent. Mark zii, 43.

FAST, a solemn forbear-
ance from food, accompanied
by huiniliation before God,
prayer, and the refbrmation
of life. Our Saviour did not
appoint any fast days, but
gave reasons why, after his
death, his clisciples should
fast. Afflictions and perplex-
ities soon became coqimon to
Christians, and then they fast-
ed. 2 Cor. vi. 5.

FASTING, though much
neglected by modem Chris-
tians, is a duty of great impor-
tance, and should not be over^
looked among our means of
growth in grace. It should
consist, (1.) In total or partial
abstinence from food ^nd 9II

oth^r animal indulgeneei, at
far as bodily health and vigor
of mind will permit ; (2. ) In hu*
mUiation and confession of sin)
(3.) In prayer; (4.) In liberal-
ity to good objects. Matt,
iz. 16. 1 Cor. vii. 6.

FATHER, he that has a
child. It is a title given to
the first ancestor, as Rom. iv.
16 ; to the inventor and mas-
ter of any art or science ; or
the founder of a particular
profession. Gen. iv. 20, 2!§ j
to him wiio is affected with
the miseries of the poor, and
endeavors to provide for their
wants. Job zziz. 16. God
declares himself to be" ihe
Father o/the/aihtrUM." Ps.
Izviii.'S. God is eminently
the Father, Creator, Preserv-
er and Protector of all 'his
creatures, but principally of
those who know and serve
him. Deut. zzzii. 6. Rom.
viii. 15, 16. The devil is
called the father of the wick-
ed. John viii. 44. In church
history, the term is applied to
the Christian writers of the
first centuries. It is custom-
ary to give this epithet to aged
and eminent saints, 2 Kings
ii. 12, and to the minister under
whom we are convefte4y 1
Cor. iv. Id 'y 1 Tim. i. 13.

FATLING, a young ani-
mal fed for slaughter. Isa.
zi. 6. Matt. zzii. 4.

FEAR, apprehension of
danger. Guilt produces that
solicitude and dread which if
csWed slavish /eat. ActszKiv.
25. That holy feeling of lh«

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nm fi w ed heart toward Qod,
vrhicli produces a reverent sub-
mission to bis providence, and
i«ady obedience to all his com-
mtoida/is/lial/ear, Heb.v.7.

F£AST, a season of joy
and thanksgiving appointed
of God to commemorate great
events, to give rest and confir-
mation to the pious, to pro-
mote and sanctify social af-
fections, and to prefigure the
blessings of the gospd.

The following enumeration
is prepared with great care,
and should be familiar to
every reader of Scripture.

Thk Fxast of the Pass-
OTXR lasted eight days, be-
ginning on the Idth of the
month Nisan. Ex. zii. 14. See

The Feast of Pente-
cost came fifty days after the
Passover. See Pentecost.

The Feast of Taberna-
cles continued for a week,
and was to commemorate the
dwciliug of the Israelites in
tents. It is sometimes called
^bB/€aH o/ingaiherings. Ex.
xxiiL 16, and xxziv. 2S. The
Ibllowiag are the principal
eeremonies. (1.) During >be
entire week of its continuance,
the people dwelt in booths or
tents, erected in the fields or
stnets, or on the flat, terrace-
like roofs of their houses. (3.)
Extraordinary offerings were
made. See Numb. zxix. (3.)
Daring the feast, branches
■ of pafan, olive, citron, myr-
tle, and willow, were car-
ried IB the bands, singing

**HoUmuLf** i. e. Smtt nemt
or, Sooty I beseech tiut. Ps.
cxviii. 25. It was meant as
a prayer for the coming of
the Messiah. Thus was Jesus
conducted into Jerusalem, by
the multitude, who believed
him to he the promised Sa-
viour. (4.) The libation of
water upon and around the
altar,which was an emblem of
the efiuston of the Holy Spirit.
To this Christ alluded, when,
in the last day of the feast, he
cried, '^ If any man thirst, let
him come unto me and drink/'
During the whole festival,
music, feasting, rejoicings, and
illuminations, gladdened the

The Day of Atonement
was kept on the 10th day of
Tizri, or September. On this
day only , in the whole year,was
the high priest permitted to
enter &e most holy place, and
then not without due prepare^
tion, on the pain of deatii.
Lev. xvi. 1^—17.
. The Feast or Wbbks^
Ex. xzxiv. 22, occurred seven
weeks after the second day
of the Passover. It is the sane
as the feast of Pentecost.

The Feast of Trum-
pets was held on the first and
second days of the montii
Tizri, which was the com-
mencement of the civil year.
The name is derived from the
blowing of trumpets in the
temple with more than usual

The Feast of Lots, or
PoEiM, was inuoduced in

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after timeS; and waa celebrat-
ed in Febraary. On this oc-
casion the entire book of Es-
ther is always read in • the

The Feast of the Ded-
ication of the second tem-
ple (mentioned in John x.
22) was instituted aAer the
days of Malachi, in commem-'
oration of the cleansing of
the temple and altar, after
their profanation by Anti-
ochus. 1 Maccab. iv. d2— 59.
It commenced on the Sdtb of
Cideu, or December.

The preceding |ire the chief
mmual festivals of Old Testa-
ment times. Modern Jews
have added various others,
iduch this wodt need not no-
tice. The following were the
extraordinary festivals of di-
vine appointment.

The Sabsatical Year.
Every seventh year, the land
was to lie fallow, while ite
spontaneous produce was
shared in common by the
servants of the family, the
poor, the stranger, and the
cattle. It was the year of re-
lease from personal slavery,
Ex. xxi. 2, and from peconi-
aiy debts, Deut. xv. 1, 2. In
order to guard against famine
on this and the ensuing year,
(which would also be par-
tially deficient, in consequence
of the entireiest of the seventh
year,) God promised a triple
produce for the sixth year.
Lev. XXV. 21, 22. The breach
of this command was among
Ibe ehief national sins which

caused the captivity. Leir.
xxvi. 33, 34. Jer. xxv. 9. t
Chron. xxxvi. 21.

The Jubilee was a more
solemn feast, held every
seventh sabbatical year, that
is, once in fifty years. See

Feasts of Charity, or
Love FEASTS,were entertain-
ments of the Christian church
in the first ^s, which tended
to relieve the poor and pro-
mote union. The Lord's sup-
per was generally administer-
ed at the close. They, how-
ever, became occasions of
evil, and were discontinued.
' FELIX was deputy-gov-
ernor of Judea. He enticed
Drusilla to divorce Azizus,
king of Emesa, and then took
her as his own wife. He de-
feated about 4000 outlaws,
headed by an Egyptian un-
postor, who had posted them-
selves in the mount of Olives.
Acts xxi. 38. During the ad-
ministration of Felix, Jndea
was in a constant turmoil,
being infested with robbers
and assassins, and overrun
with impostors ' pretending to
be the Messiah. It was this
prince that trembled at the
words of Paul, Acts xxiv. 25.
He was a bad man, and gov-
erned with great injustice and
cruelty. In a. d. 60, he was
recalled to Rome, and Festus
was sent in his room. The
Jews followed him, and com
plained to the government of
his extortion and violenee.
He would have been punished

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with d«alh,.had not his broth-
er Pallas, by his credit at
'coUity preserved his life. Acts
jcxiii. and xxiv.

munion, is a term of great
impojrtaDce in the Scriptures.
There is a fellowship to which
the people of Christ are admit-
ted with God the Father, and
with his Son Jesus Christ,
the blood of Jesus cleansing
them from all sin. 1 John i.
3, 6, &c. There is also a fel-
lowship which they have with
one another, in the spiritual
blessings which the gospel
brings to the guilty; and in
temporal things, which takes
place when the disciples of
Christ communicate jointly of
their worldly substance to the
support of the poor. Acts ii.
4&. The church connection
is called a fellowship, and is
opposed to having connection
witl^ the unfruitful works of
darkness. Eph. v. 11.

FERRET, a species of
weasel. The word so render-
ed, Lev. xi. 30, qpeans '* the
trier/' on which account some
take it for the frog. It seems
on the whole to be the gecko j
or noisy lizard.

FESTUS succeeded Felix
ill the government of Judea.
He sent Paul, whom Felix had
left bound at Caesarea, tp
Rome, to be tried by Ceesar,
to whom he appealed. Acts
xxv. Festus was very diligent
m his efforts to put an end to
the disturbances and robberies
which had become •• frequent

in Judea, m the reign of FeGs,
but took no trouble to invest!*
gate the claims of Christian-
ity 3 and when Paul spoke ef
its mysteries, he thought thai
much learning had made him
mad. Acts xxvi. He died
about A. D. 62.

FIG-TREK, a well-known
tree, which flourishes in warm
countries. It attains a good
degpree of perfection in the
most southern of the Unit-
ed States, The fruit, which
grows from the trunk and
large branches, and not from
the exterior twigs, as in
most trees, is nutritious and
medicinal. It was very com-
mon in Palestine, and is so now
in every pari of the Levant,
whence it is exported, in a
dried stale, to every part of
the world. The leaves of the
tree are very large, oi» whioh
account Adam and Eve made
aprons of them. The tree it-
self is large, and some have
been mentioned which woul4
shelter three hundred men. 1
Kings iv. 25. John i. 49.
Christ blasted a fig-tree on
which he found no fruit,
** though the time of figs
was not yet,'^ — ^that is, the
time of gathering figs had not
quite arrived. The tree was,
therefore, evidently barren,
and had not already been
stripped. Matt. xxi. 19. It is
remarkable that his curse was
only the establishment of its
previous sterility. Its leaves
withered, so that no fuUire
traveller should meet a lik«

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diMppofattineBt. Being: on
dM public road, no man's
property was injured. It was

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