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grete doing in Wales I trust God we shal not doubte. The
Lord Herbert and the Lord Ferrers of Chartley with divers
many other gentilmen ben gone afore to dense the countreye
afore us 4 ."

Carnarvon. In January, 1462, he was given Kilpek castle, eight miles
from Hereford, the confiscated property of the earl of Ormond. The
reversion of his lands was bestowed upon Lord Herbert, should he die
without male heir. A William Herbert was comptroller of Bristol in 1466.
On July 20, 14 61, the half-brother and Lord Hastings were empowered
to seize certain lands in Northamptonshire. Cal. Pat. Rolls, passim.

1 Kynaston was sheriff of Merionethshire. In the meantime Lord
Herbert's influence increased rapidly. On September 7, 1461, he received
the custody of the Welsh estates of the duke of Buckingham during the
minority of Henry, the heir. It included the lordship of Brecknock,
Newport, and certain other parts of Gwent. By another grant he became
steward of the royal lordships of Clifford, Glasbury, and Wynfurton in
the Marches. His brothers, Thomas and Richard, and Lord Ferrers, were
associated with him. Cal. Pat. Rolls, 13, 43, 98.

2 Paston Letters, 11. 38, 41 ; August 23, 1461.

3 Ellis, Letters, First Series, 1. 15-16. " And there he will abide till
Parliament time." He was at Gloucester on the n Sept. Privy Seals.
Stow, Annates, 416.

* Ellis, Letters; op. cit. 15-16. Written at Bristol, Sept. 9, 1461.



vii] THE WAR IN WALES 139

After the reverse at Mortimer's Cross, Jasper Tudor had
retired to his estates in Pembrokeshire. On

Jasper s

movements February 25, three weeks after that battle,
Mortimer's he wrote to his stewards at Denbigh, Roger
Puleston 1 and John Eyton, exhorting them to
be faithful. The letter was written from Tenby ; and it
shows, what we have already pointed out, that the Herberts
and their connections were regarded as the chief engineers
of that campaign on the Yorkist side.

" To the right trusty and well-beloved Roger a Puleston
and to John Eyton, and to either of them. We suppose
that ye have well in remembrance the great dishonour and
rebuke that we and ye now late have by traitors March,
Herbert, and Dwnns with their affinities, as well in letting
us of our journey to the kinge, as in putting my father your
kinsman to the death, and their trayterously demeaning we
purpose with the might of our Lord and assistance of you
and other our kinsmen and friends within short time to
avenge. Trusting verily that you will be well willed and
put your hands into the same, and of your disposicon, and
with your good advice therein we pray you to ascertayne
us in all hast possible as our especiall trust is in you. Written
at our town of Tenby the xxv February 2 ."

On a previous occasion the Yorkists had held Denbigh
with grim tenacity against Jasper. It was now as stubborn
on his behalf. The castle was still holding out in July as
appears from the letter which follows.

1 The families of Tudor and Puleston were connected.

Mallt m. Tudor ap Grono m. Margaret, dau. of Thomas ap

Llywelyn ap Owen
Gwervil m. Griffith Hanmer •-. ,

I I

Angharad m. John Puleston Meredith ap Tudor m. Margaret

dau. of David Vaughan
I
Roger Puleston Owen Tudor

In 1456 the earl of Richmond gave Roger Puleston an annuity of
10 marks for his services. Arch. Camb. i. i. 146-7. Dated September 10.

2 Ancient and Modern Denbigh, 86 ; where the original letter is given as
above. It is dated now for the first time.



140 THE WAR IN WALES [ch.

' To Roger Puleston, Keeper of the castle of Denbigh.
We have received your letters by Hugh and understand the
matter comprised therein ; and as touching the keeping of the
castle of Denbigh we pray you that you will do your faithful
diligence for the safeguard of it, taking the revenue of the
lordship there for the vittaling of the same, b}' the hands of
Griffith Vaughan, receyvour there, — we have written unto him
that he should make p'veyance therefore ; and that ye will
understand the goodwill and dispossicon of the people and
that country towards my Lorde Prince, and to send us word
as soone as you may. Written at my town of Tenbye,
the xxiii July 1 ."

Edward, with commendable clemency, had already made
overtures of peace to the Pulestons and Griffith Vaughan ;
for early in July he had enrolled them on a commission in
Chirkland with a number of other staunch royalists of North
Wales. But his conciliatory efforts were for the present
unavailing 2 .

Lords Herbert and Ferrers had already entered upon
their task of reducing Wales on September g, 1461. They
had two important strongholds to deal with besides Denbigh ;
for Harlech was held by David ap Eynon and some English
Lancastrian refugees, notably Tunstal, while Pembroke
castle was held for Jasper by Sir John Skydmore.

Herbert attacked Pembroke first. It was the most
Herbert formidable, and consequently the greatest

attacks prize. The fleet was sent to co-operate so that

Pembroke. r r

no assistance might reach the castle from beyond
the sea 3 . Philip Castle of Pembroke and Thomas Mansel

1 Anc. and Mod. Denbigh, 87. Hitherto it has been found impossible
to give the correct date to this letter.

2 The commission was to receive attornments from the tenants of Chirk.
Others on the commission were John, abbot of Llaneguyfall ; David Kyffin,
doctor of Laws ; John Hanmer ; John Trevor ; John Puleston, and Robert
ap Howel. John Hanmer and Griffith Vaughan afterwards assisted in
defending Harlech. Cal. Pat. Rolls (1461-1467), 37.

3 Th'erll of March (i.e. Edward IV, the Lancastrian writer of the letter
not recognising him as king) is into Wales by land and hath sent his navy
thider by sea. Paston Letters, 11. 46. August 30, 1461. The ship for which



vii] THE WAR IN WALES 141

were empowered to man some ships for the purpose. The
Yorkist leaders would find no opposition on their march
westwards ; Oystermouth castle, near Swansea, one of the
gates of Gower, had been placed in the hands of a local Yorkist,
Sir Hugh ap John 1 . Like so many others of the Welshmen
engaged in these wars he had fought in France, and had been
one of the council of Robert Norreys. He was now constable
of the castle, and reeve of the lordship of Gower. He it
was on behalf of whom the earl of Warwick used his influence
with Elizabeth Woodville, afterwards the queen of Edward
IV, to get her to accept him in marriage 2 .

Tenby apparently offered no resistance, although much
Pembroke care na d been bestowed upon its fortifications

submits. ky jasper. Pembroke, too, was " victualled,

manned, and apparelled for a long time after 3 ." These
preparations notwithstanding, Skydmore, when summoned
by Herbert to surrender the castle into his hands, obsequi-
ously delivered it " without any war or resistance 4 ." This
took place on September 30. Skydmore's conduct was in
complete harmony with the general practice during the wars.
Impregnable as were many of the castles of England at this
period, their history is an uninspiring recital of slavish
deference to the will of the conqueror of the moment.

The betrayal was inspired by a natural desire for personal
safety and the security of his estates, though it availed him
nothing for the moment. He received a written pledge
from Herbert and Ferrers that his life would be spared
and that his lands would not be confiscated. Both promised

Castle and Thomas Mansel were called upon to provide mariners was the
Trinity of Minehead. Cal. Pat. Rolls, 99 ; September 5.

1 Cal. Pat. Rolls (1461-1467), 81. April 1, and November 25, 1461.
He was granted a yearly grant of 20 marks. See also Glamorgan Charters, V.
1664. Proceedings of the Privy Council, 1453, 138. Another of the family,
apparently, was David ap John of Swansea. See a revocation of a protec-
tion lately granted to him to stay in the king's service because he delayed
in the city and suburbs of London instead of victualling Calais. Cal. Pat.
Rolls, February 7, 1464.

2 Archaeologia, 1842 ; 132-3.

3 Rot. Pari. 483.
* Ibid.



142 THE WAR IN WALES [ch.

to intercede with the king on his behalf. But in spite of
this guarantee, when parliament met, a bill of attainder
was brought against him. It failed to pass. Nevertheless,
at the latter end of the parliament, his estates were forfeited
by royal ordinance 1 .

The lords promised that " he should have better than his
sir john livelihood, and he was then admitted unto the

skydmore. kyngs good grace as he hath redy to showe in

writyng under the seale of the said Lord Herbert." Herbert
was present in the parliament in which the attainder was
moved and rejected. But " after many lords and knights
had departed, by mervelous pry vat labour," a bill signed
by the king was brought to the Commons containing an
ordinance that Sir John Skydmore should forfeit his livelihood
saving his life and goods. At the time he was at home
in the country " trusting to the promise of Lords Herbert
and Ferrers."

Jasper probably superintended the affairs of his party
in North W'ales in person. He was assisted by the duke
of Exeter 2 , and Thomas Fitzhenry of Hereford, who had
fought with the Lancastrians at Mortimer's Cross. On
October 4 it was reported that all resistance was at an
end, and that Jasper had taken refuge in the mountains
of Snowdon, the last stronghold of so many lost causes,
and the nursery of as many new enterprises. " And all
the castles and holds in South Wales and in North Wales
are given and yielded up to the king. And the duke of
Exeter and the earl of Pembroke (Jasper) are floon and
taken the mounteyns and divers lords with great puissance
are after them ; and the most part of gentlemen and men

1 Rot. Pari. 483 contains his Act of Attainder. Also ibid. (1472-1503)
29, which contains his petition. A schedule annexed to the petition
notifies that William Herbert by the authority given to him by letters
of Privy Seal, dated May 13, 1461, received Skydmore into the king's
grace on September 30, 1461, at Pembroke. The attainder was reversed
in 1472 (October 6). Rot. Pari. See an exemplification of it ; ibid.
July i, 1474.

2 He was Henry Holland who married Anne, sister of Edward, but
who remained a Lancastrian and was attainted this year.



vii] THE WAR IN WALES 143

of worship are comen to the king and have grace, of all
Wales 1 ."

The writer was premature. Denbigh seems to have
yielded without further pressure. It must have suffered
considerable damage during these years. As we have
seen, in the previous year a substantial grant was made
to repair the disastrous effects of the Lancastrian siege.
Early in 1462 Edward IV advanced a sum to enable the
burgesses to rebuild their houses " brent by certain rebells
and traytors 2 ."

But Harlech had not yet submitted, and was to remain
Battle of inexorable for seven years more. Jasper Tudor

Tuthiii. anc | j-he North Wales Lancastrians were brought

to bay near Carnarvon. They made a last stand at Tuthill,
just outside the walls of that town, on October 16, 1461 3 .
As the duke of Exeter had fought at Towton it is probable
that he had brought reinforcements to Jasper by sea.
The Yorkists once more triumphed, though Jasper again
displayed his wonted subtle resourcefulness in eluding
pursuit. He escaped to Ireland, where he stirred up strife
during the winter 4 . It is curious that the engagement
at Tuthill has escaped the notice of every historian of the
Wars of the Roses.

The Yorkists did not pursue their advantage by compell-
ing Harlech, the only remaining Lancastrian stronghold
in Wales, to surrender 5 . It may be that, the day for the
opening of parliament having been fixed for November 4,
they were more desirous to appear there than to traverse
the bleak and pathless regions of Snowdonia on the approach

1 Paston Letters, n. 52 ; October 4, 1461.

* The original document is given in Records of Denbigh ; dated February
23, 1462.

3 Rot. Pari. 1461, 477-8. In 1455 there were 20 soldiers at Carnarvon,
including men-at-arms and archers. In May 1460, there were 18, including
five soldiers of the town, who were distinct from the castle garrison and
had their own captain. Mediaeval Boroughs, Lewis.

4 Paston Letters, 11. 118.

5 Harlech had a garrison of 12 soldiers in 1442. Edward Hampden,
governor in 1444, increased the number to 24.



144 THE WAR IN WALES [ch.

of winter. Edward's supine indifference to the existence
of this remote garrison kept North Wales in a state of war
for several years after the rest of the country had been
brought into subjection. An echo of the prevailing anarchy
was heard in his first parliament in the form of a petition
from the " Tenants and Commons of North Wales," as
follows :

" Where many and divers of them been daily taken
The Hariech prisoners and put to fine and ransom as it
garrison. were in land of war ; and many and divers

of them daily robbed and spoiled of their goods and cattle
contrary to the law by David ap Ieuan ap Eynon, Griffith
Vaughan ap Griffith ap Eynon, Jenkyn ap Iorwerth ap
Eynon, Thomas ap Ieuan ap Eynon, Griffith ap Ieuan
ap Eynon, John ap Ieuan ap Eynon, John Hanmer, Morys
ap David ap Griffith, David ap Ieuan ap Owen, David ap
Einon ap Ieuan, Grommys ap Ieuan ap Eynon ap Ieuan,
Grommys ap Howel ap Morgan, Edward ap Morgan, John
Tother, clerk, Griffith ap Ieuan ap Iorwerth, and Rheinallt
ap Griffith ap Bleddyn, and Morys Robert ; and over more
the said David ap Eynon calleth himself by the name of
Constable of Harlech, and that kepeth to the use and behove
of him that he calleth his sovereign lord King Henry VI,
saying as well by his mouth as by his writing that the said
castle was committed to him by his sovereign lord aforesaid
and by his sovereign lady Queen Margaret and his right
and gracious lord Prince Edward, and sworn to keep it
to their use and will not deliver it to no other person saving
to such as one of them will assign, notwithstanding the
King's commandment is the contrary. And daily the said
David and all the aforesaid other misdoers take and repute
m all their demeanour the said late king for their sovereign
lord and not the king our sovereign lord that now is as
their duty is. And moreover all the said misdoers taketh
oxen, sheep, wheat, and victuals of the said poor tenants
for stuff of the said castle with strong hand and will not



VII]



THE WAR IN WALES



145



deliver it to no such person as the late King hath deputed
to be his constable there."

Then follows a specious proclamation that David must
surrender the castle before the Feast of Purification ; and
that if he came to Carnarvon in peaceable wise, and there
before the king's justice or chamberlain found sufficient
security for his future good conduct, he would be pardoned ;
otherwise he would be attainted of treason and his lands
and title forfeited. This proclamation was to be made
in the counties of Carnarvon and Merioneth 1 .

The garrison defied the proclamation, and during the
next few years Harlech remained a safe refuge
for the Lancastrians, and a convenient link
with Ireland and Scotland. Contemporary Welsh poets
are unanimous as to the assistance rendered by it to the
cause. That it inspired the Lancastrians to renewed efforts
became evident very soon. For a new scheme issued
from their busy forge, according to which Jasper and the
duke of Exeter were to land at Beaumaris, " by the appoint-
ment of Robert Gold, captain of the duke of Burgundy 2 " ;
while simultaneous attacks were to be made from the north
and the south-east of England. Edward acted with decision.
The scheme was destroyed before it matured. In February



Lancastrian
schemes.



1 Rot. Pari. 1 Edward IV.



Einon ap Griffith (temp. Richard II)



David

ap

Einon

(Eynon)



Ievan ap Einon

H

Rees ap
Ievan



1
daughter



Meredith

ap

Ievan



daughter m.

Ievan

ap

Meredith

^

Howel
Vychan



Meurig Vychan

David ap
Meurig
Vychan



John ap Meredith

1 i ' 1 1 1

Morris Ievan Robert Owen Griffith

Wynne, Gwydir Family, 28.

2 Three Fifteenth Century Chronicles, 158, 175. Also Paston Letters, 11.
45. 9 1 . 93 ; February, 1462.

E. W. R. IO



146 THE WAR IN WALES [ch.

1462, the earl of Oxford and a few others were executed
as accomplices. On March 1, Lord Herbert and Lord
Ferrers were commanded to array all able-bodied men
in South Wales and the Marches, the former and his brother
Thomas Herbert being also commissioned to equip a fleet
from Bristol and neighbouring ports to clear the coast
of Wales of Lancastrian ships 1 . It is not certain whether
Jasper actually landed in Wales. During the early part
of the year, as we have seen, he was in Ireland causing
trouble. " These three weeks came there neither ship
nor boat out of Ireland to bring no tidings, and so it seemeth
jasper in there is much to doo there by the earl of

Ireland. Pembroke 2 ." Leaving him there for the pre-

sent, we shall consider what rewards were bestowed upon
the Yorkists of Wales for their valuable services to Edward.

A wide re-distribution of lands, and consequently of
political power, now took place in Wales. The lavish
profusion with which Edward enriched the Herbert family
is a lucid commentary upon the value which he attached
to their services. It was also an augury, clear and palpable,
of Edward's intention to raise up a new aristocracy whose
secret counsels were to aid him to outwit the old.

The lands of Jasper, earl of Pembroke, the earl of Wilt-
Welsh shire, and Sir John Skydmore had already

Yorkists' been confiscated. Lord Herbert received those

of Jasper and the earl of Wiltshire in South
Wales. They included Pembroke, Tenby, Emlyn, Cilgerran,
Llanstephan, and Walwyn's Castle 3 . A few days later, on
February 12, he was given the custody and marriage of

1 Commission to William Herbert, knight, and Thomas Herbert, to
take vessels and ships within the port of Bristol and other ports of the west
towards Wales and ports in Wales to resist the king's enemies. Cal. Pat.
Rolls, March 1, 1462; 100, 132. A fortnight later, Thomas Herbert was
given the custody of Bekford, Gloucester. Ibid. 181.

2 Paston Letters, II. 118.

3 Cal. Pat. Rolls, 114; February 3, 1462. In South-west Wales
Herbert was invested with the manors of Magor and Redwyk, the town
and lordship of Caldecot, the castle and manor of Archenfield, late of James,
earl of Wiltshire. Walwyn's Castle was also forfeited by Wiltshire.



vii] THE WAR IN WALES 147

Jasper's nephew, Henry, earl of Richmond, then a child
of four, " for a thousand pounds in hand paid." It was
Herbert's intention, as we shall see, to marry him to his
daughter Maud.

A few days later he received the custody of the lordships
Lord of Swansea, Gower, and Kilvey, during the

Herbert. minority of John, son and heir of the duke

of Norfolk, rendering the king two hundred marks a year ;
also the town and castle of Haverfordwest for twenty
years, rendering the king one hundred marks a year 1 .
In April he appeared in the House of Lords, and was made
a knight of the Garter.

Richard Herbert received the confiscated lands of
Richard Jasper's faithful adherent Fitzhenry, as well

Herbert. as those of Sir John Skydmore, in Hereford-

shire, including the lordship of Moccas 2 .

Roger Vaughan of Tretower, in Brecknock, received
Roger extensive lands in Somerset, Devon, and Dorset 3 ,

vaughan. His son Thomas ap Roger Vaughan became

receiver of the lordships of Brecknock, Hay, and Huntingdon,
during the minority of the heir to the dukedom of Bucking-
ham 4 . John Dwnn received Laugharne, the confiscated
property of the earl of Wiltshire, as well as some lands
in Northamptonshire, " for good service to Richard, duke
of York, and against Henry VI and Jasper 5 ."

The lands of Thomas Cornwall, in Devon, were shared

1 Cal. Pat. Rolls, February 12, 1462; 114, 119. On August 26, 1462,
Herbert was granted the custody of the lands of one Nicolas Iwardby,
during the minority of the heir. Ibid. 211.

John Mowbray, third duke of Norfolk, died November 6, 1461. He
was succeeded by his son John (born October, 1444), the fourth duke of
Norfolk, baron of Gower, Bromfield, Chirk, and Yale, on November 6,
1461. He died January 17, 1476, leaving an only child, Lady Anne
Mowbray, who was betrothed to Richard, second son of Edward IV. On
her death the dukedom escheated to the Crown. Doyle's Baronage.

2 Cal. Pat. Rolls, February 20, 1462 ; 77.

3 Ibid. July 11, 1462; 192.

* Ibid. August 12, 1461 ; 43. 5 Ibid. February 24, 1462; 111.

On February 10, the office of master of the king's armoury in the
Tower was confirmed to him. One of the name was also comptroller of
customs at Bristol. Ibid. 143, 188.



148 THE WAR IN WALES [ch.

between John ap Jankyn and Trahaiarn ap Ievan ap Meurig 1 ,
while one David Gough received Stapleton in the Marches 2 .
Thomas and Richard Croft received lands in Oxfordshire ;
John Milewater found his reward in the receivership of
confiscated castles in Wales ; Lord Ferrers received Richard's
Castle in Herefordshire 3 . Amongst other grants one of
the most interesting was that of " letters of denization
as Englishman for the king's servitor David Middleton
one of the yeomen of the Crown, born a Welshman," to
him and his heirs 4 . The Middletons of Denbighshire wrote
their names large in the annals of the seventeenth century
as scholars, engineers, and sailors.

Another recipient of grants was Sir Thomas Vaughan
sir Thomas wno piloted his craft with much skill through
vaughan many storms. His parentage is uncertain,

though it seems to be generally agreed that he was a son
of Sir Roger Vaughan. By some means he came under
the protection of the duke of Somerset and Adam Moleyns,
through whose influence the Privy Council relieved him
of his disabilities as a Welshman. In 1450 he was master
of ordnance and was commissioned to equip Carisbrook
castle, Isle of Wight, against the attacks of the French.
In 1458 we find him as treasurer of the king's household.
Like his kinsman William Herbert he was associated with
Jasper Tudor for a time ; but he soon took the badge
of York, and was attainted at the Coventry Parliament.
Edward gave him lands in Surrey, and in 1463 he was sent
on an embassy to the duke of Burgundy 5 .

1 Cal. Pat. Rolls, January 20, 1462 ; 76. Trahaiarn was on a com-
mission with the Herberts in June 1463.

2 January 23, 1462. Ibid. 114, 428. In March 1465, he is stated to be
possessed of Stapleton, lately the lands of Thomas Cornwall.

3 Ibid. 91, 153.

4 Ibid. September 6, 1462; 198. One Thomas Banon received Llan-
llwch, Carmarthenshire. Ibid. 112.

6 Dwnn's Visitations, I. 42, 106. Jones, Breconshire, in. 507. Pro-
ceedings of the Privy Council, v. 256. Stephenson, in. 475. In 1453 he
received certain grants in Middlesex, being associated with Jasper Tudor ;
also 50 marks a year. Cal. Pat. Rolls, passim. Act of Resumption,
1455. His career is not easy to follow; for he appears sometimes as



vii] THE WAR IN WALES 149

To return to the main stream of events. Though
Jasper Tudor had been driven out of Wales, Edward con-
tinued to keep a strict watch on the borders. On November
1, 1462, John Paston, junior, who was staying at Holt
castle in Denbighshire, wrote to his father saying that
the duke of Norfolk was likely to keep his Christmas in
Wales, " for the king hath desired him to do the same 1 ."
Soon, however, Edward summoned him to the north where
the scattered Lancastrian parties were once more con-
centrating. The king was at Durham on December n.
With him were Herbert, Ferrers, and others of the " Kyngys
house 2 ." This description of the two lords is strikingly
suggestive of what they had so far achieved, a position
pregnant with superlative possibilities.

We left Jasper stirring up strife in Ireland. We next
. ._ hear of him in Scotland assisting Somerset,

Herbert and ° '

jasper in the at the head of three hundred men, to defend
' I4 3 ' Bamborough castle, which was being besieged
by the earls of Worcester and Arundel 3 . The castle sur-
rendered on Christmas eve 1462, whereupon Jasper, unable
to obtain the clemency proffered to Somerset and others,
retired to Scotland under safe conduct, " unarmed, with

Thomas Vaughan of Brecknock, and at other times as Thomas Vaughan
of London. For the embassy see Rymer, XI. 504-7; and Wavrin, 412.
The lands in Surrey were formerly the property of his wife's former husband
Thomas Brown, who was attainted. Rot. Pari. v. 534. In 1462 he
received the lordship of Penkelly in Brecknock. Cal. Pat. Rolls, passim.
He was keeper of the Great Wardrobe in September, 1460. On November


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