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The archbishop was impeached, and some time later
Sir Thomas Vaughan and Sir William Parr were sent
by the king to take possession of his manor of
Moore 2 .

Edward's resolve, on commercial if on no other grounds,
to stand for friendship with Burgundy rather than with
France, widened the breach between Warwick and Herbert ;
while the blunt diplomatic proceedings which produced
it gave unnecessary ruggedness to the severance. For
Warwick, who had been in France negotiating with Louis XI,
and incidentally intriguing with him, had been kept in
ignorance of the Burgundian embassy to England. When
he returned with the French ambassadors Edward treated
them with gross incivility. They had brought with them
presents of gold and jewellery ; Edward sent them back
with presents of hunting-horns and leather bottles.

1 William of Worcester, Annates, 786.

2 Warkworth, 25. January 5, 14.67-8, Thomas Vaughan was Treasurer
of the Chamber, and treated for peace with Burgundy. On February 4,
1470, the duke of Burgundy acknowledges the receipt of the order of the
Garter from him at Ghent. Rymer, xi. 651. He was appointed on the
council of the Prince of Wales, July 8, 1471. Cal. Pat. Rolls. See also
Grants of Edward V, xvi; and Archaeologia, xxvi. 277.

E. W. R. It


" As they rowed home in their barge the Frenchmen
Warwick's na d many discourses with each other. But
resentment. Warwick was so wrath that he could not contain
himself ; and he said to the admiral of France, ' Have
you not seen what traitors are about the king's person ? '
But the admiral answered, ' My lord, I pray you, wax
not hot ; for some day you shall be well avenged.' But
the earl said, ' Know that those very traitors were the men
who have had my brother displaced from the office of
chancellor, and made the king take the seal from him 1 .' "

These events, doubtless, convinced Warwick that he
Warwick must eventually appeal to the arbitrament

wUh S the S °f the sword. Then an unusual circumstance

Lancastrians, occurred which made the antagonism between
him and Herbert at once more personal and more envenomed.
A certain person was captured in Wales carrying letters
from Queen Margaret to Harlech. Lord Herbert, whose
unsleeping vigilance was equalled only by his unscrupulous
daring, had him sent up to London to be examined. In
consequence of his depositions Warwick was accused of
treachery, and of being in secret communication with the
Lancastrians, accusations which the earl indignantly repelled.
The prisoner was sent to Middleham to be interrogated
by the earl, and the accusations were dismissed as
frivolous 2 .

The incident served to sharpen the blade of Warwick's
anger against the courtier through whose instrumentality
the charge had arisen. The charge raised in his breast
a tempest of warring emotions that carried him in poignant
rage away from court to his seat at Middleham. For some
time he refused to return even under safe conduct. Perhaps

1 Wavrin, 1447-71, 545.

2 William of Worcester, Annates, 788-9. Quidam fuit captus in
Wallia (portans) litteras a regina Margareta ad castrum Hardlaughe,
missusque Londinium per dominum Herberd ad regem, qui accusavit. . . .
inter alios comitem Warrwici quod audivit suspiciosa verba ultra mare
quod idem comes faveret parti reginae Margaretae.


this was Herbert's stroke of retaliation ; for Warwick,
it seems, had been the main obstacle in preventing him
receiving the wardship of Lord Bonville's daughter and
heiress for his eldest son 1 . Not long afterwards (January,
1468) a reconciliation was effected between Warwick,
Herbert, and others at Coventry. The reconciliation was
short-lived. The situation was now becoming critical.
Herbert had been assiduously endeavouring to raise the
temperature that his projects might prosper ; but the
fuel which the spy had added to the flame was such as
consumed Herbert himself.

If Herbert was gifted with the more subtle intellect,
The lordship Warwick was better harnessed for war. The
of Ragian. king, no doubt, realised this, and set himself

to remedy it as far as possible by lavishing grants upon
his favourite. In 1465 Herbert received part of the royal
lordship of Usk, " with certain villeins, bondmen, and bond-
women of the king with their issues 2 " ; and also part of
the royal lordship of Monmouth. These, being added to
the Raglan estate, considerably enlarged that patrimony :
' They shall form one united royal lordship called the lord-
ship of Raglan held in chief by the service of one knight's
fee, and the said William and his heirs shall have within
the said limits all royal rights." On September 26, 1466, he
was given other lands in South Wales, as well as the reversion
of the estates of his half-brother William Herbert if he
should die without heirs 3 .

1 Hall, 273-4. Cecille Bonville, the only child of William Bonville,
Lord Haryngton, was the heiress of the Bonville and Haryngton estates.
William Bonville was married to Catherine Neville, Warwick's sister.
Worcester, 790-1.

2 Cal. Pat. Rolls, March 9, 425. The patent gives a minute description
of the boundary. "And whereas Herbert holds in chief the lordship of
Raglan and the manors of Penclauth, Metheny, as of the lordship of Usk,
and the manor of Dyngestowe as of the lordship of Monmouth, the king
releases him of all rents and services," etc.

3 Cal. Pat. Rolls, 533. Anabill, Pyll, Steynton, Copped Bush, Thywode,
Lamburston. The manor of Haverfordwest, and a third of St Briavel's.
His offices of chamberlain and chief justice of South Wales, and steward
of royal lordships, were confirmed at the same time.

II — 2


On August 28, 1467, he became constable of Denbigh,
h rb rt-s an( ^ s ^ ewar "d of Denbigh, Montgomery, Ceri and

power Cedewain, and chief justice of North Wales 1 .

The chief justiceship of North Wales had pre-
viously (1461) been given to John, earl of Worcester, who now
in compensation received a grant of £200 from the issues of
South Wales. About the same time Herbert received the
wardship of the lands of Richard Grey, Lord Powys, and of
the lands of Sir Thomas Talbot 2 . Further illustration of how
the Herberts dominated Wales may be found in the names
of the commissioners for North and South Wales touching
clippings and falsifications of money. These were Lord
Herbert, Devereux, Sir Richard Herbert, Sir Roger Vaughan,
Thomas Herbert, John Herbert, Thomas Morgan, John
Milewater, Thomas ap Rosser, Henry Griffith, and Morgan
ap Jankyn ap Philip 3 .

In North Wales the chief men upon whom Edward could
rely were David Mathew, William Griffith, William Bulkeley,
and John ap Meredith. In 1466 the three last mentioned,
together with Griffith ap Robin, were ordered to inquire
into the report that the greater part of the revenues and
rents of Carnarvonshire and Merionethshire, and the fines
of the great tourns in North Wales had not been paid during
the reign and that the tenants refused to pay their rents 4 .
Harlech largely accounted for this defiance of authority.

The reconciliation between Warwick and the court

1 Cal. Pat. Rolls, 41, 136; Thomas Salesbury, younger, was made
constable of Denbigh on January 23, 1466.

2 Cal. Pat. Rolls, 1467; 41, 49. Viscount Lisle was Talbot's heir.

8 Ibid. 54, 57. October 27, and August 14, 1467. For confirmation
of grants to Richard Herbert, see ibid. February 5, 1465, e.g. Grove,
Monnington, etc. Henry ap Griffith was on a commission, March 28,
1465, to ascertain what castles and manors had belonged to Wiltshire.
Ibid. 451. Thomas Morgan, and Herbert's half-brother, John ap Gwilym
(or William), were on another commission touching felonies in Chepstow
on May 11, 1467. Ibid. 29.

4 Cal. Pat. Rolls, 529. William Griffith and Middleton took a muster
of 700 archers of the earl of Worcester's retinue at Beaumaris, August
18, 1467, ibid. ; and on August 3, 1475, inquired into all shipments of
wool, hides, etc. from North Wales. Ibid. 490.


party was not only short-lived but superficial. The hostility
to the Woodvilles was deepening. Edward's alliance with
Burgundy, and especially the marriage of his sister Margaret
to Duke Charles the Bold, brought Edward to the verge
of war with France, whose wily sovereign once more stirred
up the dynastic strife in England. There was an active
correspondence carried on between the Lancastrian exiles
and their friends at home. Several arrests were made
in the early summer of 1468.

On this flood-tide of dissatisfaction, intrigue, and
„ A revolt, Jasper Tudor, about the end of June,

Jasper Tudor ' O r > j »

lands in landed near Harlech, probably at Barmouth

where he had a steady adherent in Griffith
Vaughan. Jasper had with him " fifty persons and a few
pence 1 ." The little force had been conveyed in three
ships, one of which, on its return to Normandy, was captured
by a skilful manoeuvre on the part of Lord Herbert 2 .
Jasper probably proceeded to Harlech for reinforcements,
for the garrison there was still unsubdued 3 .

We fail to see any authority for Ramsay's statement
that Jasper " was unable to make his way to Harlech
because the fortress was beleaguered by Lord Herbert."
As a matter of fact Herbert's force did not arrive in North
Wales till later. If Herbert had been there at the time
of Jasper's arrival he ought surely to have been able to
prevent the landing of such an insignificant party. Tudur
Penllyn states that Griffith Vaughan was Jasper's chief
agent in North Wales — and he certainly was one of the
defenders of Harlech — and that he had a fortified home-
stead near Barmouth, a convenient landing-place a few
miles south of Harlech. It is most likely, therefore,

1 William of Worcester, Annales, 791.

Yno i daw'n arglwydd llawen.

Tudur Penllyn, MSS.
i.e. "There (Harlech) our chief will land."

2 William of Worcester; subtili modo.

s William of Worcester, Annales, prope Hardlaughe. Tudur Penllyn,
MSS. Ramsay, Lancaster and York, II. 333, is misleading.


that Jasper landed at Barmouth. Nor was his progress
stayed ; for he traversed North Wales as far as Denbigh.

The people flocked to his standard, and he was soon
His at the head of a considerable force 1 , with

success. which he attacked that town. Denbigh was

once again plundered and set on fire. The castle, of which
Lord Herbert was now captain, apparently did not surrender
to the Lancastrians, though Jasper was so far successful
that he was able to hold sessions in the name of Henry VI 2 .

It would be fastidious altogether to discard the evidence
of contemporary Welsh poets on these events, some of
whom give ample evidence of a close familiarity not only
with the projects of Jasper himself, but also with the move-
ments, prospective and otherwise, of the Lancastrians
in England. Thus, Dafydd Llwyd, who was a man of
estate as well as a poet, was obviously aware of Jasper's
projected invasion. " The brave, long-haired invader will
come with a fleet, and will hover around the North Wales
coast after the Feast. Meanwhile, there will be disturbances
in Kent before harvest-time, and the world will be in a
turmoil. David ap Eynon (the ode is addressed to him)
will keep Harlech true to Jasper and defy Edward 3 ." This
statement is substantially verified by William of Worcester
who gives the date of Jasper's landing as " immediately
after the Feast of Saint John the Baptist 4 " (June 24).
Moreover, there actually were disturbances in the south-

1 William of Worcester estimated them at 2000, which is probably
an exaggeration, though he is roughly in agreement with contemporary
poets as to the number of Herbert's force which took Harlech soon after-

2 Gregory, 237. " He rode ovyr the contraye and helde many cessyons
and cysys in Kyng Harry's name."

3 Dafydd Llwyd, Cardiff MSS.

A daw herwr dewr, hirwallt,
A'i dai ar hyd y dwr hallt.
Wedi'r wyl i daw'r eleirch
I dir Kent cyn medi'r ceirch
O flaen y byd aflonydd
Coedcrai ar Fenai a fydd.

4 William of Worcester, A nnales ; cito post f estum nativitatis Sancti
Johannis Baptistae.


east of England, as a result of which the earl of Oxford
was sent to the Tower, and a few were put to death.

Edward now realised the supreme importance of
reducing Harlech. On July 3, 1468, he com-
missioned Herbert to array the border counties
of Gloucester, Hereford, and Salop, as well as the Marches,
against Jasper 1 . There appears to be no record that any
previous organised attempt had been made by Edward to
subdue Harlech. A number of proclamations had been issued
calling upon the garrison to surrender, but nothing further
had been done ; and every overture had been met by
an unequivocal refusal. The captain of the castle, de facto,
was David ap Eynon, about whom there is no lack of fitting
panegyrics in contemporary Welsh literature 2 , as well as in
the prose writers of a later day. The latter especially can
be consulted with amusement by those who are interested
in the picturesque fables which gathered around his name
a century or so later. He is supposed to have held castles
in France until all the old women of Wales spoke of it 3 .
Strangely enough, among the glistening array of Welsh
captains who distinguished themselves at one time or another
in the French wars, the name of this hero is found wanting.
Historically his fame must rest upon his unrivalled loyalty
to the cause of Lancaster when every fortress in the kingdom
had long since thrown in its lot with the fortunes of the
House of York.

Jasper Tudor was still at large in North Wales when
he was attacked by the Herberts with a considerable
force variously estimated at between seven and ten

1 Cal. Pat. Rolls (1467-72), 103, 127. The date of Herbert's com-
mission again falsifies Ramsay's statement already alluded to.

2 For example, Dafydd Llwyd :

Ni bu erioed a barr on
Wr gowirach i'r goron. Cardiff MSS.
8 Pennant, 11. 12 1-2. Autobiography of Lord Herbert of Cherbury
(Lee), 6-8. I see no evidence that David ap Eynon ever held a castle in

4 His name appears in records of Inquisition for Merionethshire,
1453-6. Arch. Camb. 1848, 69.


thousand 1 . There is no great disparity between the estimates
jasper Tudor °f the poets and the chroniclers. The army
defeated. was divided into two, possibly three, invading

forces. One, under Richard Herbert, approached Harlech
along the North Wales coast. Having reached Denbigh
this force appears to have collided with Jasper's some-
where between that town and the Conway valley. A
number of prisoners were taken and twenty of them put
to death. There is significant allusion to the executions
in the tales of a later day. One story narrates how seven
brothers were executed in Anglesey in spite of the prayers
and earnest entreaties of the mother that at least one should
be spared. Thereupon, with a pair of woollen beads on
her arms, she fell on her knees and cursed the earl (Herbert) ;
" which curse fell upon him at Banbury 2 ."

The army pursued its course up the Conway valley,
ravaging it with fire and sword. The entire Snowdon
district experienced such unparalleled desolation that it
had barely recovered more than a century later. Echoes
of the slaughter still survive in song and story. Wynne,
writing nearly a century and a half after the events, says
" the print is yet extant, the very stones of manie habitations
in and along my demaynes carrying yet the colour of the

1 William of Worcester, Annales, 791, gives 10,000: ad custus domini
regis, cum numero decern millium armatorum. Guto'r Glyn says " 9000
yeomen." See poem in Records of Denbigh, 202-3. Another bard of the
time, Hywel Dafydd ap Ieuan ap Rhys, estimates the force at 7000.

Tynu a gwyr tonau gwin.

Also: Saethu 'mhob parth saith mil pen.

"Men draw from men waves of wine, arrows fly in every quarter from
7000 men."

The above poem is quoted in Warkworth, 33, 35, notes ; but is attri-
buted wrongly to Lewis Glyn Cothi. The sum paid to Herbert for the
siege of Harlech, ^7177, also suggests a large force. Issues, 9 Edward IV.
On December 6, 1468, Lord Herbert was given the reversion of certain
manors because the king owed him £3168. Cal. Pat. Rolls, 132.

2 William of Worcester, Annales, 791. Guto'r Glyn suggests three
divisions of the army.

Tair cad aeth o'r teir gwlad tau
Trwy Wynedd fel taranau.
There is much tradition in Wynne's Gwydir Family, and in Lord
Herbert of Cherbury's Autobiography, 6-8.


fire." The whole borough of Llanrwst in the Con way-
valley was consumed, and the devastation was followed
by a plague 1 .

While Richard Herbert had been dealing with Jasper
Hariech Lord Herbert himself had advanced north-

surrenders, wards from Pembroke, taking the old Roman
road, Sarn Helen. There was very little resistance, though
one experienced warrior in Herbert's army, Philip Vaughan
of Hay, was killed during the siege 2 . On August 14 the
castle surrendered at discretion. " That castylle ys so
stronge that men sayde that hyt was impossybylle unto
any man to gete hyt 3 ."

Fifty of the garrison were taken prisoners and conveyed
to the Tower of London by Lord Herbert. Amongst them
were three knights, namely, Sir Richard Tunstall, Sir
Henry Bellingham, and Sir William Stoke. Two of the
prisoners, Troublote and Thomas Elwick, were executed
by Rivers who was constable of England 4 . It is noteworthy
that the captain David ap Eynon did not suffer the extreme
penalty, and tradition ascribes the leniency with which
he was treated to the influence of the Herberts. He was
Edward's received into favour and actually found reward

clemency. a f ew y ears later 5 ; as also did the family

1 Wynne's Gwydir Family, 49-50, 66. Guto'r Glyn :

Tros greigiau mae d'olau di;
Tir ar i gwnaent Eryri.
Od ennynaist dan ennyd
Drwy ladd ac ymladd i gyd,
Dyrnod anufudd-dod fu,
Darnio Gwynedd a'i dyrnu.
Harlech a Dinbech pob dor yn cynneu,
Nanconwy yn farwor.
Also, Hywel Dafydd ap Ieuan ap Rhys :
Dareni daiar Wynedd.

2 Guto'r Glyn, in Records of Denbigh, 202-3. William of Worcester,
Itinerarium, 328.

3 Gregory, 237, and William of Worcester, Annates.

* Gregory, 237. Brief Latin Chronicle, 182, states that Tunstall was
pardoned by the king ; William of Worcester, 791, says that he was executed.

6 In 14 Edward IV Prince Edward gave him licence to hold lands in
Kynnowys. Hist. MSS. Commission; Puleston MSS., in Arch. Camb.
1880, 150. Autobiography of Lord Herbert of Cherbury, 6-8.


of Jasper's ardent follower, Griffith Vaughan 1 . levari
ap Robert ap Meredith of Carnarvonshire was also invited
to accept a pardon 2 . He was a sturdy adherent of Jasper,
and had wrought considerable mischief to those who had
yielded to Edward in North Wales. It is obvious, there-
fore, that Edward dealt with commendable clemency
with this recalcitrant garrison. On December i, 1468,
he issued a general pardon to all.

Herbert found his reward in the earldom of Pembroke,
„• . to which he was raised on September 8, 1468 3 .

Herbert made r ' '

ean of The wily Jasper once more evaded his pursuers.

Pembroke. ,.

Ihe olde Lorde Jasper and sum tyme erle
of Pembroke was in Walys. Men wene that he was not
oute of Walys whenn that the Lord Herberde come with
hys oste ; but favyr at sum tyme dothe grete ease, as hit
jasper y s prevyd by the hydynge of that lorde sum

escapes. tyme Erie of Pembroke 4 ." Tradition says

that he escaped to Brittany from the house of Griffith

The young earl of Richmond, whom a stroke of luck
The eari of was soon to make the most important Lan-

Richmond. castrian in the realm, came now, if he had

not come before, into Herbert's hands. As we have seen,
Herbert had already been given the custody of the earl's
estates during his minority ; but the boy's movements
are wrapped in obscurity, and we cannot be certain that
Herbert secured his person until after the fall of Harlech.
It is interesting to note that Herbert intended to marry
him to his daughter Maud ; for one of the clauses in his
will states " I will that Maud my daughter shall be married
to the Lord Henry of Richmond 5 ." This project, dictated

1 His son Reginald received an annuity of four marks from the issues
of Chirk, from Richard, duke of Gloucester, March 26, 1471. Arch. Camb.,
1863, 55; and 1875.

2 Original document in Wynne, 50.

3 William of Worcester, 791. * Gregory, 237.

5 Herbert's will ; Powys Club Collections, 11. Appendix, xviii. Another
daughter was to be married to Lord Powys.


alike by a natural solicitude for the welfare of his children,
and by a clear perception of the possible contingencies
of the future, was not too ambitious even for a new man
who had married his son to the queen's sister ; while it
was certainly in harmony with the king's own policy of
courting the Lancastrians.

Herbert may have been alive also to the passionate
Herbe a- appeal of the leaders of Welsh public opinion

a national that Wales should not be made the cockpit

of contending English factions, but should
seek to unite in an endeavour to rid the country of the
baneful rule of English officials. To the poets there
was no dynastic question. Now that Herbert stood in
solitary pre-eminence, they appealed to him as fervently as
they had appealed to Jasper to achieve unity in Wales. As
far as Wales was concerned there could be no happier union
than that of the Tudors and the Herberts. In the whole
range of fifteenth-century Welsh literature there is no more
fervent longing for leadership, unity, and patriotism, than
that of Guto'r Glyn in an ode written immediately after
the fall of Harlech. " Tax not Anglesey beyond what
it can bear. Let not the Saxon rule in Gwynedd and
Flint. Confer no office upon the descendants of Horsa.
Appoint as constables of castles throughout Wales men
of thine own nation. Make Glamorgan and Gwynedd,
from Conway to Neath, a united whole. And should
England resent it, Wales will rally to thy side 1 ."

1 Na fwrw dreth ar Fon draw
Ni ellir ei chynnulliaw.
N'ad trwy Wynedd blant Rhonwen
Na phlant Hors yn y Ffiint hen.
N'ad, f'arglwydd, swydd, i un Sais,
Na'i bardwn i un bwrdais.
Kymmer o wyr Kymru 'rowron
Bob cwnstabl o Fenstabl i Fon.
Dwc Forgannwc a Gwynedd,
Gwna'n un o Gonwy i Nedd.
O digia Lloegr a'i dugiaid,
Kymry a dry yn dy raid.

Guto'r Glyn in Cein. Lien. Gymreig, 192.


The interests of a large number of Edward's Welsh
adherents were safeguarded in the parliament of 1467-8 l .
Many of them received additional grants. In September
Rewards and Lord Herbert acquired Chepstow castle by
pardons. a g ra nt from the duke of Norfolk 2 ; in October

he was given power to make a weir across the Thames
from Paternoster Lane to the Surrey side 3 ; in November
he was made master-forester of Snowdon, and constable
of Conway, and captain of the town ; in April, 1469, he
was made chamberlain of North Wales 4 .

Another Welsh Yorkist who remained in favour was
Roger Kynaston. He and Roger Eyton, late sheriff of
Salop, were given a general pardon in March, 1466 6 . In

1 Rot. Pari, sub ann.

Sir Roger Vaughan, of the lands of Philip Mansel and Hopkyn ap
Rhys; Cantrelly, Llangoid, Alexander's Town, reversion of Penkelly.

Morris Arnold, of 40 marks from Monmouth town.

Thomas Herbert of the lands of Mulle in Gloucester.

Thomas Vaughan, son of Sir Roger Vaughan. He, together with Lord
Dunster, and John Herbert, were on a commission on December 6, 1468,
to hold the reversion of certain manors for Lord Herbert, on the death
of the wife of Sir William Beaumont. Cal. Pat. Rolls, 132.

John Dwnn of Laugharne (Talaugharne), Cleygyn, Pybour, " for his
services to the duke of York, and against Jasper." See also Cal. Pat.
Rolls, November 9, 1467 ; and March 11, 1465 ; 430-1. On August 9, 1463,
a John Donne was on a commission to investigate complaints of Spanish
merchants. Ibid. 301.

Thomas Vaughan, yeoman of the Crown, of Gerardestown, in Car-
diganshire (granted, 1465-6).

Richard ap Rhys, of 10 marks a year (granted, 1465-6).

Hugh Lloyd and John Lloyd, of grants in the counties of Carnarvon
and Merioneth.

Howel Davy and John Howel his son, and John Davy, of grants in

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