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steward of Castle Rising 4 . After the duke had been taken
they searched for Lord Stafford and Sir William Knyvett,
both of whom were in the keeping of Elizabeth Delabeare
and William ap Symon. His friends had shaved Lord Staf-
ford's head, dressed him in a maiden's raiment, and conveyed
him to Newchurch. They fetched him and Knyvett again

1 Croyland, 491-2. Ferrers does not seem to have participated.

2 Hall. Rymer, xn. 240. Owen and Blakeway's Shrewsbury, 236-7.

3 Document in Owen and Blakeway, 241.
* Grants of Edward V, I. 18.



x] HENRY TUDOR 209

to Kynnardsley and kept them there until David Llywelyn
Morgan 1 came and placed Delabeare under arrest. But
Elizabeth and William ap Symon stealthily conveyed the
fugitives to Adeley where they remained four days. Then
there came a great army out of Wales, but eventually
Stafford and his companion escaped to Hereford, " Stafford
riding behind William ap Symon aside upon a pillow like a
gentlewoman rode in gentlewoman's apparel 2 ."

It is necessary here to remove a slight misapprehension.
Sir Roger Vaughan of Tretower, the father of Thomas
Vaughan, was slain not, as has been supposed, at Edgecote,
but at Chepstow by Jasper Tudor in 1471. The assist-
ance given by this family to Richard is the subject of an
ode by Lewis Glyn Cothi, where it is stated that Vaughan,
having given valiant support to Edward, would help Richard
to keep the Rose 3 . The attitude he took up was not
unnatural in view of the circumstances in which he was now
placed. The extraordinary authority with which Richard
had vested Buckingham in Wales was a serious menace to
the smaller gentry, and particularly to the Vaughans, not
only in Brecknock but also in Gower, where Thomas Vaughan
was lord of Oxwich 4 . Men like William Herbert and Jasper
Tudor could appeal to a strong national sentiment ; Buck-
ingham had no such qualification. Moreover, throughout
the reign of Edward IV the Vaughans and the Herberts had

1 This Morgan was afterwards made constable of Hay. Welsh MSS.,
Brit. Museum.

2 Stafford MSS. n. 24. The three brothers Vaughan were pardoned
by Henry VII. Campbell, Materials, etc. 1. 408.

3 Lewis Glyn Cothi, 1. xv :

Cryv oedd ar gadoedd, deunaw gwart gadarn,

Gyda'r brenin Edwart;

A chwedi ev o awch dart,

I gadw rhos gyda Rhisiart.
The editor misinterprets the poem on account of his failure to dis-
tinguish between this Vaughan and the Thomas Vaughan executed at
Pontefract.

4 Glamorgan Charters, v. 1713. Gower was part of the confiscated
estates of Phillip Mansel, which had been given to Sir Roger Vaughan.
Polydore Vergil, as we have seen, suggests that Buckingham had been
oppressive.

E. W. R. 14



210 HENRY TUDOR [ch.

been Yorkist, and to this was attributable the predominance
they now enjoyed. Buckingham's sympathies, on the other
hand, had been Lancastrian, and his sudden rise could not
have been welcome to the earl of Huntingdon (William
Herbert). Huntingdon was actually justiciar of South
Wales when the position was given to Buckingham. After
the latter's death the office was again given to him as well
as the stewardship of Usk, Caerleon, Ewyas-Lacy, and
other Mortimer-Lancastrian estates in South-east Wales 1 .

Thomas Vaughan became steward of Brecknock, while
Roger Vaughan received Penkelly in Brecknock and Brynllys
in Radnor 2 . In West Wales, Rhys ap Thomas received an
annuity of forty marks, while Richard Williams became
constable of Pembroke, Tenby, Cilgerran, Haverfordwest,
and Manorbier.

Apart from the above grant, which was not given to him
immediately after the rebellion, there is no authority for

1 Welsh MSS., British Museum, 350 seq. Cal. Pat. Rolls.

2 The following were also rewarded by Richard : John Huddleston,
offices in Monmouthshire ; Thomas ap Morgan, ^40 ; Philip ap Rhys,
parcel of Knighton ; Morris ap Rhys, portreeve of Presteign ; John Edwards,
constable of Usk. Annuities varying from forty marks to ^100, receivable
from the lordship of Usk were granted to Sir Thomas Bowles, John ap
Jankyn, William Lewis, Morgan Gamage, William Herbert of Raglan,
Robert ap Jankyn, Phillip ap Morgan, Philip Kemys of Shirehampton,
Morgan Rhydderch, Edward ap Jankyn, John Morgan, Philip Kemys
of Caerwent, and Morris Lewis. Annuities from Abergavenny to John
Vaughan, John Thomas, Rice Llywelyn ap Morgan, and David Philip.
Annuities from Monmouth to Hopkyn ap Howel, Philip Herbert, William
Herbert esquire of the body, John Hewes, and William Serjeaunt. Others
in South Wales were Walter Endreby of Kidwely, William Kemys of
Newport, and Walter Wynston of Ewyas.

The following found favour in North Wales : Richard Vaughan
received Aber in Carnarvonshire and Kernes in Anglesey, David Vaughan
several offices in those two counties, Hugh Lloyd offices in Carnarvon
and Merionethshire, William Hanmer the wardship of Robert Puleston,
Thomas Tunstall constable of Conway, Sir Richard Huddleston constable
of Beaumaris, Sir Roger Kynaston constable of Harlech and sheriff of
Merionethshire with payment for sixty soldiers at Harlech, Thomas
Salesbury constable of Denbigh with twelve soldiers, Lord Powys an
annuity of £100, Sir William Stanley chamberlain of Cheshire and constable
of Carnarvon, William Griffith an annuity. William Griffith was one of
the ushers of the chamber. Edward IV had given him the fee farm of
Monmouth. Ievan ap Tudor ap Owen received protection.

Welsh MSS., British Museum. Cf. Gairdner, Richard III, appendix,
342. Rot. Pari. 22 Edward IV, 203, for grant to Herbert.



x] HENRY TUDOR 211

Gairdner's statement that Rhys ap Thomas gave active
. J « assistance to Richard. It is true that the

Attitude of

Rhys a P ' " Life " of Rhys in the Cambrian Register sug-

gests that he was won over through the medium
of the countess of Richmond's physician, Lewis, but there
is so much deliberate fabrication in that document that it
would be dangerous to place any reliance whatever upon it 1 .

Meanwhile the earl of Richmond had set sail from
Henry's Brittany with a fleet of fifteen vessels. For

adventures. SO me reason he had been delayed ; and when
at last he took to sea his ships were scattered by a violent
tempest which drove some of them back on the French coast
and others on to the coast of Cornwall and Devon. Henry,
however, succeeded in coming to anchor off Poole or Plymouth
about the time that Richard had reached Exeter (November
12th). Henry "seeing the shore beset with soldiers which
king Richard had everywhere disposed, commanded that no
man should land before the residue of his ships should come
together. While he tarried he sent out a boat to see whether
they were his friends who were arrayed on land. They
were informed that they were sent from the duke of Bucking-
ham to be ready to accompany Henry safe unto the camp.
But Henry, suspecting it to be a trap, as it was indeed,
hoisted sail and returned to Normandy. Thence he returned
on foot to Brittany, having received permission to pass
through Normandy from the king of France, and also money
to bear his charges 2 ."

When he reached Brittany he received intelligence that
the duke of Buckingham had been beheaded, and that a
large number of English refugees were at Vannes, in Brit-
tany. At Rennes during the Christmas of 1483 he was
joined by his friends, who proclaimed him king, he promising
to marry Elizabeth of York. He received further promises

1 Richard III, 133. Gairdner quotes the introductory sketch to the
Works of Lewis Glyn Cothi. But the editor, as has been pointed out,
relied on the Cambrian Register.

2 Polydore, 201-3. Croyland, 495.

14 — 2



212 HENRY TUDOR [ch.

of help from the duke of Brittany, and prepared for another
invasion.

Parliament met in January, 1484. Henry and Jasper
were attainted, while Henry's mother, the countess of
Richmond, was declared incapable of holding or inheriting
any estate or dignity. Her husband, Lord Stanley, had
proved loyal to Richard thus far. It was anticipated that
another attempt would be made by Henry in March, and
the king became increasingly anxious for his expulsion from
the confines of Brittany. He offered the duke the revenues
of the English estates of Henry and the refugees if he kept
them in ward. At last, in June, 1484, Peter Landois, on
behalf of the duke, negotiated a truce favourable to Richard 1 .
But Henry, through the sleepless vigilance of John Morton,
became aware of it and decided to cross into France. Jasper
and a few friends immediately entered Anjou. Henry,
"two days after departing from Vannes, and accompanied
by only five servants, feigned to go unto a friend who had
a manor not far off, and, because a huge multitude of
English people were left in the town, nobody suspected his
voyage ; but when he had journeyed almost five miles he
withdrew hastily out of the highway into the next wood,
and putting on a serving-man's apparel, he as a servant
followed his own servant (who was his guide in that journey),
as though he had been his master and rode on with so great
celerity, keeping yet no certain way, that he made no stay
anywhere, except it were to bate his horses, before he had
gotten himself to his company within the bounds of Anjou 2 ."
The company then proceeded to Angers and thence to
Paris, passing the winter as the guests of Charles VII of
France.

Richard's anxious suspicions were intensified when Lord
Stanley wished to excuse himself from court, a request

1 Rymer, xn. 226.

2 Polydore, 206—8. Richard had endeavoured to get the mediation
of Austria between him and Brittany with regard to Henry. Letters oj
Richard III, II. 4.



x] HENRY TUDOR 213

which Richard granted only on condition that he left his
son Lord Strange behind as a hostage 1 . In June, 1485, he
issued a proclamation against Henry, in which it was stated
that Jasper, John earl of Oxford, Sir Edward Woodville,
and others had fled from Brittany because the duke would
not agree to their plans ; that they had taken refuge in
France ; had chosen as their leader Henry Tudor who, in
return for the assistance he was to receive, was prepared to
relinquish the claim of the kings of England to the title of
king of France. It is to be observed that this proclamation,
though it asserts that both Owen Tudor and Henry's
mother were of illegitimate descent, does not impute any
illegality to the marriage of Owen Tudor and Catherine, the
widow of Henry V 2 .

Richard's activity was not confined to proclamations.
There seems to have been current a prophecy

Kicnard s

preparations that Richmond would land at Milford. There
is a small village of that name in Hampshire,
and Richard may have been deceived into believing that
that was the place intended, for Lord Lovel was sent with
the fleet to the Solent. More probably the object of this
move was to keep an eye on Henry's preparations at the
mouth of the Seine on the opposite coast. At any rate,
Richard did not lose sight of the magnificent natural harbour
of Milford Haven in Pembrokeshire as a possible landing-
place. For "he commanded noblemen and gentlemen dwell-
ing about the seacoast, and chiefly the Welshmen, to keep
watch by course after their country's manner, to the intent
that his adversaries should not have ready recovery of the
shore and come a land ; for the inhabitants about the
seacoasts place, in the time of war especially, on the hills
adjoining, lamps fastened upon frames of timber, and when
any great or notable matter happeneth, by reason of the
approach of enemies, they suddenly light the lamps, and

1 Croyland, 501 ; Stow, 467 ; Polydore, 214.
* Paston Letters, in. 316. Ellis, Letters, I. 162,



214 HENRY TUDOR [ch.

with shouts through town and field give notice thereof ;
from thence others afterwards receive and utter unto their
neighbours notice after the same sort. Thus is the fame
thereof carried speedily to all villages and towns, and both
country and town arm themselves against the enemy 1 ."

In West Wales Richard took very minute precautions
Richard which he might reasonably have expected would

wiiiiams. have made it invulnerable. In Pembrokeshire

he placed his trust in Richard Williams, whom, as we
have seen, he had made constable of the important castles
of Pembroke, Tenby, Manorbier, Haverfordwest, and of
Cilgerran, the gate to Cardiganshire. Elaborate prepara-
tions were made to put Pembroke castle in a state of defence.
The woods around Narberth were cut down to supply it
with fuel. The chamberlain of Carmarthen, Richard Mynors,
paid Richard Newton £113. 14s. 6d. for the expenses which
he had incurred in strengthening the castle ; and Henry
Wogan, the treasurer of Pembroke, by an order in council,
was requested to provide it with war material 2 .

Richard also relied upon William Herbert, earl of
Huntingdon, whose official position in South Wales as
justiciar gave him considerable power in the royal counties
of Carmarthen and Cardigan. By another grant he became
possessed of the castles of the late duke of Buckingham,
which gave him a startling pre-eminence in Brecknock.
Sir James Tyrell controlled the upper valley of the Towy
from Builth and Llandovery, as well as the lordship of
Glamorgan, for though Tyrell had been ordered to Guisnes
the levies of the lordship were to take their instructions
from him 3 . The Vaughans (Thomas, Walter, William, and

1 Polydore, 213-14.

2 For this he was paid /ioo and 20 marks. Richard Owen was receiver
of Kidwely. Richard Williams was to hold Manorbier and Penally by
knight's service. Another recipient of favours was Howel ap John of
Llanllwch in Carmarthenshire. A Hugh ap John was denizened. Richard
also gave grants for the rebuilding of churches at Llandovery and Hirwaun
in Carmarthenshire. Welsh MSS., British Museum.

3 Welsh MSS., British Museum. Roger Bikley was constable of
Llandovery.



x] HENRY TUDOR 215

Richard) were induced by various grants to continue in their
loyalty and secure the valleys of the Wye and the Usk.

It will thus be seen how little, if any, foundation there is
for the statement that the chief authority in South Wales
was divided between Rhys ap Thomas and Walter Herbert
in so far as that authority could be based on official status 1 .
Neither had any official position of consequence. Walter
Herbert may have represented his kinsman, the earl of
Huntingdon ; but Rhys ap Thomas had no such connection.
The Tudor chroniclers wrote of him in the knowledge of
the strong support he undoubtedly gave Henry at Bosworth.
The influence of Rhys was based on the predominance of
his family ; and whatever forces he gathered during his
journey through Wales was a tribute to his own personal
ascendancy and to the strength of national sentiment.

In North Wales Richard's supposed friends were the
chamberlain William Griffith, Huddleston constable of
Beaumaris, and Sir William Stanley constable of Carnarvon,
and lord of Bromfield, Yale, Holt, and Wrexham. The
garrison at Beaumaris was strengthened ; Denbigh was
granted 200 marks to repair its walls 2 .

Meanwhile Henry's preparations were advancing at the
Henry's mouth of the Seine. From Paris he had moved

movements. to R oue n. There he heard that Richard intended
marrying Elizabeth of York, and that the other daughter
was to be married to an obscure man. "This matter
pinched Henry by the very stomach, because thereby he
saw that he could not now expect the marriage of any of

1 Gairdner takes this view on the authority of Polydore.

2 The following were Richard's grants in Wales this year: Walter
Vaughan, steward of Elvel ; William Vaughan, a brother of the Thomas
Vaughan who had opposed Buckingham, an annuity; so also did Walter,
the son of that Thomas ap Roger who was slain at Banbury, and Richard
Vaughan; John ap Morgan of Usk; Robert ap Howel, constable of
Skenfrith; David Goch of Radnor; Richard and Roger Baker of Breck-
nock ; Sir Richard Croft was told to repair Radnor and Elvel castles ;
Nicholas Spicer, receiver of South Wales, was to give the burgesses of
Brecon ^60 towards repairing their town walls : David Vaughan received
denizenship and the ferm of Caerwys and Conway ferry. Welsh MSS. ,
British Museum. Pat. Rolls.



216 HENRY TUDOR [ch.

king Edward's daughters, wherefore he thought it was to
be feared lest his friends should forsake him. Therefore it
was thought to stand with their profit if by affinity they could
draw into surety of that war Walter Herbert, a man of
ancient authority among the Welshmen, who had with him
a sister marriageable ; and to procure the same, messengers
were sent to Henry earl of Northumberland, who had in
marriage Walter's other sister, that he would deal in that
cause ; but the ways were so beset that none of them could
come to him 1 ."

This Walter Herbert was a natural son of Lord Herbert,
the first earl of Pembroke. There can be no doubt that he
gave support to Henry, for he was afterwards knighted and
made steward of Talgarth and Cantrecelly 2 . It will be
remembered that Lord Herbert, in his will, intended that
his daughter Maud, now the wife of the earl of Northumber-
land, should be given in marriage to Henry. Henry was of
course well acquainted with the family under whose care he
had been for some time before his departure for Brittany.

The marriage proposal does not seem to have reached
Walter Herbert. However, a messenger came to Henry
from Morgan of Kidwely, a lawyer, who informed him that
Rhys ap Thomas and Sir John Savage were wholly devoted
to his cause ; that Reginald Bray had gathered no small
sum of money for his service ; and that he should therefore
set out for Wales at the earliest opportunity 3 .

This Morgan belonged to a Tredegar family. Llywelyn
sir John a P Morgan of Tredegar had two grandsons, who

Morgan. were cousins, Evan Morgan and Jankyn ap

Philip. Evan Morgan had a son Sir John Morgan of Tredegar
who, as we have seen, had already received small grants in
the lordship of Usk. He was one of the receivers of petitions
in the first parliament of Henry VII by whom he was

1 Polydore, 215.

2 Campbell's Materials, etc. 1. 108 ; 11. 443. Rot. Pari. vi. 379.

3 Polydore, 215-16. Croyland.



x] HENRY TUDOR 217

knighted, made steward of Machen, sheriff of Gwenllwg
and Newport, and constable of Newport "with the making
of all particular offices in those lordships during the minority
of Edward duke of Buckingham 1 ." He brought Henry
military assistance soon after the landing at Milford.

Jankyn ap Philip had a son Morgan ap Jankyn ap
Morgan of Philip of Langston who was on a few com-

Kidweiy. missions with the Herberts under Edward IV.

He was pardoned by that king in 1475 for some unknown
offence 2 . He had two sons : Trahaiarn Morgan, "skilled and
qualified in the laws of England 3 "; and John Morgan,
who afterwards became bishop of St David's. Polydore
appears to confuse these two brothers when he states that
it was John Morgan, a lawyer, who negotiated with Henry.
The lawyer was Trahaiarn. Polydore is similarly in error
with regard to the Christian name of Rhys ap Thomas,
whom he calls Richard. Neither Hall nor the author of
the Life of Rhys ap Thomas falls into the same error. They
call him Morgan Kidwely and Morgan of Kidwely respec-
tively. This Trahaiarn had married a co-heiress of Henry
Dwnn, and had thus become possessed of Motliscwmb, a
place within a mile or so of Kidwely ; and hence he is called
Morgan of Kidwely. On the accession of Henry he became
chancellor of Glamorgan with a fee of £20 a year, while his
son, Henry Morgan, was in close attendance upon that
sovereign 4 .

However, the most active plotter in Henry's favour was
the brother John Morgan, whom Henry afterwards presented
to the parish church of Hanslap in the diocese of Lincoln,

1 Campbell, i. 94, 584. Rot. Pari. 336-384. 2 Cal. Pat. Rolls, 561.

3 Dwnn. 11. 218; "yn ddysgedig ac yn raddol ynghyfraith Lloegr."
There is no John Morgan of Kidwely among those who received favours from
Henry VII.

Gairdner's Richard III, following Polydore, gives the Christian name of
Morgan of Kidwely as " John." Ramsay confuses Morgan Kidwely the
Attorney-General with (Trahaiarn) Morgan of Kidwely, the Welsh lawyer.

4 Campbell. 1. 77-91, 230, 555, 597. October — December, 1485.
Cardiff Records. Letters etc. of Richard III, 11. 90. Henry Morgan,
Sir David Owen, and Hugh Vaughan held household appointments.



218 HENRY TUDOR [ch.

made dean of St George's chapel Windsor, and of St Mary's
Leicester, and also clerk of parliament with a fee of £40 a
year.

This Morgan of Kidwely has also been confounded with
Morgan Kidwely the Attorney-General. But that official
had no connection with Wales, and he is not mentioned by
any authority. His connections were mainly with Dorset
and the south of England 1 .

To resume. Henry, accompanied by Jasper Tudor,
"John Morton, and the earl of Oxford, set sail

Henry lands **

at Miiford from the mouth of the Seine on August 1st

with a few ships and a force of about 2000 men,
whom a French authority describes as the worst rabble
that one could find 2 . They were under the command of
Philibert de Shaunde. The weather was very favourable and
he arrived at Miiford Haven on August 7th, a little before
sunset. He landed at Dale on the northern shore of the
entrance to the haven, though Richard was informed that
the landing took place at Angle on the opposite shore. It
is possible that a detachment landed at Angle so as to
advance on Pembroke and Tenby castles. Richard had
kept a close watch here during the winter 3 .

On the following morning, at break of day, the invaders

1 In May 1480 he was on a commission to investigate the concealing from
the king of lands belonging to the manor of Dorset. In July he was on
another commission to find out what lands belonged to Henry, duke of
Somerset, in Herts and to the Earl of Wiltshire in Dorset. He was on
commissions of array in Wilts and Dorset in 1484. He helped Richard
against Buckingham, and was rewarded with a grant of certain manors
in those two counties. In February 1485 he was on a commission in
Yorkshire. He was attorney-general after the accession of Henry. There
were others of the family: Geoffrey Kidwely was comptroller of the port
of Southampton. Maurice Kidwely was another. Grants of Edward V,
30—1 ; xxxi. Cal. Pat. Rolls, passim.

2 Comines Dupont, II. 246. Molinet, II. 406.

3 Polydore, 216. Hall, 409-10. Bernard Andre, Memorials of
Henry VII, 24-5. Croyland, 500-1. See also a letter of Richard to
Henry Vernon on August 11, 1485; Hist. MSS. Commission Reports,
MSS. of the duke of Rutland, 1. 7. "departyd out of the waters of the
Seine the first day of this present month and landed at Nangle beside
Miiford Haven on Sunday last passed, entending our destruction." Sunday
would be August 7. Soon after the landing Sir David Owen was knighted.



x] HENRY TUDOR 219

marched to Haverfordwest and, meeting with no opposition,
proceeded five miles beyond. The association
of Richard of the Tudors with Pembroke told immediately

in their favour ; for Arnold Butler brought
intelligence that the inhabitants of the town " were ready
to support Jasper their earl." Richard III found at least
one loyal Welshman in these parts in the person of Richard
Williams, the constable of Pembroke. It is noteworthy that
here alone during his march to Bosworth, at least until he
reached Shrewsbury, Henry met with any opposition, though
it was suppressed without difficulty 1 . Williams had no
force at his command which could resist an army of 2000.
He himself probably hastened to Nottingham where the
king received news of the landing. This fact has never
been fully appreciated, that though Nottingham is nearly
200 miles distant from Milford, Richard was informed of
Henry's coming within four days of the actual event, surely
a tribute to the loyalty and expeditious movements of
Williams. He fought with Richard at Bosworth and was
attainted in the next reign 2 .

Henry was still in the neighbourhood of Haverfordwest
when he was informed that Rhys ap Thomas and Sir John
Savage were hostile to him ; and on the following day
(August 9th), when he had entered Cardigan, a similar
rumour reached him that Rhys ap Thomas and Sir Walter
Herbert were at Carmarthen prepared to challenge his
progress. These rumours caused him some anxiety. "He
resolved to go against them, and when he had either put
them to flight or received them into his obedience, to make
haste against king Richard."

He sent forward a body of cavalry, but they soon
returned with the information that no danger was to be


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