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apprehended from Carmarthen. On the contrary, Richard

1 It is significant, too, that in the list of those \vho were rewarded
by Henry VII there appears to be only one Pembrokeshire man. The
Arnold Butler of the text was of Dunraven in Glamorgan.

2 Rot. Pari.

220 HENRY TUDOR [ch.

Griffith, " a man of high parentage," joined him with rein-
forcements from that very town. He is said

The attitude J

of Rhys ap to have "revolted" to Henry, from which we
are to infer, presumably, that the troops there
with Rhys ap Thomas and Herbert were supposed to be loyal
to Richard. Sir John Morgan also came in with a few
followers. Was it with, or without, the connivance of
Rhys ap Thomas and Herbert that these two men joined
Henry ? Polydore leaves the impression that it was without
their connivance ; and that Henry, when he left Cardigan
for Shrewsbury, was uncertain of the allegiance of Rhys
and Herbert.

On the other hand, there can be no doubt that Rhys
intended ultimately to attach himself to Henry. The family
had always supported the Tudors and the House of Lancaster.
His father and uncle had fought at Mortimer's Cross. Rhys
himself and his brothers had collided with Edward IV ;
and on one occasion Richard, then duke of Gloucester, had
been called upon to suppress them. Richard III had given
him a small annuity but no official status, though his family
prestige in West Wales was such that he would at once have
become the leader of any important enterprise among the
Welsh of those parts 1 .

It is instructive to note, moreover, that Polydore couples

Rhys ap Thomas with Sir John Savage. The

and the latter was a son of Lord Stanley's sister, and

drew a stipend from Holt castle, the property

of the Stanleys ; and the Stanleys were deeply implicated

in Henry's enterprise 2 . We may, therefore, fairly suspect

1 One of the inaccuracies of his "Life" in the Cambrian Register is
to make him at this period constable of Carmarthen castle. That office
was held by Sir John Dwnn who was also sheriff of the two counties. We
hear nothing of Dwnn during these great events. He was probably
away, as he was an officer at Calais and deputy of Risbank. He retained
his positions under Henry VII. Rot. Pari. 341. Letters of Richard III,
etc. I. 15.

2 Polydore, 216 seq. Cal. Pat. Rolls. "Ballad of the Lady Bessy."
When Lord Strange unsuccessfully tried to escape from court he confessed
that his father was implicated and threw himself on the king's mercy.


that Rhys ap Thomas and Sir John Savage were agents in
a common intrigue, and the suspicion is confirmed by the
" Ballad of the Lady Bessy." The plot was deep and dark.
It seems to have been arranged that when news of Henry's
landing would be passing through Carmarthen on its way
to Richard's headquarters at Nottingham, it would be
noised abroad that Rhys ap Thomas and his confederates
would oppose Henry, in order that Richard might be lulled
into a sense of false security, as indeed he was ; for though
he heard the news on the nth he did not move till the
15th. Further to disarm suspicion they joined Henry at
intervals, Rhys two days before he reached Shrewsbury,
Sir John Savage between Shrewsbury and Bosworth, and
Stanley on the battle-field.

Henry had already sent messengers to inform the
Stanleys, the Talbots, and his friends in North Wales, that
he was making for Shrewsbury along the valley of the Severn.
His letter to his kinsman John ap Meredith 1 has been
preserved, and is as follows :

"By the King.
"Right trusty and well-beloved, we greet you well. And
whereas it is so that, through the help of Almighty God,
the assistance of our loving and true subjects, and the great
confidence that we have to the nobles and commons of this
our principality of Wales, we be entered into the same,
purposing, by the help above rehearsed, in all haste possible
to descend into our realm of England, not only for the
adoption of the crown, unto us of right appertaining, but
also for the oppression of the tryant, Richard late duke of
Gloucester, usurper of our said right ; and moreover to
reduce as well our said realm of England into its ancient
estate, honour, and property and prosperity, as this our
said principality of Wales and the people of the same to
their erst liberties, delivering them of such miserable
servitude as they have piteously long stood in : We desire

1 Wynne's History of the Gwydir Family, 55-56.

222 HENRY TUDOR [ch.

and pray you, and upon your allegiance strictly charge and
command you that, immediately upon the sight hereof,
with all such power as ye may make, defensibly arrayed
for the war, ye address you towards us, wheresoever we shall
be, to our aid, for the effect above rehearsed, wherein ye
shall cause us in time to come to be your singular good lord ;
and that ye fail not hereof as ye will avoid our grievous
displeasure, and answer it unto your peril. Given under
our signet at our ( ).

"To our trusty and well-beloved John ap Meredith ap
Ievan ap Meredith 1 ."

From Cardigan Henry proceeded northwards "through
Henry's ru gg e d an d indirect tracts." His natural line

march. f m arch would be through Strata Florida,

Aberystwyth, Machynlleth, and thence to Newtown and
Welshpool in the upper valley of the Severn ; but, local
tradition apart, there is no data which will enable us to
describe his itinerary between Cardigan and Shrewsbury.
But he knew enough of the temper and history of the people
among whom he had landed to realise that his descent from
Cadwaladr and the kings of old would win him support ;
and that the display of a fiery red dragon would fire enthu-
siasm 2 . This standard was offered at St Paul's after the
victory. He was also conscious of the influence of the
poets, and had utilised them to prepare the people for his
reception. One of these was Robin Ddu 3 , to whose
writings we have already referred in connection with
Owen Tudor.

During his progress through Cardiganshire he was joined

1 It will be observed that the date and place are left blank. I do
not find John ap Meredith's name among those who were rewarded by-
Henry, which is curious if he assisted him.

8 Hall, 410. Bernard Andre, 9. Croyland, 501.

3 Y mae hiraeth am Harri,

Y mae gobaith i'n hiaith ni.
"We look forward to the coming of Henry; our nation puts its trust in
him." Robin Ddu, in Ceinion Llenyddiaith, 221.

See also the unpublished poems of Bedo Brwynllys (Cardiff MSS.),
and other contemporary poets.


by a few local squires who were afterwards rewarded 1 .
On reaching the confines of Merionethshire he probably
received a North Wales contingent, several of whom were
signalled out for distinction after Bosworth "for true and
faithful service done as well in this our late victorious field
as otherwise 2 ." The tale runs that at Machynlleth he was
sheltered by Davydd Llwyd, the poet, who was uncertain
whether to prophesy failure or success, until his wife
solved the difficulty by saying that he could lose nothing
by predicting success ; for if it proved true he might be
rewarded, and if it proved false Henry would not live to
reproach him. The tale is one of many fables of a later
day, and is discredited by the fact that the Tudors had
found no more stalwart supporter than Davydd Llwyd.

When Henry was a two days' journey from Shrewsbury
Rh s he came to an understanding with Rhys ap

j° ins Thomas, whom he promised the lieutenantship

of Wales in return for his support. Rhys had
now an effective argument for a bargain in an imposing
array of followers, "a great bande of soldiers 3 ." It was
now about August 12 or 13, and Henry might be in the
neighbourhood of Newtown or Welshpool. Rhys had
traversed Mid- Wales with the black raven as his standard 4 .
Among the Carmarthenshire people who were rewarded by
Henry after his accession were Adam ap Evan ap Jankyn

1 The chief of these were Rhys ap Philip, who became rhaglaw of
the county; Owen Lloyd, who was made constable of Cardigan, where
he was followed by Rhydderch ap Rhys next year ; David Glyn ; Phillip
ap Rhys ap Thomas Vaughan of Mabwynion, who became steward of that
district and bailiff of Isaeron. Rot. Pari. vi. 363. Cal. Pat. Rolls, passim.

2 The following came from North Wales : Edward ap Ednyfed, who
received the woodwardship of Merioneth ; Howel ap Griffith ap Howel
who received the fee-farm of Penmaenllwyd ; Richard Pole, who became
sheriff of that county; Rheinallt Davy, who got an annuity of 100/- from
Pennal; Robert Gethin of Snowdon; Edward Morgan of Aberffraw;
William Eynon ; William Griffith ap Robin, and Rhys ap Llywelyn, who
became sheriff of Carnarvon and Anglesey respectively, and both of whom
received denizenship early in i486. Also Piers Stanley and Piers Egerton.
Campbell, 295, etc., Rot. Pari. 353, seq. ; Rymer xn. 89 ; Cal. Pat. Rolls,

3 Polydore, 217. 4 "Ballad of the Lady Bessy."

224 HENRY TUDOR [ch.

"in consideration of his true service unto our noble progen-
itors of long tyme passed, and to us nowe late in our victorious
journey and field, to his great costs and damages" ; and
Philip ap Howel and his wife "sometime our nurse," an
interesting fact of Henry's childhood 1 .

Of the assistance rendered by Rhys ap Thomas there is
ample evidence besides what is contained in the Patent
Rolls. There is striking testimony, for example, in the
English ballads of Tudor times, allowance being made of
course for exaggeration. The " Ballad of the Lady Bessy "
alludes to him thus :

Sir Rhys ap Thomas, a knight of Wales certain,
Eight thousand spears brought he ;

Sir Rhys ap Thomas shall break the array,
For he will fight and never flee 2 .

Again, the " Rose of England " :

Then Sir Rice ap Thomas drawes Wales with him,

A worthy sight it was to see

How the Welshmen rose wholly with him,

And stogged them to Shrewsbury e 3 .

1 The Carmarthenshire grants are as follows : John ap Thomas, who
became steward of the Welsh courts of Carmarthenshire and Cardiganshire ;
Morris Lloyd of Wydegada, for service in our late triumph ; Owen ap
Griffith, who was made steward and constable of Laugharne ; Geoffrey
Rede, receiver of Kidwely with an annuity of ^20, and with Rhys ap
Thomas and Morris ap Owen supervisor in the duchy of Lancaster ; Adam
ap Evan ap Jankyn, attorney in the two counties; his brother David,
rhingyll of Kidwely and Carnwallon, escheator in South Wales, and the
amobrship of Iscennin ; Richard Owen, receiver of Kidwely ; Morris ap
Owen, a similar office in Carnwallon and Iscennin, for his services ; Hugh
Vaughan forester in Kidwely lordship ; John Aubrey, rhaglaw in Carmar-
thenshire for his services at Bosworth; Walter ap Lewis, bailiff and
attorney in Kidwely and the district; Philip ap Howel and his wife an
annuity of £10 "for true service done unto us." Rot. Pari. vi. 350. Cal.
Pat. Rolls, passim; September — December, 1485. Campbell, passim.

2 Early English Poetry, xx. (1847).

8 Child's Popular Ballads, ill. 331—3. The Lady Bessy also tells
Lord Stanley :

Your brother dwelleth in Holt castle

All the Welshmen love him well;
He may make a great company.


Moreover, Rhys himself was generously rewarded — the first
of the family to receive conspicuous favour from the English
Government since the time of his grandfather, Griffith ap
Nicholas, in the reign of Henry VI. Amongst other marks
of favour Rhys was knighted on Bosworth field, and was
made constable, steward, and lieutenant of Brecknock,
steward of Builth, and chamberlain of Cardigan and Car-
marthen counties 1 .

It is probable that Sir Walter Herbert joined Henry at
the same time as Rhys, and brought with him the levies of
south-east Wales, notably of Monmouth and the surrounding
districts 2 .

When Henry reached Shrewsbury, about August 15th,
Henry at ne found the gates shut and the portcullis let

Shrewsbury. down ; and so he fell back to Forton for the
night. The town subsequently surrendered and gave him
a contingent of men at its own cost. Henry was now
joined by those to whom he had sent messages soon after
his landing. From Shrewsbury he marched to Newport
where he encamped for the night. That evening he was
joined by Gilbert Talbot and a few hundred Shropshire men.
Thence he proceeded to Stafford where he had an interview
with Sir William Stanley. Stanley's men were drawn largely
from North Wales and the valley of the Dee. From Stafford
Henry moved to Lichfield.

Richard heard now for the first time that his rival had
traversed Wales unopposed. It threw him into a fierce

1 Campbell, i. 105-9; 11. 91. He was also a commissioner of mines.

2 Evan Lloyd Vaughan, constable of Neath and Aberavon, for service
etc. Hugh ap Howel, ^20 out of the fee-farm of Monmouth for service
at Bosworth "where it happened him to be sore hurt and maimed";
John ap Howel, steward and receiver of Monmouth ; Walter ap David
ap John, coroner of Gower; William Llywelyn of Newport and Thomas
ap Morgan ; Hugh Richard of Cantrecelly ; Nicolas Williams of Monmouth ;
Mathew Cradock, constable of Caerphilly; William Herbert, receiver of
Monmouth, Whitecastle, Skenfrith ; others in Glamorgan and Aber-
gavenny. The affairs of the earldom of March were to be managed by
nine commissioners including Jasper, Morgan John Philip, and Thomas
Morgan of Gloucester. Cal. Pat. Rolls, passim. Campbell, 253, 298.
Jasper became lord of Glamorgan.

E. W. R. 15

226 HENRY TUDOR [ch.

rage, for he had believed "that his men whom he had disposed
for defense of that province wer ready in all respectes."
He had been informed that Henry had such a small company
that he " should surely have an evell ende whan he showld
come to that place, where either he should be forced to fight
against his will, or taken alive by Walter Herbert and
Rhys ap Thomas 1 ." He immediately set out for Leicester.

Meanwhile a strange chance happened to Henry. Being
still in doubt as to the disposition of Lord Stanley he
lingered, accompanied by only twenty armed followers, in the
rear of his army, deliberating what he should do ; for he
now knew that Richard was at hand. In the neighbourhood
of Tamworth he lost all trace of his army at nightfall and
had to pass the night in deadly fear in a village, perhaps
Whittington, three miles away from them. The army was
equally anxious about Henry until he returned to them
early next morning, excusing himself that he had been
consulting some of his friends in secret. He then had a
private interview with the two Stanleys at Atherstone, and
a little before evening on the same day Sir John Savage
came over to his side 2 .

From Leicester Richard advanced to Bosworth where he
pitched his tent for the night. A terrible dream disturbed
his rest, "for he thought in his sleep that he saw horrible
images as it were of evil spirits haunting evidently about
him, as it were before his eyes, and that they would not let
him rest ; which vision truly did not so much strike into his
breast a sudden fear as replenish the same with heavy
cares 3 ."

On the morning of August 22nd he drew up his men
with John, duke of Norfolk, on the left, the earl of Northum-
berland on the right, and himself in the centre. Henry,
having rested his men during the night, also drew his men

1 We have already shown that Richard had no real grounds for this
reliance on Rhys ap Thomas at least.
* Polydore. Hall. Croyland.
3 Polydore, 222.


out for battle. The earl of Oxford was chief captain of
the army. Gilbert Talbot commanded the

Bosworth. , ^ txt t

right, Sir John Savage the left, and Henry the
centre " trusting to the aid of Lord Stanley, with one troop of
horsemen, and a few footmen." Lord Stanley was mid- way
between the two hosts ; and when Henry asked him to
arrange his men for battle he sent an evasive answer that
he would join him "with his army well appointed," and that
Henry should "set his own folks in order 1 ."

Richard's troops attacked with great shouts and a flight
of arrows. The battle was raging when the king was
informed of Henry's vulnerable position. Giving spurs to
his horse he issued from the flank and made for Henry's
standard. But Henry and his men withstood him manfully
until William Stanley came to their assistance. In the
thick of the fight Richard was slain. Norfolk and Lord
Ferrers (Walter Devereux) were slain. A few took sanctuary,
but the greater part threw down their arms. The earl of
Northumberland was received into favour.

Henry was crowned on the battle-field. In the evening
he came to Leicester. Thither also was brought Richard's
body ' ' naked of all clothing, and layd upon an horse back
with the arms and legs hanging down on both sides," and
buried at the Franciscan abbey.

Rhys ap Thomas was knighted on the battle-field, and
gave considerable assistance to Henry in subsequent years.
Jasper Tudor became duke of Bedford, and married the
widow of the late duke of Buckingham 2 . The later history

1 Bernard Andre, 29. Polydore, 222-6.

2 The following Welshmen found favour with Henry in the first year
of his reign in addition to those already mentioned : Morris ap David
ap Griffith of Knighton ; David ap Madoc Gough of Ceri and Cedewain ;
William Lloyd, constable of Denbigh; John Thomas, constable of Hay;
Hugh Lloyd, escheator of Denbigh ; John ap Evan ap Llywelyn of Radnor ;
Thomas Havard of Caerleon ; Hugh Lewis of Denbigh ; David Middleton,
escheator of Denbigh; John ap Meredith ap Ieuan Lloyd of Denbigh;
David Lloyd, one of the keepers of the Tower of London ; David Owen,
chief carver of the king. Rot. Pari., 344-66. Campbell, 208-30.
Robert ap Gwilym ap Thomas of Hereford, Walter ap Gwilym of Archen-
field, and the Vaughans who opposed Buckingham, were pardoned.





of Jasper and Rhys is beyond the pale of the present work.
The new king inaugurated an era of internal peace, so that
Lewis Glyn Cothi a few years later was able to say with
truth, "The boar is cold in his grave; the world is still,
and envenomed feuds asleep."

A'r baedd oer i'r bedd a aeth
A'r egwyd a'i rywogaeth.
A'r byd es enyd y sydd
A'i holl wenwyn yn llonydd.

Gwilym ap Jankyn

David Gam












Gwladys m. Sir William 1
| ap Thomas


Thomas of

Jankyn of



i 1 — i

Thomas Elizabeth Margaret
Herbert m. m.

(died Sir Henry Sir Henry
at Stradling Wogan


William 2











John William
Herbert Herbert
(John ap



_. i

















earl of










earl of




ohn Wogar

l Thomas Wogan

Henry Wogan

dau. m

David ap









John Wogan
Sir John Wogan

dau. m. Sir William Perot

Sir Owen Perot

Thomas Perot

1 Cal. Inquis. post mortem, 47 : Elizabetha quae fuit uxor Gulielmi app Thoma
armigeri, — nulla tenuit in com. Hereford nee march.

2 He had other sons : George, John, Philip, Thomas, William, Richard.





Richard m. Lucy, dau.
Mansel of Philip

of Scurlage

Isabel, dau. m. Sir Hugh Mansel
of John of

Sir Richard Mansel m. dau. of

Penlline |

John Mansel m. Cecily

William Beauchamp
earl of Warwick

Isabel m. Sir Roger


Cecily m. Sir William


dau. of m. Philip (1420 — 1471) m. dau. of

Griffith I Mansel Sir Philip

ap Long


Jenkyn Mansel


Mabli, dau.
of Meredith

Henry Dwnn

Gwenllian m.

Nicholas m. dau. of Griffith ap

Llywelyn of Newton

ap m. dau. of Sir

Nicholas Thomas Perot


ap David

ap Thomas





Morgan David Henry Jankyn

Sir Rhys


Thomas ap

1 1

Rhys ap David

Griffith m I




[CH. X




Griffith Dwnn

i ,


Henry Dwnn




Sir John


Sir Edward




Harri Dwnn of Picton

Daughter m. Trahaiarn
ap Morgan
ap Jankyn


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