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P5ANCROFT, Hubert Howe.
History of California




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REFERENCE

AMERICANA COUUECTION



THE WORKS
HUBERT HOWE BANCROFT



THE WOEKS



HUBERT HOWE BANCROFT.



VOLUME xxir.



HISTORY OF CALIFORNIA.

V(iL. V. 1S40-1S4S.



SAN FRANCISCO:
THE HISTORY COMPANY, PUBLISHERS.

1886.



Allen County Public Library

900 Webster Street

PC Box 2270

Fort Wayne, IN 46801-2270



itiTLil iU-cordiug to Act <if Ciiugress in the Year 1886, by

HUBERT H. BANCROFT,
the Office Ol the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.






Sx



CONTENTS OF THIS VOLUME.



CHAPTER I.

OPERATIONS OP FREMONT AXD GILLESPIE.

January-May, 1846.
Explorers in the Tulares— FriJmont at New Helvetia, Yerba Buena, and
San Jos6 — Visit to Larkin and Castro at Monterey — Explanations to
the Prefect— Permission to Recruit his Men on the Frontier — The
Walker-Talbot-Kern Party — In Camp at Fisher's Rancho — Fremont
Breaks his Agreement — Insult to Alcalde Pacheco — Over the Santa
Cruz Mountains — In Camp at Alisal — Ordered to Depart — Defiance —
The Stars and Stripes on Gavilau Peak — Larkin's Efforts— Castro's
Military Preparations — Falsity of Current Versions — Fremont Runs
Away — His Blunder — Proclamations and Reports — In the Sacra-
mento Valley — Letter to Clyman — To the Oregon Border — A Night
Attack by Indians — Back to California — Gillespie's Arrival and In-
structions — Up the River by Boat— Sutter's Warning to Castro 1

CHAPTER II.

FOLITICAL AND MILITARY.

January-June, 1S46.
A Fruitless Controversy — Alvarado as Congressman — Castanares and
Tellez— Covarrubias as Pico's Agent — Mission of Castillero— Affairs
in Mexico — Iniestra's Expedition — Tellez and Morales — Cambuston
and Castro— Valle and Treasury Troubles— Assembly — Guerra Sent
to Monterey — Return of J. A. Carrillo — Pico as Constitutional Gov-
ernor — Military Junta at Monterey — Adhesion to President Paredes
— Measures fo*- Defence — Pico's Protests — Vallejo's Position— Guerra
Sent to Angeles — Consejo General de Pueblos Unidos at Santa Bar-
bara — Castro's Protests — Martial Law — The Assembly Deposes Cas-
tro — Pico and his Army March North against Castro — Warlike
Preparations for Defence of Angeles — Cooperation of Foreigners —
Bandini and Castro— Affairs in the North 30



CHAPTER ni.

FOREIGN RELATIONS — UNITED STATES AND ENGLAND
Jaiuiary-Juue, 1S46.

PAOB

Larkin as U. S. Confidential Agent — His Instructions — Correspondence —
Fears of Invasion — Treatment of Foreigners — Fremont's Operations
in March — Larkin 's Efforts and Hopes — Monterey Junta — Imaginary
Speeches for Enghind, France, and the U. S. — Stearns, Leese, and
Warner— Sutter's Policy— Consejo General at Santa Barbara, and its
Bearing on Foreign Schemes — Views of Stearns and Larkin — Pico's
Intrigues— Exaggerations on English Interference — Testimony of
Gillespie and Minor — Position of Forbes and Spence — Stearns as Sub-
agent of the U. S. — Condition of Affairs in June — General Conclu-
sions 54



CHAPTER IV.



THE SETTLERS REVOLT.
June, 1846.
An Unexpected Outbreak — Its Alleged Motives — Self-defence and Re-
sistance to Oppression— Mere Pretexts — Current Rumors— The In-
surgents Classified— Adventurers— American Enthusiasts— Ambitious
Politicians — Real Motives of the Leaders— Fr(5mout's Policy— Gilles-
pie's Mission — Ambition and Revenge — A Bold Resolution — Over-
much Caution — Nature of Fremont's Cooperation— Ide's Theories
and Statements — A Filibustering Scheme — Needless, Unjustifiable,
Productive of No Good— Not a Part of the Conquest— Serious Re-
sponsibilities of the Insurgent Leaders — A Fortunate Ending



CHAPTER V.

BEAR FLAG REVOLT — TAKING OF SONOMA.
June, 1846.
Frt^mont's Return from Oregon— Hensley's Mission — A Summons to Re-
volt — Fr>5mont Cautious — All Pi,eady^Camp Moved to Bear River —
Castro at Santa Clara— His Visit to Sonoma — Arce's Caballada —
Merritt Sent by Fri5inont to Begin Hostilities — Seizure of Horses on
the Cosunmes — The Filibustera Reenforced in Napa Valley — Names
— Occupation of Sonoma — Vallejo a Prisoner of War — Negotiations
— Written Guaranties^Broken before the Ink was Dry — Incidents
of the Morning — The Insurgents Unmanageable — Aguardiente — A
Controversy — John Grigsby Declines the Command — William B. Ide
Chosen — Journey of the Prisoners to Fremont's Camp — Locked up in
Sutter's Fort 101



CHAPTER VI.

BEAR FLAG REVOLT, COKTINUED— AFFAIRS AT SUTTER' FORT AND SOUTH OF

THE BAT.

June-July, 1S4G.

PAOE

Sutter's Position — Tbe Prisoners — Tlieir Treatment — Correspondence of
the Capti%-es— Events at New Helvetia — South of the Bay — Rosa
Sent by Vallejo to Montgomery — Misroon's Mission — Official and
Private Correspondence— Castro's Proclamations— Military Prepara-
tions — Three Divisions to Retake Sonoma — Torre Sent across the
Bay — Jlanuel Castro's Mission — Insurgents at San Francisco —
Weber's Arrest — Montgomery's Policy — Pico at Santa Barbara —
The Angelinos not Warlike — Foreigners Offended — The Assembly —
Pico and Larkin — Pico ISIarches North — Meets Castro — Embrace of
Governor and General l"-2



CHAPTER VII.

BEAR FLAG REVOLT — AFFAIRS AT SONOMA.
June-July, 1846.
Ide in Command — Banner for the New Republic — Star and Grizzly —
Raising of the Bear Flag — The Flags as Relics — Ide's Proclamation
—Falsehood and Bombast — Further Organization — Minor Happen-
ings — Ide's Version — Treaty with Alcalde — Todd's Mission to Mont-
gomery — Misroon at Sonoma— Mormonism— A New Proclamation —
Killing of Cowie and Fowler by the Califomians — Padilla and Car-
rillo — Sortie by Ide — Other Captives— Gibson's Expedition to Santa
Rosa — Insurgents Reenforced — Land Laws — Grigsby'a Return —
Ford's Campaign— Padilla Joined by Torre— A Surprise— Fight at
Olompali— Torre Defeated by the 'Bears.' 145



CHAPTER VIII.

BEAR FLAG REVOLT — FR^MONT's CAMPAIG.V.

1846.
Complaints at Sonoma — Ford's Letter — FriSmont on the Sacramento —
Forced to Act — March to Sonoma — The San Rafael Campaign — Mur-
der of Berreyesa and the Haro Brothers— A Dastardly Act by FriS-
mont and his Men— Torre's Ruse— The Insurgents Sent to Sonoma —
A False Alarm — Spiking the Guns of San Francisco — Capture of
Robert P^idley — Fourth of July at Sonoma — Military Reorganization
— Change of Administration — Fremont Assumes the Chief Command
— Ide's Version — The Battalion Organized — Fremont's Designs —
News from ilonterey — Bibliography of the Bear Flag Revolt 169



CHAPTER IX.

PKELIMINAKIE.S OF THE CONQUEST.

1S46.

PAGE

Tile War with Mexico— Beginuing of Hostilities— Feeling in the United
States respecting California — Policy of President Polk's Administra-
tion — Instructions to Commodore Sloat iu 1S45 and 1S46— Plans for
Permanent Occupation — The Pacific Squadron at Mazatlan — Rumors
of War — Services of Dr Wood and John Parrott — The Portsmouth
and Cyane Sent to Monterey — News from tlie Rio Grande — Sloat's
Plans — His 'Unwarranted Inactivity' — Changes his Mind— Starts
for California iu the Savannah — Englisli Designs — The Rival Fleets
— A Race in American Imagination — A Protectorate — An Unfounded
Conjecture — The McNamara Colonization Project — Ten Thousand
Irishmen for San Joaquin 191

CHAPTER X.

CONQUEST BY THE UNITED STATES— SLOAT 's RULE.

July, 1846.
Aixival of Sloat in the Savannah — Events of a Week — IMoie Hesita-
tion — Fremont's Claim — Larkin's Influence — Despatches from Mont-
gomery — Resolution — Occupation of Monterey — Sloat's Proclama-
tion — The Stars and Stripes at San Francisco — Documentary Record
— The Bear Flag Lowered at Sonoma— At Sutter's Fort — The Change
at San Jos6 — Fremont and his Battalion March Southward — Occupa-
tion of San Juan — Tlie Bears at Monterey — Fremont and Sloat — The
Commodore's Disappointment — The Filibuster's Dilemma — Comfort
from a New Commodore — Stockton Arrives in the Co7tgress — And
Assumes Command — The Battalion Mustered ia — And Sent to the
South— Departure of Sloat 224

CHAPTER XI.

THE CONQUEST— Stockton's rule— occupation of the south.
August, 1846.
Stockton's Proclamation — A Pronunciamiento Filibustero — Castro Re-
treats Southward— Pico's Proclamation— Action of the Assembly —
Vain Efforts of Governor and General for Defence— No Enthusiasm
or Resources— Castro at the Mesa— FriSmont at San Diego — Stockton
at San Pedro — The Commodore Refuses to Negotiate for Fear his
Terms may be Accepted— His Weak Excuses— Larkin's Efforts —
Castro and Pico Resolve to Quit California — Flight and Farewell
Addresses — Pico's Land Grants— Stockton Enters Angeles— Submis-
sion of the People— Proclamations and Orders— News from Washing-
ton — Election Ordered— Plans for a Civil Government— Garrisons at
the Southern Towns— Stockton and Fremont Return to the North. . 255



CHAPTEE XII.

THE CONQUEST — AFFAIKS IN THE NOKTH— REVOLT OF PLORES IN THE SOUTH.

Aiigiist-October, 1846.

PAGE

At Monterey — Colton's Diaries — The First Newspaper — Fauntleroy and
Snyder at San Juan — San Jos6 under Hyde, Watmougb, and Weber
— San Francisco Affairs — Reception to Stockton — Revere at Sonoma
— Meeting o£ Bear Flag Men — Release of Prisoners — The ^yalla
Walla Invasion— Stockton's Grand Plans — Juan Flaco's Ride — Prep-
arations to Quell the Revolt — Gillespie at Angeles — Varela's Attack
— Jos6 Maria Flores — Pronunciamiento — Fight at Chino Eancho —
Gillespie's Capitulation — Talbot Driven from Santa Barbara — Mer-
ritt from San Diego — MervLne's Defeat — Meeting of the Assembly —
Stockton at San Pedro— San Diego Reoccupied 28S

CHAPTER XIII.

THE CONQUEST — THE FLORES REVOLUTION— FIGHT AT SAN PASCUAL.

November-December, 18-16. ■
Stockton at San Diego— Petty Hostilities — Preparations Interrupted —
U. S. Troops Coming from the East — Affairs at Angeles — Orders
and Con-espondence — Revolt against the Governor — Coronel's Ad-
ventures — The Dalton Financial Scheme — The Chino Prisoners —
Flores Imprisoned and Released — Alarming News — Kearny's Instruc-
tions — His March from New Mexico — Meeting Kit Carson — Capture
of Horses and a Courier on the Colorado — Across the Desert to
Warner's and Santa Maria — Reenforced by Gillespie — Fight at San
Pascual — Defeat of Kearny by the Californians under Pico — Thirty-
seven Men Killed and Wounded — In Camp at San Bernardino — Re-
enforcements under Gray — March to San Diego — Stockton and
Kearnj' March on Angeles 3'26

CHAPTER XIV.

AFFAIRS IN THE NORTH — NATIVIDAD AND SANTA CLARA.
November, lS46-January, 1847.
Fremont's California Battalion — Official Plunder of the Eancheros — Suc-
cessful Recruiting — Indian Allies — Organization and List of Officers
— Manuel Castro and Other Officera Break Paroles and Join Flores—
From San Luis to the Salinas— Burroughs and Thompson at San
.Tuan^Capture of Larkin — Americans at Los Verjeles — Approach of
the Californians— Fight at Encinalito— Foster Killed— Battle of Na-
tividad— Death of Burroughs— Losses— Castro's Retreat — March of
Fremont's Battalion from San Juan to Santa Barbara — Condemna-
tion and Pardon of Jesus Pico — Disastrous Crossing of the Cuesta de
Santa Iniis— More Forced Contributions— Sanchez's Revolt— Alarm
at the Pueblo — Marston's E.xpedition — Campaign of Santa Clara —
End of War in North — Loss of the Warren's Launch— Wreck or
Murder 357



CHAPTER XT.

THE COXQU-EST COMPLETED BY STOCKTON' AND.' r£mONT.

Januaiy, IS-tT.

PiOR

Stockton's Army — The Advance from San Bernardo to Los Coyotes —
Propositions from Flores — A Proclamation — Sand-storm— Forster's
Services — Ciiange of Route to Avoid Ambush — Preparations of the
Califomians— From La Jaboneria to Paso de Bartolo — The Battle of
the San Gabriel— Stockton's Report— Defeat of the Califomians—
Fight of the Mesa — Entry into Los Angeles— Fremont's March from
Santa Biirbai-a to San Fernando— The Califomians at Los Verdugos
— Efforts of Jesus Pico— Flores Transfers Command to Andri^s Pico —
Armistice— Treaty of Cahuenga— The War at an End— Fremont at
Angeles — Flight of Flores and Manuel Castro to Sonora 3S5

CHAPTER XYI.

Stockton's controversy with kearijy.
January-February, 1S47.
Policy of Sloat and Stockton — A Resume of the Conquest — Kearny's In-
structions from Washington- Later Orders— State of Affairs on the
General's Arrival — Discussion at San Diego — The Campaign — The
Commodore as Commander-in-chief— At Los Angeles— Kearny and
FrC'mont— The Controversy Begun— The General's Authority not
Recognized — He Goes to San Diego and Monterey — Arrival of Com-
modore Shubrick— A Policy of Peace — Stockton's Last Acts as Gov-
ernor — General Conclusions- Kearny in the Right — Stockton in the
Wrong— Fremont's Action Justified— Rule of Fr^-mont as Governor
. — Legislative Council— Proclamation-Financial Troubles 411



CHAPTER XVII.

Fremont's controversy with kearny.
March-May, 1S47.
New Instmctions— Circular of Shubrick and Kearny— Tlie Latter Assumes
the Governorship— Proclamation and Report — Commodore Biddle —
Orders to Fr«?mont, Gillespie, and Cooke — Tumer in the South-
Fremont's Disobedience, Excuses, and his Famous Ride to Monterey
—Quarrel with Kearny— Cooke at Los Angeles— Mason and Fn!-
mont — A Challenge — Rumors of INIexican Invasion— Kearny in the
South— Stevenson Succeeds Cooke— Journey of Keamy, Fremont,
and Cooke Overland to the States— Stockton Goes East— Petition on
the Governorship— Fremont's Trial by Court-martial— Found Guilty
and Pardoned— The Popular Verdict — Benton's Tirade in the Senate
— The California Claims— Expenses of the Conquest '



CONTENTS. xiii

CHAPTER XVIII.

THE MORMON BATTALION.
1S40-1S48.

PAGE

Westward Migration of tlie Mormons by Sea and Land — The Plan to
Occupy California — Elder Little Applies to the Government for Aid
— Timely War — Polk's Promises — Kearny's Instructions — Colonel
Allen's Call — Theory of tlie Saints — A Test of Loyalty and a Sacri-
fice — Recruiting the Battalion — List of Officers — Tyler's History and
Bigler's Diary— March to Santa Ei5— Death of Colonel Allen— Smith
in Command — Doctor Sanderson — Calomel and Aisenic — Cooke in
Command— His Journal— Marcli across the Continent — Fight with
Wild Cattle — Arrival at San Diego — In Garrison at San Luis Rey
and Los Angeles — Mustered out — Reenlistment of One Company —
Homeward March to Salt Lake in Several Detachments and by Dif-
ferent Routes— A Festival of 1855— A Ram in the Thicket 469

CHAPTER XIX.

NEW YORK VOLUNTEERS AND ARTILLERY COMrANY.

lS4(i-lS48.
Congress Calls for Volunteers— Letter to Stevenson — Policy of the Gov-
ernment Revealed — Recruiting in New York — In Camp at Gover-
. nor's Island — Clark's History and Murray's Narrative — First or
Seventh — List of Officers — Cliaracter of the Men — Camp Life and
Drill — Popular Ridicule — Discontent and Desertion — Habeas Corpus
— Instructions — Stevenson's Troubles — Resisting Arrest^A Baffled
Sheriff — Newspaper Comment — Voj'age of the Perkins, Loo Choc,
and Drtw — I^ater Vessels and Recruits — The Colonel's Valor — At
Rio— Arriviil at San Francisco — Distribution of the Companies — ■
Garrison Life — Disbandment — Company F, 3d U. S. ArtUlery — In
Garrison at Monterey — Deserting for the Mines — Sherman's Memoirs
—Burton's Company— The Dragoons 499

CHAPTER XX.

PIONEERS— DONNER PARTY' — THE MORMONS,
184G-184S.

Statistics of Population— Pioneers of 1846— Classification— Discontented
Immigrants — The Oregon Company — Clyman and Hastings Bound
for the States — Overland Westward — Bryant and Thornton — Many
Parties — Tedious, Uneventful Journeys — Hastings' Cut-off— The
Donner Party — List of Names — A New Cut-off — Fatal Delay — Dis-
sensions — Starvation in the Sierra — Breen's Diary — Record of Deaths
—Authorities— The Forlorn Hope- The Four Relief Parties— Gen-
eral Remarks — The Mormon Immigrants — Plans of the Saints — List
of Names — Brannan and his Contract — Voyage of the Brooklyn —
Arrival at Honolulu and Yerba Buena— An Industrious People —
Dissensions — New Hope on the San Joaquin — Cliange of Plans and
a Disappointed Colony — Pioneers and Immigration of 1847-8 524



CHAPTER XXI.

MISSIONS— INDIAN AFFAIRS— COMMERCE.

1846-1848.

PAGE

Sale of Mission Estates — Act of the Assembly in April — Tlie Montes-
deoca Order— Pico's Sales from May to July — Purchasers and Terms
— The Tomel Order— Evidences of Fraud— Action of Flores' Govern-
ment — Decision of the Courts — Policy of Kearny and Mason, 1847-8
• — Ecclesiastical Affairs — Bishop and Friars — Vicars — Indian Affairs
^Sutter, Vallejo, and Hunter as Sub-Indian Agents — Local Items —
Commerce and Maritime Affairs — Meagre Data for 1846 — Statistics
— Mason's Conmiunications — Collectors — Removal of Burdens —
Free-trade— New Tariff from Washington — War Contributions —
Modifications by Masou and Shubrick — Gold-dust for Duties — U. S.
Revenue Laws Introduced with the Treaty— The First Steamer in
California Waters— List of Vessels, 1846-8 558

CHAPTER XXII.

THE RULE OF GOVERNOR MASOK.
1847-1848.

Mason's Proclamation and Reports— Fears of Revolt — Visits to the South
and North — Return of Jos^ Castro— The Canon Perdido at Santa
Barbara — Return of Pio Pico — His Claims for the Governorship —
Imprisonment and Release — Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo — Mason's
Proclamation — California in Congress, 1846-9 — Causes and Effects of
the War — Slavery in the Territories — Opposition to the Acquisition
of California — Debates on Territorial Government — Final Unsuccess-
ful Efforts— Military Rule- Rights of Conquerors— Views of Con-
gress and Administration — Policy of Sloat, Stockton, Fremont, and
Kearny— Mason's Theory and Practice— Items— Alcalde Nash at
Sonoma — Trial of Armijo — Barrus and Foxen — De Facto Govern-
ment after the Treaty ^582

CHAPTER XXIII.

LOCAL ANNALS— SAN DIEGO TO MONTEREY.

1846-1848.
San Diego Events — Fr(?mont, Stockton, and Kearny — Massacre at Paumat
— Mormons and New York Volunteers — Municipal Affairs — Ranchoa
—Revenue— San Diego Mission— San Luis Rev— Padre Zalvidea— San
Juan Capistrano — Los Angeles District — Index of Occurrences — Sub-
prefect and Alcaldes — Mormons, Dragoons, and Volunteers — Ranchos
— San Gabriel— Padre Est^uega— San Fernando Mission — Santa Bdr-
bara — Pueblo Government — Land Grants — Mission — Bishop Garcia
Diego — President Duran — San Buenaventura — Santa In^s — Purisima
— Monterey District — Summary — Town Affairs— San Cirlos— Saa
Luis Obispo — San Miguel— Murder of Reed Family— San Antonio —
San Juan Baiitista — Soledad— Santa Cruz and Branciforte 616



CHAPTER XXIV.

LOCAL ANXALS OF THE NORTH.

1846-1S4S.
Popnlation of California— San Francisco— Events — The Name Yerba
Buena — Descriptions and Statistics — Plan, and Notes on Buildings-
Municipal OtEcial List— Controversies of Alcalde and Council — Town
Lots — Survey, Streets, and Improvements — School and Church —
Newspapers — Military and Revenue — Ranchos and Ex-mission —
Annals of San Jos(5 — Local Occurrences — Indian Troubles — Muni-
cipal Affairs and Lands — The Contra Costa — Santa Clara — Mission
San Jos6 — Sonoma and the Northern Frontier^San Rafael^Bodega^
— Napa — Benicia— Original Correspondence of Semple and Larkin —
Stockton and New Hope— New Helvetia in 1846-7— Plan of Sau
Francisco — Early Buildings 643



Pioneer Register axd Index. 'R ' to 'Zurita' 687



HISTORY OF CALIFORNIA.



CHAPTER I.

OPERATIONS OF FREMONT AND GILLESPIE.
January-May, 1S46.

EXPLOKERS IN THE TOLARES— FREMONT AT NeW HELVETIA, YeRBA BuENA,

AND San Jose — Visit to Larkin and Castro at Monterey — Expla-
nations TO THE Prefect— Permission to Recruit his Men on the
Frontier — The Walker-Talbot-Kern Party — In Camp at Fisher's
Rancho— Fremont Breaks his Agreement— Insult to Alcalde
Pacheco — Over the Santa Cruz Mountains — In Camp at Alisal —
Ordered to Depart — Defiance— The Stars and Stripes on Gavilan
Peak— Larkin's Efforts — Castro's Military Preparations— Falsity
OF Current Versions — Fremont Runs Away — His Blunder — Proc-
lamations AND Reports— In the Sacramento Valley— Letter to
Clyman — To the Oregon Border — A Night Attack by Indians —
Back to Californla— Gillespie's Arrival and Instructions— Up the
River by Boat— Sutter's Warning to Castro.

The present volume is devoted to the annals of
1846-7, including also 1848 in all matters not directly
connected with the great event of that year, the dis-
covery of gold. The period is by far the most event-
ful in Californian history. The volume may be termed
a History of the Conquest. It includes, however,
besides developments pertaining to the change of flag
and Mexican war, the earlier operations of American
filibusters constituting what is known as the Bear
Flag revolt, and the later interregnum of military
rule. Here I record the last petty quarrels under
Mexican auspices of north and south, of the military
and civil authorities, of Castro and Pico. Here I



2 OPERATIOXS OF FEISMON'T AND GILLESPIE.

chronicle the foolish interference of Fremont and
his explorers, the diplomatic efforts of Larkin and
Stearns to secure a change of sovereignty by pacific
methods, the revolutionary blundei's of Ide and his
associate settlers, and the raising of the stars and
stripes by Sloat and Montgomery of the navy. Next
are presented the achievements of the California
battalion, Stockton's rule, the commodore's unwise
policy and energetic struggles to put down the result-
ing revolt, the final efforts of the Californians under
Flores and Andres Pico to shake off the foreign
yoke, the coming of Kearny and his dragoons across
the continent, their disaster at San Pascual, and the
closing campaigns of the war ending in the occupa-
tion of Los Angeles and the treaty of Cahuenga.
Then follow politico-military controversies of Stock-
ton, Kearny, and Fremont under the new regime,
reenforcements by land and sea for garrison service,
Cooke and his Mormon battalion, Tompkins, Sher-
man, Ord, and Halleck with the artillery company,
Stevenson and the New York volunteers, the peace-
ful rule of Mason as military governor, and news of
a national treaty making California a permanent pos-
session of the United States. In this volume are
given also institutional annals of 1846-8, a commer-
cial and maritime record, mission and ecclesiastical
affairs under new conditions, the immigration of three
years, with the tragic experiences of the Donner
party, and several chapters of local annals. Finally,
I here complete the alphabetical Pioneer Register
and Index of all who came to the country before
1849. All is brought down to the dawn of a new
era, that of gold and 'flush times,' to be treated in
the following volume.

At the beginning of 184G Fremont's exploring expe-
dition was encamped in the region now known as
Fresno and Kern counties. Frdmont with fifteen men
had entered California by the Truckee route, and had



WAITIXG FOR WALKER. 3

hastened from Sutter's Fort southward with fresli
suppUes for the relief of his companions, whom he
expected to find on Kings River. Meanwhile the
main body of about fifty, under Talbot, Kern, and
Walker, had entered the country by Owens River and
Walker Pass, and were waiting for the captain on
Kern River. The double error in locating the rendez-
vous has been already explained.^ At this time the



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