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THE WORKS



OF



HUBERT HOWE BANCROFT.



THE WORKS



OF



HUBERT HOWE BANCROFT.



VOLUME XIII.



HISTORY OF MEXICO.



VOL. A . 1824-1861.



OF THE

UNIVERSITY




SAN FRANCISCO :
A. L. BANCROFT & COMPANY, PUBLISHERS.

1885.

i^



ADDED
ORIGINAL TO BE
DETAINED



Entered according to Act of Congress in the Year 1885, by

HUBERT H. BANCROFT,

In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.



All Rights Reserved.



CONTENTS OF THIS VOLUME.



CHAPTEK I.

REPUBLICAN ORGANIZATION.

1823-1824.

PAGE

Demoralized Condition of the Army A Bad Precedent The New Gov
ernment Congressional Acts The Triumvirate Foreign Loans and
Financial Measures National Coat of Arms and Flag Fjedera list?
and Centralists Their Press Organs Political Troubles Honors to
Heroes of the Independence A Constituent Congress Installed
Acta Constitutiva Federal System Adopted Revolutions Loba-
to s Revolt Disturbances in Jalisco Victoria Elected President
The Constitution Organization of States and Territories Union of
Chiapas with Mexico The Federal District . 1

CHAPTER II.

CONSTITUTIONAL GOVERNMENT.

1824-1829.

Authorities Inaugurated President Victoria Injustice to his Character
Political Situation Amnesty for Political Offenders First Ordi
nary Congress Arizpe s Character and Public Career Germs of
Future Calamity Masonic Lodges ami Political Parties Poinsett
The Press Financial Troubles Disturbances in Vera Cruz Nove-
narios Plan of Montauo Bravo s Rebellion and its Suppression
Expatriation of Bravo and Others The Yorkinos Triumphant
Presidential Election Imparciales versus Guerrerists Santa Anna s
Rebellion Revolt of La Acordada The Parian Sacked Congres
sional Action Guerrero Made President End of Victoria s Rule
Hia Last Days and Death_ 27

CHAPTER III.

DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN EELATIONS.

1823-1829.

Recognition by Foreign Powers Negotiations with the Pope Treaties
with United States Poinsett s Public Career His Notes on Mexico
Diplomatic Relations with Great Britain and France Treaties



vi CONTENTS.

PAGE

with European Nations Hostility to Spaniards Royal Plan of
Reconquest Arenas Plot Executions and Banishments Expul
sion of Spaniards Siege of San Juan de Ulua The Spanish Com
mander Capitulates Departure of the Spanish Garrison Commo
dore Porter and Naval Operations The War Brig Guerrero
Surrender of Ships on the Pacific 46

CHAPTER IV.

FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TROUBLES.

1828-1831.

Spanish Scheme of Reconquest Barradas Invasion His Defeat and Sur
render Rejoicing in Mexico Monarchical Intrigues Vicente Guer
rero Second President His Administration Abolition of Slavery
Extraordinary Powers Party Animosity Recall of Poinsett
Charges against Ministers History of Yucatan Secession of Yuca
tan Revolution of Jalapa -Its EjOEJeeis i Mexico Provisional Gov
ernment Bustamante as the Executive Guerrero Deposed War
in the South Treachery against Guerrero His Capture, Triai,
and Execution Ministers Impeachment Honors to Guerrero s
Memory 71

CHAPTEK Y.

CONSERVATIVE RULE.

1830-1832.

Despotic Measures Codallos Revolution Yorkino Opposition Polit-
cal Blunders Institutions Prostituted Inclan s Affair Impending
Changes Santa Anna s Pronunciamiento His Defeat at Tolome
Siege of Vera Cruz Its Failure Revolutions in Tamaulipas
Teran s Suicide Santa Anna s Reformed Plan It is Seconded
Elsewhere Battle of Los Carmelos Fall of San Luis Potosi Its
Effects in Mexico Acting President Muzquiz Bustamante s Vic
tory in Guanajuato Santa Anna s Success Bustamante s Defeats
in Puebla Armistice Plans of Pacification The Revolution Tri
umphant 102

CHAPTER VI.

THE, FEDERAL SYSTEM AND ITS OVERTHROW.

1832-1836.

Administration of Gomez Pedraza His Subsequent Career, Character,
and Death Biography of Gomez Farias His_ Political _Principles
r,:id Administration Disturbances in Michoacan Santa Anna s

Paradoxical Action Arista s Revolt and its Suppression First

Movements in Favor of Centralism Political Defeat of Farias



CONTENTS. vii

PAGE
Piiograp|iy anJ Q| i n rn pf or Tin wn f n 1 1 of the_ Fed

eral System ^anta Anna Dictator Political, Parties and. .CfiHtsajka.

The New Congress. Centralism. luajiguratejlr The New Constitu
tional Law Dissatisfaction Attempts to Reestablish Federalism. 125

CHAPTER VII.

TEXAN INDEPENDENCE; MEXICO S CENTRALIZED GOVERNMENT.

1819-1841.
Boundary Line American Aims Long s Invasions Colonization Plans

Colonies Formed by Austin and Others Mexico s Liberal Policy
Coahuila and Texas Stephen F. Austin s Imprisonment Texas
Separates from Coahuila Revolutionary Acts Mexican Troops
Assailed San Antonio de Bejar Taken Course of the United States

Neutrality Violated American Troops Invade Texas Declaration
of Independence by Texas Texan Garrison at Alamo Massacred
Battle of San Jacinto, and its Results President Corro s Adminis
tration President Bustamante Spain Recognizes Mexican Nation-

Financial Distress Political Troubles ..................... 151



CHAPTER VIII.

THE PASTRY WAR.

1838-1839.

Foreign Reclamations French Demands Ultimatum and Blockade
Federalist Agitation Admiral Baudin Appears on the Scene Con
ference at Jalapa The Mexican Gibraltar Bombardment and Fall
of San Juan de Ulua Mexico Declares War Expulsion of French
men Descent on Vera Cruz Santa Anna Poses as a Hero and
Martyr Critical Condition of the Government The Ministry of
Three Days Santa Anna Called to Assist Bustamante English
Mediation Arrangement with Baudin Disappointing Result of
the French Expedition ...................................... ... 18G



CHAPTER IX.

FEDERALIST AGITATION.

1838-1840.

Checked in the West, the Federalists Rise in the East Tampico Takes
the Lead The Movement Spreads from Tuxpaii to the Rio Grande
del Norte Dilatory Action of Bustamante Santa Anna Figures as
Reformer His Energy Saves the Government Defeat and Execu
tion of Mejia Tampico and Tuxpan Capitulate Bustamante Re
sumes the Presidency Yucatan Secedes from the Republic Revo
lution in Tabasco Urrea s Pronunciamiento at Mexico Bombard
ment of the Palace Failure of the Outbreak A Monarchical Breeze. 206



viii CONTENTS.

CHAPTEE X.

BASES OF TACUBAYA.

1841-1842.

PAGE

More Taxes and Less Reform Pared es Pronounces at Guadalajara Va
lencia Seconds Him at the Capital Santa Anna Steps Forward to
Assume the Leadership Bases of Tacubaya Federalist Counter-
proriimciamiento by the President Mexico again Besieged Busta-
mante Resigns His Character^ and Rule Santa Anna Vaults into
the Chair Small Concessions to Cover Large Encroachments and
Abuses Yucatan Defeats the Centralist Troops and Obtains Practi
cal Autonomy Sentmanat s Invasion of Tabasco Movements along
the Texan Border Claims of the United States and Growing Bitter
ness 226

CHAPTER XI.

INTRIGUES, MISRULE, AND OVERTHROW OF SANTA ANNA.

1842-1845.

A Prospective Liberal Constitution Santa Anna Withdraws behind the
Arras Intrigues against Congress The Chambers Forcibly Dis
solved Installation of the Junta do Notables New Organic Bases
Further Political Juggling A Dummy President Reelection of
Santa Anna His Ridiculous Vanity and Peculiar Mode of Life Ad
ministrative Corruption and Abuse Paredes again Pronounces at
Guadalajara Santa Anna Promptly Takes the Field The Hall of
Congress Closed The Capital Joins the Spreading Movement
Herrera Proclaimed President Bluster and Vacillation of Santa
Anna His Flight, Capture, Impeachment, and Exile Efforts at
Reform Hampered by Factions 252

CHAPTER XII.

POLITICAL COMMOTIONS.

1845-1847.

Jos6 Joaquin de Herrera as Constitutional President Opposition to his
Policy on the Texan Question Preparations for War Archbishop
Posada s Course Plan of San Luis Potosi Herrera Deposed Pare
des as Provisional President Dissatisfaction Revolution at Guada
lajara Paredes Overthrown Santa Anna Recalled He is Elected
President Gomez Farias as Vice-president Assumes the Executive
Office Santa Anna Supersedes Him 2S8

CHAPTER XIII.

CAUSES OF WAR WITH THE UNITED STATES.

183G-184G.

Coercive Diplomacy Claims against Mexico Their Remarkable In
crease Demands for Adjustment American Hostility and Mexi-



CONTENTS. ix

PAGE

can Forbearance Diplomatic Relations Suspended and Renewed
Arbitration and its Results More American Claims and Mexican
Counter-claims Unfairness of the United States Government
Recognition of Texan Independence Foreign Intrigues Annex
ation of Texas Means of Accomplishment A Casus Belli Rup
ture of Relations Pressure on Mexico Warlike Demonstrations
Slidell s Unsuccessful Mission 307

CHAPTER XIV.

CAMPAIGN ON THE RIO GRANDE.

March-May, 1846.

Taylor Moves to Point Isabel Advance against Matamoros Erection
of Fort Texas Arista Appointed General-in-Chief The Mexicans
Assume the Offensive Capture of Captain Thornton s Command
Taylor Retires to Point Isabel Bombardment of Fort Texas The
Battle of Palo Alto Arista Retreats to Resaca de la Palma De
scription of the Field The Battle Defeat of the Mexicans The
Garrison at Fort Texas Death of Major Brown Arista s Retreat to
Linares Taylor Occupies Matamoros 346

CHAPTER XV.

CAPTURE OF MONTEREY.

May-September, 1846.

The United States Declares War Scott and the Government at Va
riance Call for Volunteers Games Unadvised Action The Vol
unteer Question Want of a War Plan March to Monterey Prep
arations of the Mexicans Ampudia Appointed Commander-in-Chief
Description of Monterey The Siege Capture of Fort Teneria
Hard Fighting Worth s Operations Ampudia Capitulates Mon
terey Evacuated Dissatisfaction in tliq United States 368

CHAPTER XVI.

OPERATIONS IN THE NORTH BUENA VISTA.

July, 1846-March, 1847.

Expeditions against New Mexico and California Doniphan s March to
Chihuahua Battle of Sacramento Operations of the Gulf Squadron
Taylor s Plans He Advances to Saltillo Tampico Evacuated by
the Mexicans Taylor Occupies Victoria and Abandons It Scott
Takes Command Withdrawal of American Troops Mexican Prepa
rations Santa Anna at San Luis Potosi His March to Agua Nueva
Taylor Takes up a Position at La Angostura Description of the
Pass Dispositions of the Two Armies Battle of Buena Vista The
Final Charge Repulsed Santa Anna Retreats 403



x CONTENTS.

CHAPTEE XVII.

SCOTT S MARCH TO PUEBLA.

February-July, 1847.

PAGE

Taylor Returns to Monterey Preparations against Vera Cruz Landing
of United States Forces Apathy of the Mexican Government
Fortifications of Vera Cruz Siege and Capitulation Respective
Losses Operations of the Gulf Fleet Santa Anna s Preparations-
He Takes up a Position at Cerro Gordo Scott Advances into the
Interior Battle of Cerro Gordo The Height Carried Scott Enters
Jalapa The Castle of Perote Evacuated Worth Proceeds to Puebla
Trist Appointed Commissioner to Mexico His Disagreement with
Scott Attempts at Negotiation with Santa Anna 437

CHAPTEE XVIII.

INVASION OF THE VALLEY OF MEXICO.

August, 1847.

Scott Advances Mustering of the Mexicans Defences of the Capital
The Chalco Route A Flank Movement Valencia s Insubordination
His Ambitious Designs The Battle of Padierna Begins Santa
Anna s Inaction The Morning Surprise Effect of Valencia s Defeat
Bravo Outflanked Fortifications of Churubusco Antiquated
Tactics Cannonading the Convent Critical Position of Shields
The Tete de Pont Gallantry of Rincon and Anaya Santa Anna
.Retreats within the Gates Peril of the City 468

CHAPTEE XIX.

FALL OF THE CAPITAL.

August-September, 1847.

Panic at Mexico Scott is Lured into an Armistice Delusive Peace Ne
gotiations Patriotic Sentiments Santa Anna Manoeuvring to Gain
Time Mutual Recriminations Molino del Key Capture and Re
capture of the Battery Some Mexican Heroes A Barren Triumph
Inner Defences of the Capital- The Hill Fortress of Chapultepec
Bombardment and Storming of the Castle Worth Carries the Gate
of San Cosme Quitman s Operations against Belen Santa Anna
Evacuates the City Entry of Scott A Patriotic Uprising 489

CHAPTEE XX.

END- OF THE UNITED STATES WAR.

1847-1848.

Santa Anna s Administration Anaya s First Term Federal Constitu
tion Restored State of Guerrero Santa Anna Resigns President
Pena aad his Efforts for Peace Invader s Rule and Operations



CONTENTS. xi

PAGE

Santa Anna Deprived of Command Anaya again President Pena
Succeeds Peace Policy Continued Internal Disturbances War of
Races in Yucaian Treaty with the United States, whose Forces
Evacuate Mexico Gains and Losses Evils of the War Paredes
Revolution End of Pena s Administration 524



CHAPTER XXI.

REORGANIZATION UNDER HERRERA.
1849.

Obstacles to Reform Weakness of the Government Party Agitation
Opposed by Popular Sentiment Arrangement with Foreign Credi
tors Consolidation of the Interior Debt Effort to Reduce Expenses
Smuggling and Other Inroads on the Revenue Involved Finances
A Succession of Ministerial Changes Military Corruption The
Service in Disrepute Its Reconstruction New Armament Reduc
tion of Force The Navy Militia System Efforts at Colonization
Military Colonies on the Frontier, and their Value 557



CHAPTER XXII.

WAR OF RACES.

1849-1851.

Race Feeling Condition of the Indian Population Hostilities in the
Sierra Gorda A Projected Northern Republic Border Raids
Scalp-hunting The War in Yucatan Attitude of British Settlers
in Belize The Bacalar Expedition Selling Prisoners into Foreign
Slavery Dissensions among the Rebels Inefficient Campaign Plans
of Micheltorena and Vega Revolutionary Movements in the South
ern States Agitation jor Religious Tolerance. Presidential Elec
tion Obstacles to Reform Charajjtej* .and Services of Herrera 576



CHAPTER XXIII.

ARISTA S ADMINISTRATION.

1851-1852.

A Reformed ^urncoat False Economy A National Finance Council
"^"Clamoring Creditors Cabinet Changes Ramirez as Prime Minis
ter Inaction of the Chambers Carbajal Invades the North-east
ern Provinces The Avalos Tariff Indian Raids Severity toward
Journalists and Party Leaders Blancarte Starts the Revolution
Plan of Guadalajara Uraga Manoeuvring Attitude of Congress
Growth of the Hostile Party Vera Cruz Turns the Scale Resig
nation of Arista His Character and Death. . , , . 596



xii CONTEXTS.

CHAPTEE XXIV.

HIS MOST SERENE HIGHNESS, THE DICTATOR.

1853.

PAGE

Ceballos is Confirmed as President Inefficient Measures Suppression
of the Congress Plan of Arroyozarco Resignation of Ceballos
Lombardini Succeeds Nepotism and Corruption Electoral Cam
paign Victory of Santanists and Conservatives Return of Santa
Anna His Ministry and Policy A Centralized Administration
Reconstruction of the Army and its Object Favoritism, Espionage,
and Persecution A Few Redeeming " Efforts D^ath of Alaman,
the Great Conservative Leader Pomp and Arrogance oF the "Dicta
tor Orders "and Tltles^-^isions of Empire 615

CHAPTER XXV.

OVERTHROW OF DICTATORIAL RULE.

1854-1855.

Santa Anna s Despotism and its Consequences Plan of Ayutla Juan
Alvarez and Ignacio Comonfort Santa Anna s Campaign in Guer
rero TKstuFbed" CorictrTToh of Mexico Sale of National Territory
A Farcical Plebiscit Santa Anna Confirmed in Power His Attempt
at a Change of Policy Conservative Opposition End of Santa
Anna s Public Career Counter-revolution in Mexico President
Carrera His Conciliatory Efforts Reactionary Intrigues Liberal
Triumph Alvarez Chosen Provisional President 646

CHAPTER XXVI.

LIBERAL INSTITUTIONS RESTORED.

1855-1856.

President Alvarez Administration Reforms Initiated Ley Juarez
Differences in the Liberal Party Alvarez Retires Ignacio Comon
fort, the Substitute President His Conciliatory Policy Difficulties
with the Clergy and Military Seditious Movements Puebla Cam
paign Decrees against the Clergy Congressional Work Raousset s
and Walker s Invasions Resignation of Alvarez Dissensions be
tween the Executive and Congress Estatuto Organico Adoption
of Liberal Principles 666

CHAPTER XXVII.

CONSTITUTION AND REFORMS.

1856-1857.

Comonfort Suspected Archbishop La Garza s Course Ley Lerdo Co-
monfort and Congress Reconciled Constitution of 1857 Rebellious
Clergy Second Puebla Campaign More Seditious Acts Negotia-



CONTENTS. xiii



PAGE

tions with the Pope Fail More Suspicions against Comonfort Po
litical Confusion Laws Affecting the Clergy Conservative Manoeu
vres Liberal Demands Comonfort s Vacillation 690

CHAPTEK XXVIII.

DOWNFALL OF LIBERAL INSTITUTIONS.

1857-1858.

Conservative Intrigues Talk of a Coup d Etat Spanish Complications
Comonfort s Vacillating Course Hostility of the Clergy Continues
Congress Installed Comonfort Avows Liberalism His Election
as Constitutional President Promises Made and Violated Plan of
Tacubaya Comonfort Becomes its Chief Action of Congress Ar
rest of Juarez and Others Reactionists Victorious Comonfort s
Overthrow Civil War in Full Blast Zuloaga, Reactionary Presi
dentJuarez, Constitutional President His Narrow Escape from
Capture He Establishes his Government in Vera Cruz 715

CHAPTEE XXIX.

STRIFE FOR SUPREMACY.

1858-1859.

President Juarez His Government at Vera Cruz War Operations Zu-
loaga s Difficulties His Change of Policy Echeagaray s Pronuncia-
miento and Plan Robles Pezuela s Reformed Plan Zuloaga Set
Aside Miramon Comes to the Front Zuloaga Reinstated llobles
Pezuela Retires Zuloaga Names a Substitute Miramon as Presi
dent His Campaign in Vera Cruz a Failure Battle of Tacubaya
Constitutionalists Defeat A Day of Horrors and its Evil Conse
quences 738

CHAPTEK XXX.

TRIUMPH OF THE CONSTITUTIONALISTS.

1859-1861.

United States Recognition of Juarez Miramon s Action Confiscation
of Church Property Interior Campaign of 1859 Treaties Mira
mon s Second Expedition to Vera Cruz United States Armed In
tervention Interior Campaign of 1860 Miramon s Return to Mex
ico and Resignation President Pa von Miramon s Title to the
Presidency Approach of Constitutionalists Miramon s Defeat and
Escape Juarez Triumphant Entry into Mexico 767




HISTORY OF MEXICO.



CHAPTEB I.

REPUBLICAN ORGANIZATION.
1823-1824.

DEMORALIZED CONDITION OF THE ARMY A BAD PRECEDENT THE NEW
GOVERNMENT CONGRESSIONAL ACTS THE TRIUMVIRATE FOREIGN
LOANS AND FINANCIAL MEASURES NATIONAL COAT OF ARMS AND
FLAG FEDERALISTS AND CENTRALISTS THEIR PRESS ORGANS POLITI
CAL TROUBLES HONORS TO HEROES OF THE INDEPENDENCE A CON
STITUENT CONGRESS INSTALLED ACTA CONSTITUTIVA FEDERAL SYSTEM
ADOPTED REVOLUTIONS LOBATO S REVOLT DISTURBANCES IN JALIS
COVICTORIA ELECTED PRESIDENT THE CONSTITUTION ORGANIZA
TION OF STATES AND TERRITORIES UNION OF CHIAPAS WITH MEXICO
THE FEDERAL DISTRICT.

LIBERTY, equality, fraternity: these words fall pleas
antly on ears accustomed for three centuries only to
the grinding of the chains of tyranny. But even now
all is not sunshine; and what light there is dazzles
rather than cheers. Many years must yet elapse be
fore the full benefits of the long and bloody struggle
for independence will be fully felt. But the more im
mediate infelicities, whence do they arise?

After this manner. There is set in motion among
men caring more for themselves than for their coun
try the wheel of retribution, which scarcely stops
turning for half a century. Somewhat as Iturbido
had dethroned the viceroy Apodaca, ,Santa A.nna and
others had dethroned Iturbide. Made governor in
Vera Cruz, Santa Anna revolted, and detached that

VOL. V. 1



2 REPUBLICAN ORGANIZATION,

place from the emperor s control. Echavarri, the
trusted friend, proclaimed the plan of Casa Mata at
the head of the troops given him to put down Santa
Anna. Other military officers enjoying Iturbide s
confidence were equally perfidious. But the chief
trouble was the faithlessness of his army. Iturbide
had himself set a bad example to his troops. It was
a pernicious lesson to teach soldiers; and unfortu
nately for Mexico s future, it was too well learned.
Thenceforth all pretensions, whether personal or other
wise, found a ready support in that large and demoral
ized element of the army which had no respect for
public opinion, personal rights, or any interest in the
national welfare, and was always willing to fight for
those who paid best, either in money or some species
of personal advancement.

The national congress, as heretofore narrated, hav
ing been reinstalled on the 29th of March, 1823, 1
decreed on the 31st the cessation of the powers con
ferred on the executive created on the 19th of May,
1822, appointing in its place a triumvirate, consisting
of generals Nicolas Bravo, Guadalupe Victoria, and
Pedro Celestino Negrete. This selection of military
men exclusively established a bad precedent. The
next day Mariano Michelena and Miguel Domin-
guez were chosen substitutes to discharge the duties
of the regular triumviri in the event of absence, or in
ability to act from death or any other cause. 2

The executive authority, now held by Bravo, Ne
grete, and Michelena in Victoria s absence, at once
entered upon its duties. One of its first acts was the
construction of a cabinet: Lucas Alaman, minister of
foreign and interior relations; Pablo de la Llave, of

1 Bustamante, Cuad. Hist., MS., viii. 135-51; Alaman, Hist. Mej., v. 744-6,
759-60, 7GG-7; Gaz. de Mex., i., 1823, 171-4; Dlspos. Var., iii. 122 ; Mex. Col.
Dec. Sob. Cony. Mex., 92-3.

2 Mex. Col Leyes, 6rd. y Dec., ii. 89-91, 118; Mex. Col. Dec. Sob. Cony.
Mex., 93-4; Bustamante, Hist. Iturbide, 140-50, 158; Id., Cuad. Hist., MS..
viii. 1G3-4; Ward s Mex., i. 281.



MILITARY TRIUMVIRATE. 3

justice and ecclesiastical affairs ; Francisco de Arrillaga,
of the treasury; and Jose Ignacio Garcia Illueca, of
war and the navy; but this last department, on the
death of the incumbent, July 12, 1823, was given to
Brigadier Jose Joaquin de Herrera. 3

The whole system of administration was soon
changed: the capitanias generales instituted by Itur-
bide were reduced to mere comandancias in each
province. 4 The congress and government devoted
their energies to repair the evils inflicted on the coun
try during the last days of the empire. Political
prisoners were liberated; the appointments for mem
bers of a supreme court were made null; 5 the council
of state was suppressed. Every mark or badge of the
late empire was done away with, it being taken for
granted that the future form of government would
be republican. The issue of paper money was discon
tinued, 6 and other important commercial and financial
measures were enacted. To provide resources for the
current expenses and for other urgent obligations was
a matter of paramount necessity. 7 Orders were ac
cordingly issued for the immediate sale at lower than
regular rates of all tobacco and cigars in the govern-

3 The four portfolios had been for a time in charge of Illueca; that of rela
tions to the 15th of April; that of the treasury till the 30th of April; and that
of justice till the 6th of June. Mex. Mem. Hacienda, 1870, 1027; Alaman,
Apuntcs Biog., 19, 21-2; Ramirez y Sesma, Col. Dec., 307; Bustamante, Hist.
Ittirblde, 150.

4 That of Mexico was left in charge of the Marque s de Vivanco, detached
from the civil government; Echdvarri went back to that of Puebla; Victoria
retained that of Vera Cruz, but having gone to Jalapa together with the Span
ish commissioners, left the command with Colonel Eulogio de Villa Urrutia;
Anastasio Bustamante resigned his position in the provincias internas, the
eastern portion of which was again detached from the western, and its com
mand given to Brigadier Felipe de la Garza. Bustamante became comandaute
general of Guadalajara, his native place. Alaman, Hist. Mej., v. 760.

5 Mex. Col. Leyes, (Jrd. y Dec., ii. 115; Mex. Col. Dec. Sob. Cong. Mex.,
95, 134, 147-8.

6 This measure was decreed by the junta instituyente at the latter part
of 1822. It was ordered that notes to the amount of $4,000,000 should be
manufactured. From Jan. 1, 182,., one third of all public salaries was to be
paid in this money, which was also made a legal tender, in the same propor
tion, in all commercial and retail transactions for amounts over three dollars.
This currency was, ho wever, received with disfavor. Alaman, Hist. Mej., v.
682-3.

~ On the day the provisional government was installed there were only $42
in the treasury. Alaman, Hist. J/e/., v. 811.



4 REPUBLICAN ORGANIZATION.

ment warehouses, and for the disposal of the tempo
ralities of the Jesuits, and of the property of the hos
pitallers and inquisition. Money was borrowed from
an English house, which was repaid later out of the
proceeds of a loan of $16,000,000 negotiated in Lon
don. The government likewise, as a matter of policy,
effected a second loan of an equal amount from the
house of Barclay and Company in England, believing
that the British government, for the protection of



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