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THE HISTORY OF THE COUNTY
OF MAYO




THH bukkh: i-:ffi()v, glixsk, county oaiavav.

II. S. Ckawiokh, fhoto



THE HISTORY

OF THE

COUNTY OF MAYO

TO THE CLOSE OF THE
SIXTEENTH CENTURY



BY



HUBERT THOMAS KNOX

M.R.I.A., F.R.S.A.I.

FORMERLY OF THE MADRAS CIVIL SERVICE




DUBLIN
HODGES, FIGGIS & CO., Ltd.

PUBLISHERS TO THE UNIVERSITY
1908



PREFACE.

In this first History of the County some errors must be
expected, but I trust that they will be found to be very few
as to matters of fact. Some opinions are new, for which
general acceptance cannot be expected at once, but it is my
hope that such readers as study the evidence for themselves
will agree with me, if not wholly, to a great extent.

The fulness of the parts dealing with the thirteenth and
early fourteenth centuries, and again of those dealing with
the latter half of the sixteenth century, as compared with the
part relating to the intervening two hundred years, is due to
the want of full English Records after the King ceased to
govern in Connaught.

Ecclesiastical affairs are passed over lightly, because they
have been dealt with already in my " Notes on the Dioceses
of Tuam and Killala and Achonry," published when I did not
expect to finish this history, for which they were prepared.

If the Genealogical Tables seem unnecessary in number,
and inclusive of names not wanted for this book, it is because
it is impossible to understand fully the alliances of clans and
tribes and their quarrels, external and internal, without a
knowledge of the family relationships in which they usually
originated. These tables are, generally, not accessible in print,
and they will be necessary to those who carry on the history
of the Mayo families into the next century.

My thanks are due to His Grace the Archbishop of



2060843



VI PREFACE.

Canterbury for leave to publish parts of the '■ Division of
Connaught and Thomond, 1574."

To the Librarian of Trinity College, Dublin, for leave to
use the translations of the " Historia et Genealogia Familire
de Burgo."

To the Council of the Royal Irish Academy for leave to
use extracts from " MacFirbis's Great Book of Genealogies."

To the Council of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of
Ireland for the loan of the blocks of the Maps in pp. 326,
328, 338.

To the Controller of His Majesty's Stationery Office for
leave to quote from the Irish Annals, the Calendars, and
other publications of that office.

To Mr. H. S. Crawford for the use of his photograph of
the Glinsk Effigy of William Burke.

To the representative of the late Rev. D. Murphy for
leave to quote from his " Life of Hugh Roe O'Donnell."

H. T. KNOX.

March 2, 1908.



ABBREVIATIONS.

A. C.= Annals of Clonmacnoise (Murphy's Edition). Volume of the

Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland.
A.I. = Annals of lunisfallen in O'Conor's " Rerum Hibernicarum Scrip-
tores Veteres."
A.T. = Annals of Tigernach in Revue Ccltiquc.
A.U. = Annals of Ulster. Rolls Series.

C. = Chief or king of tribe.
C.S. = Cbronicum Scotorum. Rolls Series.
D.F. = Annals of Duald MacFirbis in Miscellany of Irish Archajological

Society, vol. i.
D.I. = Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland, 1172-1307.
D.K. = Annual Report of the Deputy Keeper of the Public Records,

Ireland.
F.M. = Annals of the Four Masters (O'Donovan's Translation).
Hist, et Gen. = Historia et Genealogia Familite de Burgo. See Appendix.

H.F. = Tribes and Customs of Hy Fiachrach (O'Donovan's Translation).
K.C., K.I. = King of Connaught, King of Ireland.
L.C.=: Annals of Loch Ce. Rolls Series.
O.S.L.M.= Ordnance Survey Letters, County Mayo.

P.R.=Plea Rolls in the Public Record Office, Dublin.
R. S. A.I. = Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, including

its earlier titles.
S.P.I.E. = State Papers, Ireland, Queen Elizabeth. In the Public Record
Office, London. In the Calendar of State Papers, Ireland,
Henry VIII., &c. In a few cases the originals have been
used.
S.T.L. = Stokes's Edition of the Tripartite Life of St. Patrick. Rolls
Series.



CONTENTS.

CHAPTER I.

The Earliest Legends.



PAGE



Iberians — Celts or Gael — Tribes of earliest legends — " Invasions of Ire-
land " — Three kingdoms of the Olnegmacht — Queen Meave's period —
Clann Umoir — Attacottic revolution and Tuathal Techtmar — Clann
Morna and Conn Cedcatnach — Battle of Moj'lena — The Fianna —
Cormac MacArt and Lugni Firtri — Cairbre Liffeacliair and Clann
Morna ............. 1



CHAPTER II.

The Early Milesian Period.

Probable transformation of Olnegmacht clans into Milesians — Kingdom
of Irrusdomnonn and its constituent tribes — Other tribes of Mayo —
Those of rest of Connaught — Book of Rights 15

CHAPTER III.
The Fifth Century and Establishment of Christianity.

Brian and Fiachra — Family rivalry — Fiachra, Dathi, Duach Galach, and
St. Patrick — St. Patrick's early work — Amalgaid — St. Patrick's tour
in S. Mavo — Death of Amalgaid, and St. Patrick's visit to Tirawlev
— Ailill Molt— Battle of Segais '.24

CHAPTER IV.

From Accession of Eoghan Bel to a.d. 800.

Christian mission work in sixth century — Battle of Sligo — Quarrels of
Guaire and Muredach, and murder of St. Cellach-.-Ailill Inbanna — •
Decay of kingdom of Irrusdomnonn — Later events — Establishment
of great monasteries — Influence on architecture 31

CHAPTER V.

From a.d. 800 to the Anglo-Norman Invasion.

Invasions by Northmen — Partition between O'Dowda and O'Keewan —
Round Towers — Wars with Munster and Ulster — Rise of Torlogh
Mor — Sea fight near Inishowen — Relations of King of Connaught
with sub-kings — Ecclesiastical affairs ....... 38



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER VI.

Relations of the King of Conxaugiit with the King of
England in the Twelfth and Thikteenth Centuries.

I'AOE

Ruaidhri's settlement in 1175 — Quarrels with sons — Cathal Crobhderg's
settlements in 1201 and 1215 — Aedh's rebellion — Partition of Con-
naught in 1228 — Submission of Felim in 12;J7 — Rebellion of his son
Aedh — O'Conor's lordship reduced to three cantreds — Subsequent
relations 51



CHAPTER VII.
State of the Country from 1170 to 1237 59

CHAPTER VIII.

Events from 1170 to 1224.

Rebellion of Murrough O'Conor — Cathal Crobhderg invades Munster —
Castlehag — William de Burgo's invasions — He turns against Cathal —
Death — Notices of Mayo chieftains 62

CHAPTER IX.

From Accession of Aedh to the Submission of Felim
in 1237.

Rebellion against Aedh and invasion of Mayo, 1225 — Aedh's rebellion —
Invasion of 1226— Partition of Coimaught in 1228— Invasion of 1230
— Arrest of Felim — Release and attack on R. de Burgo — Invasion of
1235, and fighting in Clew Bay — O'Conors rise in 1237 — Peace and
colonisation ............ 72

CHAPTER X.

Ecclesiastical Affairs to the Sixteenth Century.

Effects of transfer of endowments and imposition of tithes — New style
of abbeys and parish churches — Appointment of bishops — Power
of King and Pope — Decay of cathedral and parish clergy — Parish
church architecture — Growth of monastic clergy and architecture —
List of monasteries — Course of Reformation ...... 90

CHAPTER XI.
Enfeoffment and Colonisation.

Organisation of Connaught lordship — Division of Mayo into fees — Early
barons' castles — Manors, tuaths, duns, and motes — Early manor
houses or castles — Manor of Lehinch — Market towns . . . .101



CONTENTS. XI



CHAPTER XII.

Changes of Appearance of Country.



PAGE



Duns, cahers, and raths — Dwelling-houses — Woods and water — Tillage
— Crannogs- — The great high forts — Roads — Ecclesiastical cashels
and towns — Round towers and stone churches — Anglo-Norman
buildings 109

CHAPTER XIII.

From the Colonisation to the Death of Earl Walter.

Incidents in 1246 — O'Conor raids and rising in Umall — Sheriff killed by
pirates — MacCostellos fight with O'Conors — Invasions by Aedh O'Conor
— War of Burkes and Geraldines — War with Aedh O'Conor — Defeat of
Earl Walter at Athanchip 113

CHAPTER XIV.

The Time of Earl Richard.

Rising and expulsion of Clan Murtough — Battle of Kilroe — Imprisonment
of the Earl by John FitzThomas — Settlement — Sir W. de Burgo —
Wars of Thomond — Bruce war and O'Conor war — Battle of Athenry . 120

CHAPTER XV.

From Death of Earl Richard to the Fall of the
King's Government in Connaught.

Walter de Burgo and the O'Conors — His rebellion and death — Murder of
Earl William — Sir Edmond and Edmond Albanagh and the O'Conors
quarrel — Murder of Sir Edmond — Consequences 130

CHAPTER XVI.

The De Burgo Family in Connaught and their Irish

Keighbours 137

CHAPTER XVII.

Establishment of the MacWilliamship 142



CHAPTER XVIII.

The First MacWilliams.

Edmond Albanagh — Fights with Clanmorris — O'Conor factions— Fights
with Berminghams — Sir Edmond's son invades Connaught — Rise of
Richard Og — Edmond and Clanricard— Subdues Clanricard — Appear-
ance of Gallowglasses — His son Thomas — Position as MacWilliam —
Wars with neighbours — Wars of the two O'Conors — Admits superiority
of Richard Og — Submits to King Richard — The De Exeters — Barretts
rise against him — General attack on Sligo O'Conors — Counties of Mayo
and Sligo take shape 146



XU CONTENTS.



CHAPTER XIX.

The MacWilliams, Soxs and Grandsons of Sir Thomas

BOURKE— 1401 TO 1503.

Outline of events in his sons' time — Walter — Various fighting — Defeat at
Ath Lighen — Peace in 1420 between the MacWilliams — At war in 1430
— Great famine — Edmond na Fesoige — Forces Upper MacWilliam to
submit — Famine and plague — Barrett quarrel — O'Kellys of Donamona
— Thomas Og — Richard — Period of the grandsons of Sir Thomas —
Richiird O'Cuairsci — Invades Galway with O'Donnoll — Battle of
Glanog — Allies quarrel over O'Conors of Sligo— Consequent warfare —
Theobald — The Bourkes quarrel — Battle of Ardnarea with O'Donnell
— The Bourkes and Barretts — P^'ace with O'Donnell — Ships sent to
Tirconnell — Lord Deputy sets up O'Conor Donn — Theobald puts him
down .............. 154



CHAPTER XX.

From 1503 to 1550.

General course of events — Edmond III. — Battle of Knockdoe — Murder of
John Bourke — Skirmishes with O'Donnell in Leyny and Tireragh —
Murder of Edmond — John I. — Meyler — Edmond IV — Connaught
marches against O'Donnell and retreats — O'Donnell invades Tirawley —
Takes Castlemore — John II. of the Termon — Uiick — O'Dowdas and
Ardnarea — Theobald II. — Barretts and Bourkes — Succession of
MacWilliams unknown — Revival of king's power .... 162



CHAPTER XXI.

From 1550 to 1568.

Fighting between Bourkes — John MacOliverus and Scots defeated in the
Curlews — David, MacWilliam — Bourkes and Scots defeated at Cloonee
— Richard III. visits the Lord Deputy — Settlement of disputes with
Lord Clanricard — Claims to Moyne Castle — Sidney comes to Galway . 170



CHAPTER XXII.

From the Formation of the County of Mayo to the
Death of Sir N. Malbie.

Government of Connaught formed — The county defined^The cess — Battle
of Shrule — Submission of Bourkes — Fear of changes — Sir John
MacOliverus — Rebellion — Fitton's operations, 1571 — MacWilliam
rebels and submits — " Division of Connaught" — Sidney proposes com-
position — His account of Mayo — Rebellion of Earl's sons — Grace
O'Malley — Richard an larainn's rising — Death of Sir John — Malbie
establishes Richard an larainn — Rising of Richard MacOliverus — He
becomes MacWilliam — Malbie's work in Connaught .... 175



CHAPTER XXIII.

The Composition for Cess and the Introduction of the

English Law 199



CONTENTS. XIU



CHAPTER XXIV.



From the Composition to the Return of Sir R. Bingham

IN 1588.



PAGE



The composition introduced — Death of Sir R. Boiirke — Castlehag rising-
Lord Deputy's intervention — Extinction of MacWilliamship and spread
of rebellion — Suppression — Execution of Edmond of Castlebar — In-
vasion by Scots — Battle of Ardnarea — Charges against Bingham and
acquittal — Remarks on composition — Composition for Costello —
Administration of law — English settlers 205



CHAPTER XXY.

From the Coming of the Spanish Armada to the Peace
OF 1589.

Spanish ships on this coast — Execution of Justin MacDonnell — Beginning
of rebellion — Weakness of Government — John Browne's commission —
Rebels kill him — Spread of rebellion — Demands of rebels — Battle of
Carras — Peace negotiations and their failure — Bingham's action
against rebels — Lord Deputy withdraws him and sues for peace —
Further action of rebels — Their submission 220



CHAPTER XXVI.

The Persecution of Sir R. Bingham and the Suppression
OF the Rebellion.

Unfair arrangements for trial of the Governor — Trial and acquittal — Martial
law — Fitz William's circuit — Taking up of cattle — Scots land in Erris —
Blind Abbot proclaimed MacWilliam — Parleying with rebels — Orders
from England for action — Further parleying — Bingham ordered to act
— The march through Mayo — The Blind Abbot loses his foot — Peace . 237



CHAPTER XXVII.
From 1590 to 1595.

Defeat of Scots in Erris — Attack on John Bingham — Some social conditions
— Attack on the sessions — Operations against rebels and terms of peace
—Arrest of Tibbot na Long — Grace O'Malley in England — Her petitions
and answers — Richard Bourke's raid from Ulster ..... 246



CHAPTER XXVIII.

The Breakdown of Government.

Murder of George Bingham and loss of Sligo Castle — Consequences —
O'Donnell's raid — Sickness of soldiers — Disastrous attempt to relieve
Belleek — Mayo abandoned to the rebels — Charges against Sir R. Bing-
ham — His flight to England — His government ..... 256



XIV CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XXIX.
O'Donnell's Domination' and the Final Peace.

PAGE

Rebels refuse to meet Sir W. Russell — O'Donnell makes a MacWilliam —
Sir J. Norris brings an army to Mayo, negotiates, and retires —
Clifford's operations — Terms of peace in Mayo — List of pledges —
Agreement with Tibbot na Long — Raids from Ulster — Conditions at
end of 1597 — Defeat of the Yt-llow Ford and rebellion in Connaught —
Crannog of Lahardane — Defeat of the Yellow Pass — Tibbot na Long's
fleet at Sligo — Terms between the two 'J'ibbots — Mayo rebels in Mun-
ster — Tibbot na Long bangs Dermot O'Conor — Plot for capture of
O'Donnell — Richard Bourke set up as MacWilliam and killed — Battle
of Kinsale establishes the queen's supremacy ..... 263

CHAPTER XXX.
The Barony of Kilmaine.

Early tribes — Norman settlement — Bourke division — MacSeonins — Mac-

Tibbots— MacMeylers— MacDonnells 280

CHAPTER XXXI.

The Barony of Carra.

Early tribes — Norman settlement — Stauntons — Branaghs — MacPhilpins —
Sauvages — Barrys — Bourke divisions — O'Kellys — MacDonnells —
Formation of barony 286



CHAPTER XXXII.

The Barony of Tirawley.

Early tribes — Mullaghorne— Hy Fiachrach clans — Their chiefs — Norman
settlement — Barrett, Carew, and Cusack claims — Barrett estates and
clans — Branaghs — MacAnallys — Cusacks — Carews — Lynotts — Mer-
ricks — De Exeters — Berminghams and Ardnarea — Feud of Barretts
and Lynotts — MacDonnells — Bourkes 289



CHAPTER XXXIII.

The Barony of Erris.

The chieftains — Clan Murtough — De Exeters — Butlers — Fleming —

Barretts — Bourkes 298



CHAPTER XXXIV.

The Barony of Burrishoole.

Formation of barony — Clan Murtough — Butlers — Bourke clans — Mac-
Donnells — Manor of Aghagower 300



CONTENTS. XV

CHAPTER XXXV.
The Barony of Murrisk.

PAGE

Aicill and Umall — Clann Maille — Exploits by sea — Obits — Cruachan of
Aigill and Belclare Castle — Lawless estate — MacGibbons — Crannog
of Moher Lake 303

CHAPTER XXXVI.

The Barony of Gallen.

Formation of barony — Division among De Exeters — Gaelic freeholders — De
Exeter family — Malbie's settlement between MacJordan and Mac-
William — Entries in Annals 307

CHAPTER XXXVII.

The Barony of Costello.

Early tribes — Early de Angulos — Norman partition — De Angulo lord of
Sliabh Lugha — South Costello — Theobald Dillon — Division under
MacCostellos — War of MacCostellos and MacDermots — Notices of
MacCostellos — Their genealogy 313

CHAPTER XXXVllI.

The Barony of Clanmorris.

Early tribes and divisions — Prendergasts — FitzfSimons, &c. — Independence

of MacWilliams 321

CHAPTER XXXIX.

The Barony of Ross.

Early tribes— The Joys 324



A P P E N D T E S.

I. The Early Legends 325

II. Agreement between the Earl of Ulster and Sir

John FitzThomas 341

III. Inquisitions taken after the Death of William,

Earl of Ulster 343

IV. The Divisions of Connaught, 1570, 1574 . . . .346

V HiSTORIA ET GeNEALOGIA FAMir.IyR DE BxTRGO . . .351

/,



XVI CONTENTS.

PAQE

VI. Indenture of Composition for Co. Mayo . . . 356

VII. Indenture of Composition for Iar Connaught . . 3t;9

VIII. Barrett Inquisitions ....... 870

TX. Genealogical and other Tables of (!aelic Families.

1. Revised view of early tribal relations, p. 373. 2. Domnonian kings of
Connaught and pedigrees, p. 374. 3. Succession of kings of Connaught
down to Eochy Moyvane, p. 374. 4. The Irish genealogical system,
p. 375. 5. Relationship of principal Milesian clans, p. 37(J. G. Relation-
ship of Hy Fiachrach clans, north and south, p. 378. 7. 'i"ho race of
Dathi, p. 37'.t. 8. The clans of Hy Briuin of Connaught, p. 381. 9. The
Hy Briuin Ai, p. 382. 10. The Sihnnrray clans, p. 383. 11. Genealogy
of Torlogh Mor O'Conor, p. 384. 12. Succession of kings of Connaught
of race of Eochy Moyvane, p. 387. 13. Ui Briuin of'Umhall, p. 388.
14. Clan Donnell Galloglass of Mayo and Tireragh, p. 390.

X. Genealogical and other Tables of English Families.

1. Succession of the Mac Williams, p. 395. 2. Relationships of the Lower
MacWilliams, p. Situ. 3. Relationships of the Upper MacWilliams,
p. 39t). 4. The chief de Burgo clans of Ireland, p. 397. 5. Descend-
ants of Sir Edmond Albanagh, Sliocht Walter, p. 399. 6. The Bourkes
of Castlebar, Carra, and Umall, p. 400. 7. Sliocht IJlick of Carra and
Umall, p. 402. 8. Sliocht Ricaird of Tirawley, p. 404. 9. Clan Seonin,
p. 406. 10. Clan Philij', p. 407. 11. Clan Gibbon of Umall, p. 408. 12.
Sliocht Ulick of Umall, p. 411. 13. Clan David and Clan Walter of
Corcamoe, p. 412. 14. The Burkes of Munster, p. 413. 15. The Joys
of Ross, p. 414. 16. The Barretts, p. 416. 17. Clan Jordan of Gallon
and Clan Stephen, p. 41«. 18. Clan Costello, p. 420.



INDEX 424



ILLUSTRATIONS.

THE BUEKE EFFIGY AT GLINSK . . . Frontispiece
PORTKAIT OF SIR R. BINGHAM . . . To face p. 199

MAPS.

CONNAUGHT WEST OF THE SHANNON IN

THE FIFTH CENTURY . . Between pp. 24 aiul 25

THE DE BURGO LORDSHIP OF CONNAUGHT

Between pp. 100 and 101

THE COUNTY OF MAYO At end



THE EARLY HISTORY OE THE
COUNTY OF MAYO.



CHAPTER I.

THE EARLIEST LEGENDS,

Mex who used the Paleolithic tools once inhabited these countries,
but it is supposed that a gap due to change of climate separated them
from those of the Neolithic, or Polished Stone, Period. The first
race identified in Ireland is the Iberian, known to have inhabited
nearly all France, the Bi-itish Isles, Spain, and the north-western
parts of Africa, now recognised in the Basques, the Guanches of the
Canary Isles, and the Berbers of Morocco. They are the foundation
upon which have settled strata of Celts, Scandinavians, and English,
and are held to be the element which supplies the people with black
hair, blue or grey eyes, sallow complexions, and fine features.

To them are attributed the dolmens or cromlechs ; the stone circles,
mounds, and cairns with small cists to the Celts. These forms pass
into each other and are combined, as each race was influenced by the
practices of the other and by change of fashion. The great chambered
cairns seem to be the greatest result of the combination of both styles,
and to have fallen out of use before the historic or even legendary
period, being supplanted by buiial in cists in small mounds and raths.
Cremation was in use when they were made. They are unsuitable for
disposal of unburnt bodies.

The earliest monuments show burnt remains, then a period of
burial, followed by burning and burial. The practices were to some
extent contemporaneous as new fashions came in. There is some
indication that burning was practised even up to the Christian
period, but it must have been rare, as the legends and annals do
not clearly refer to it.

Upon the Iberians came the Celts from the countries about the
Danube and Central Germany, occupying France, Northern Italy, a
great part of Spain, and the British Isles. These were the Gael or
Cruithne, who were long afterwards followed by the British Celts who

A



2 THE EARLY HISTORY OF THE COUNTY OF MAYO.

supplanted them in Northei'u France and nearly all England, but
made no settlements in Ireland, or only .small colonies which were
absorbed by the Gael.

The Gael of Ireland were a long-headed race. The monuments
testify to the settlement of round-headed men in Ireland, whom
Mr. Borlase identifies as the Celtse of Cajsar, who must have been
few in number, as they have not left marked traces in the population,
and are known only by their skulls in tumuli.^

The Iberian population had lost its identity before the period of
the oldest legends, which never mention such a race as extant in
Ireland. The ancient Irish historians identified the dark type with
the Firbolg, but this identification does not show the existence of
a separate race, because their legends show a common descent of
Firbolg, Tuatha De Danann, and Milesians.

The best opinion seems to be that the Celts came to these isles
about 1250 B.C., bringing bronze into Ireland, if the Iberians had not
already got it by trade, as is most probable. The second Celtic
invasion of Britain is assigned to the fourth century B.C. Iron had
come into use somewhat earlier.

The Dolmens are of almost any period before history. The cairns
of New Grange, Dowth, and Lough C'rew are believed by Mr. Coffey,
on evidence of ornament inscribed on stone, to range from about 800
to 300 B.C. Thus they would coincide with the coming of the Gael
in their beginning, and in their end with the introduction of new
fashions into Britain by the Belgic Celts.

No credit can be given to the ancient history of invasions of
Ireland by Parthalon, Nemed, Firbolg, Tuatha De Danann, and
Milesians. At mo.st these invasions represent vague legends of
early Celtic migration. Examination shows that they deal with
events which occurred when the Gael had been long established in
the land, and were broken vip into clans as in the historical period,
and that those events were of local rather than national importance.

The Fomorians were northern families who took their name from
an ancestor named Fomor. The name appears in the pedigree of the
Irian race of Ulster. They are the same as the Uladh of later legend.
The Tuatha De Danann were clans of Meath and Connaught, ancestors
of the Delbna^ Cianachta, Luighne, and Gailenga of later times. They
were acknowledged to be related to the Domnonians by descent from
Nemed, who descended from Partholan's brother.

The Domnonians are called Firbolg, a name of obscure meaning

which comprises Danonians, though it came to be restricted to the

Firdomnonn, Firgaileoin, and Firbolg. I cannot find that the last

named had any distinct existence, unless the general name stuck to a

^ Borlase, " Dolmens of Ireland," p. 1012.



THE EARLIEST LEGENDS. 3

clan of the Domnonians, being abandoned by others in favour of new
names, the usual course in subdivision of Irish royal families. The
only trace I find of it is in the Bolg Tuath of Badgna, D. MacFirbis
tells us that the Bolg Tuath, the Gabry of the Suck, the Cathry, and
the Cruithne of Croghan were descendants of Genann, son of Dela.^
The Firgaileoin are identified without doubt as Tuatha De Danann of
Meath and as Cruithne.

If I am right in recognising the Delbna, Luighne, and Gailenga as
Danonians, their distribution in Meath and Connaught, the traditional
descent of Danonians and Domnonians, and the evidence of the legends
combine to prove that they were two great clans of the Gael, who



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