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Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission.

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The New York Historical Society can fail to be impressed with his many-sided
character.

Studying in England and France, his inventions in steam navagation and torpedo
warfare attracted wide attention. Napoleon is said to have regretted, when a
captive on his way to St. Helena, that he had accepted the views of others as to the
practicability of Fulton's inventions.

The science of torpedo warfare dates from his inventions. In 1807, aided
financially by Chancellor Livingston, he had constructed in New York a vessel to
be propelled by side paddle wheels driven by steam. No detailed plans of the boat
remain and even its size is uncertain, but sufficient data exists to reconstruct the
ship in all essentials. He named the boat after Chancellor Livingston's country
seat, Clermont.

On August 17, 1807, there appeared in the newspaper an advertisement which
stated that the Clermont would sail on that day for Albany, On that date the
steamer started without a hitch, her uncovered paddle wheels splashing water all
over the decks. On her return, on the 21st, the populace doubted that the trip
had been made to Albanv and back.



53




OF THE achievements of Fulton, that which is known least about is probably
the fact that he 0])erated the second steam ferry across the Hudson River.
His boat ran from Cortlandt Street to Jersey City, and was started five years
after the Cknnonl had first steamed up the Hudson. John Stevens, of Hol^oken,
who navigated the Hudson with a steamboat a few days after Fulton, anticipated
him in the ferry business by starting a ferry in October of i8i r.

Fulton's account of his ferry is interesting. He says : " It crosses the river, which
is a mile and a half broad, when it is calm, in fifteen minutes; the average time is
twenty minutes. She has had in her at one time eight four-wheeler carriages,
twenty-nine horses and one hundred passengers, and could have taken three hun-
dred persons more."

The boat consisted of two hulls, each 80 feet long and of 10 feet beam, separated
by a space of 10 feet. The paddle wheel was in the space between the hulls, j)ro-
tected from ice and collision. She was arranged so that she could run both ways,
ha\ing a balanced rudder at either end.

Fulton also devised the ferry bridge landing almost precisel\- as it exists to-day.

Fulton's estimate of the cost of running a ferryboat for one year was very
moderate compared with the ex])ense of running a modern ferry. His estimate
for running one boat one year in i8ro was $4,160, while it costs $192,908 a year
on the average to run one of the municij)al ferryboats between Manhattan Island
and Staten Island. The develojjment of the ferry system is indicated by the
fact that in 1907 all the ferries of New York City carried 2 if), 932, 549 passengers.



.34




^i



t\FAYETTE had revisited the scenes of war and his beloved Washington in
1 784. Returning to his home he bore a noble part in the French Revolution,
yet was forced to flee to Austria, where he was imprisoned and only set free
by Napoleon after his victories.

After forty years, or in 1824, he conceived the wish to revisit the United States.
A vessel was placed at his disposal by the x'\merican Government, but he declined,
as he wished to come as a private citizen. He took passage with his son, George
Washington Lafayette, on a packet, and the ship anchored off Staten Island on
August 15, 1824.

Daniel D. Tompkins, Vice-President of the United States, who resided on Staten
Island, called and persuaded Lafayette to spend the night with him.

The next day a brilliant naval procession proceeded to Staten Island and dressed
ship in his honor. Lafayette was taken by surprise, but found the nation insisted on
his being their guest. A steamship took him aboard and with salvos of artillery he
landed at the Battery, now the Aquarium, then connected with the mainland by a
bridge. First reviewing the military he was escorted to the City Hall, where the
mayor made an address, assuring him he was the city's guest. He was then driven
to the City Hotel, at the corner of Broadway and Cedar Street, and feted in many
ways. In September, 1825, he returned home in the United States frigate Brandy-
wine, named after the first battle in which he fought for our nation's liberty and
in which he received his first wound. Lafayette scorned titles and always
wished to be known as "Washington's friend."




THE great canal which traverses the State of New York from the Hudson
River to Lake Erie is 363 miles long.

Who first conceived the grand idea of wedding the Great Lakes and
the beautiful river is an unsolved problem. Perhaps it was Washington, who gave
early attention to canal development. Perhaps it was Joel Barlow, the poet, who as
early as the year 1787 gave to the world his "Vision of Columbia," in which he saw :

Canals, long winding, ope a watery flight,
And distant streams, and seas and lakes unite.

In the spring of 181 7 the Legislature authorized the beginning of the construction
of the canal.

The middle section, extending from the Seneca River to Utica, including a
branch from Syracuse to Onondaga Lake, was navigable in 1819. The great work
was completed in 1825, and the first boat — The Seneca Chief — with Governor De
Witt Clinton on board, passed from Lake Erie to the Hudson late in the autumn
of that year. The original cost of the canal was over $9,000,000. It was a little
over eight years in building. The State is now spending over Sioo,ooo,ooo in
enlarging it.

The effect of the opening of the canal upon the prosperity of New York City was
very marked. Before the canal was built New York ranked second in size to Phila-
delphia. \\"\\\\ the increased commerce, which came largely as the result of the
building of the canal. New York became the metropolis.

For the building of the canal the State is indebted to De Witt Clinton more than
to anv other individual.



56




BEFORE the introduction into large cities of the supply of water by pipes,
and when steam had not yet been applied to portable engines, the old
hand fire engine occupied an important position.

Volunteer organizations of necessity, the fire companies "ran with the ma-
chine" when the alarm was sounded by the clanging of bells.

The "engine" consisted of a pump manned by men who exerted their power on
long hand levers projecting on each side of the machine and raised and lowered
alternately. As many as ten or fifteen could work on each lever arm at a time.
At first the water was pumped from a cistern on the machine, kept filled by buckets —
later from cisterns or from the city hydrants. By the modern high-pressure system
in lower New York fire engines may be dispensed with in that section.

The machine shown here is an exact reproduction of one actually used in New
York previous to the year 1850 and still carefully preserved by the veteran firemen
in their headquarters in Fifty-ninth Street.

Marching with this float, as an escort, in their old dress uniform, and manning
it as they did of old, are the veteran firemen, whose post of duty was that of danger
and not of show.

Often we hear of the chiefs of the department, who undoubtedly deserv'e praise,
but seldom is the individual private singled out for his share of praise. This
is as true to-day as of old. Should this display arouse enthusiasm for our "fire
laddies" of former days, to have a proper history written of their exploits, it will
have served its part.




WITH subways under the streets of New York, and tubes connecting the
business center with New Jersey and Brooklyn, it requires some imagi-
nation to carry one back to 1830, when the first rapid transit in the shape
of a coach or omnibus Hne started in New York, New York had then not extended
northward beyond Houston Street. In 1836 Kipp and Brown started their well
known line of busses, and from that date on until 1886, when Broadway was torn
up for a cable line, new lines and routes increased.

Street car lines threatened their existence, but, being drawn by horses and con-
fined to tracks, were often subject to delays which a stage could avoid. In winter
the cars were practically useless when heavy snow blocked the way.

Our fathers relate that winters were more severe in their youth — perhaps the
days when the omnibus was abandoned and the old four-horse sleigh substituted as
the common carrier may have unduly impressed them. On those days the snow
was not removed by the street-cleaning department. Wheeled vehicles were rare
after the first heavy snowfall, and the sleighing lasted longer.

Then it was that the familiar stage with its jolly driver, who gave change through
an opening behind him and whose attention was attracted by a strap which at one end
w'as attached to the door and at the other passed under his foot, would give up his
coach for the jolly sleigh shown on the float.

Sleighriding in New York City is now an almost unknown indulgence, partly
because less snow falls than in former years, partly because when it does fall it
is necessary to remove it from the streets at once to facilitate traffic.



58









^



GIUSEPPE Gx\RIBALDI, the Italian patriot and liberator, was born in
Nice, July 4, 1807. His father was a sailor, and the son adopted the
father's calling. At the age of twenty-three he commanded a brig. About
this time he became interested in the Italian national movement, which became
the absorbing passion of his life. In 1833 ^^ ^^^ Mazzini and other leaders of
Young Italy. Involved in the outbreak in Genoa in 1834 he was condemned to
death, fled to France, then went to sea. In 1848 he joined the uprising in northern
Italy against Austria and next year joined the revolutionary movement in Rome.
After the retreat of 1849 ^^ ^^^1 ^^'^'^^'' ^''is wife to America and resided in voluntary
exile at Clifton, Staten Island. At Clifton he was the guest of Antonio Meucci (the
inventor of the telephone, as the United States Supreme Court declared against
Mr. Bell) and helped him in manufacturing candles.

Garibaldi never spoke about Italy and her lamentable conditions, and when
questioned he always answered: "To free Italy it is necessary to act and not to
speak." From the United States he sailed twice for China and Peru. Some capi-
talists of Genoa having bought the ship Commonweallh in Baltimore, Garibaldi
took the command and returned to Europe. When at Clifton he was still suffer-
ing from a wound in the neck inflicted at the battle of San Antonio, Uruguay, when
fighting for the liberty of that South American colony.

On his return to Europe he went to London, where he met again the great agi-
tator, Mazzini, and took part in all the battles for the freedom and independence
of Italv.



59





THE water supply in New York, up to and after the Revolution, came princi-
pally from seven city pumps, which was not at all satisfactory or healthful.
In 1799 the Manhattan Company secured a charter for supplying the city
with water and "other business." Banking was their object in reality, but as a pre-
tense they erected a tank at the corner of Reade and Elm streets, which was supplied
with water from dug wells and from the Collect Pond. The water was distributed
in wooden pipes.

In December, 1835, occurred the big fire in New York, causing the enormous
loss, for those days, of over eighteen millions of dollars. A plan to draw water from
the Croton River had been proposed that year, but the cost seemed excessive. It
was put to vote and carried by a large majority.

A dam was built across the Croton River, making a basin holding five hundred
million gallons of water. To carry the water to the city an aqueduct was con-
structed, which was carried over the Harlem River on that beautiful "High Bridge"
in large iron pipes to the reservoir in (now) Central Park and a distributing reservoir
on Murray Hill, where the Public Library has been erected.

In 1842 the work was so far completed as to admit water to the city. On Octo-
ber 14 a monster demonstration and parade were made. In City Hall Park, where
the United States Postoffice now stands, was a huge fountain, playing over sixty
feet high. The procession passed here, marching down Broadway and turning up
Park Row, and was one of the largest ever known. At the banquet in the evening
no wines were offered, only Croton water.



60





SOON after the establishment of the French Repubhc in 1870, M, Laboulaye
suggested a memorial to the United States to show the relations of friendship
between the two nations ever since the beginning of the American Revolution
of 1776.

The expression of feeling was to take the form of a colossal figure of Liberty
Enlightening the World, to be placed in New York Harbor.

The sculptor selected was Frederic Auguste Bartholdi, who designed the statue
of Lafayette now in Union Square. On his visit in 1876, for the formal unveiling
of the Lafayette statue, he selected Bedloe's Island as the most appropriate site for
his statue of Liberty.

The design for the pedestal was that of Richard M. Hunt. Popular subscriptions
to erect the pedestal were called for, the gift having been made by voluntary offerings
of the French, and after a few setbacks the required sum was obtained.

On June 17, 1885, the bronze plates composing the figure arrived in New York
on the French transport Isere. National honors were rendered, and on October
28, 1886, when the figure was formally accepted, the French and American nations
vied with one another to give due honors.

The unveiling was seen by few, owing to the inclement weather, but the naval
parade, together with the military and civic functions, gave evidence of the deep
feeling that the Americans had for their friends of a sister republic.

The statue is now a government lighthouse, welcoming all foreigners to our
shores.



61





SYMBOLIC of New York, as the Puritan is of Boston and the Quaker of
Philadelphia, we now see Father Knickerbocker receiving the salutations
of those nations whose sons have come to these shores.

With benignant smile and ready welcome the Empire State is here represented
as welcoming all those foreign nationalities who in large numbers flock to our
shores and under our laws, recognizing that Liberty does not spell "License," are
prepared to become members and patriots of "the land of the free and the home
of the brave."

The name Knickerbocker is derived from Diedrich Knickerbocker, the alleged
author of "Knickerbocker's History of New York," written by Washington Irving.
He was represented as a quaint, pedantic old Dutch character, who mysteriously
disappeared, leaving behind him a manuscript which purported to give "A History
of New York from the Beginning of the World to the End of the Dutch Dynasty."
The book was published in 1809 after a very clever piece of advertising calculated
to excite the public curiosity, the advertisements calling attention to the disappear-
ance of Knickerbocker. The history was designed to satirize Dr. Samuel ^Mitchell's
pretentious guide book, but as a matter of fact was a satire on the Dutch and was
bitterly resented by them. As there was no standard, authentic history of New
York at the time, many people accepted Irving's whimsical production as a true
picture of the founders of New York. In the same innocently whimsical vein in
which Irving conceived his character, Father Knickerbocker has been popularly
adopted as the patron saint of New York.



62



Carniijal ani ^tetorical paraUeg Committcf

Mr. Herman Ridder, Chairman



Mr. Herbert Adams
Mr. B. Altman
Col. Andrew D. Baird
Mr. August Belmont
Hon. William Berri
Mr. George C. Boldt
Hon. David A. Boody
Mr. Alexander F. Bouvet
Hon. George C. Clausen
Hon. John Diemer
Hon. Reginald S. Doull
Hon. Frank L. Dowling
Hon. Robert F. Downing
Mr. George Ehret
Mr. William Temple Emmet
Mr. Frank L. Frugone
Mr. Henry Fuehrer
Hon. Patrick F. Flynn
Mr. Frank S. Gardner
Mr. T. Greidanus



Hon. John D. Gunther
Mr. .^.rthur H. Hearn
Mr. Theodore Henninger
Mr. Colgate Hoyt
Hon. Wm. P. Kenneally
Hon. Francis P. Kenney
Gen. Horatio C. King
Hon. Gustav Lindenthal
Mr. Frank D. Millet
Hon. John J. F. Mulcahy
Hon. Arthur H. Murphy
Mr. William C. Muschenheim
Hon. Percival E. Nagle
Hon. Lewis Ni.xon
Mr. Eben E. Olcott
Mr. William Church Osborn
Mr. Bayard L. Peck
Hon. Cornelius A. Pugsley
Mr. Louis C. Raegener
Hon. James W. Redmond



Hon. David S. Rend
Mr. Carl J. Roehr
Mr. Jacob H. Schiff
Hon. Joseph Schloss
Hon. George J. Schneider
Dr. Gustav Scholer
Mr. John Schroers
Mr. Oscar R. Seitz
Mr. Louis Seligsberg
Mr. William Sohmer
Mr. James Speyer
Hon. Louis Stern
Hon. Timothy P. Sullivan
Mr. Charles Swanson
Mr. C. Y. Turner
Mr. J. Leonard Varick
Hon. Jacob J. Velten
Mr. Edmund Wetmore
Mr. Charles B. Wolffram
Mr. Vincent W. Wovtisek



l|)t£ttancal Committee

Mr. S.amuel y. Hoffman, Chairman



Hon. Theodore M. Banta
Hon. John D. Crimmins
Mr. Winchester Fitch



Mr. William Homan
Mr. Clarence E. Leonard
Hon. Townsend Scudder



Hon. Theodore H. Silkman
Rev. Dr. Henry Van Dyke
Hon. John S. Wise



Captain of paffeantrj)

Mr. a. H. Stoddard



Mr. B. A. Wikstrom



T>t6isntvti of JFIoatB

Mr. M. K. Nash Mr. A. Sestac Mr. Joseph Damon



Utetorical pageant



The Historical Parade will be composed as follows, with bands of music interspersed:

Mounted and unmounted Police; Hon. George B. McClellan, Mayor of Xew York, and Mr. Herman
Ridder, Chairman of the Carnival and Historical Parade Committee; (jrand Marshal, Major-General
Charles F. Roe, and StatT; marching Irish, Italian, Bohemian, Hungarian and Polish Societies; Her-
alds, and the following floats and escorts:




I — Title Car of Empire St.\te

Escort, Norwegians.

2 — Title Car of Indian' Period

Characters, Iroquois Indians; escort, Redmen.

3 — Legend of Hiawatha

Characters Iroquois Indians; escort, Redmen.

4 — The Five Nations

Characters, Iroquois Indians; escort, Redmen.

5 — The First S.a.chem of the Iroquois

Characters, Iroquois Indians; escort, Redmen.

6 — Season of Blossoms

Characters, Iroquois Indians; (-ifoW. Tammany Society.

7 — Season of Fruits

Characters, Iroquois Indians; escort, Tammany .Society.

S — Season of Hunting

Characters, Iroquois Indians; escort, Tammany Society.

Q — Season of Snows

Characters, Iroquois Indians; escort. Tammany Society.

lo — Indian War Dance

Characters, Iroquois Indians; cjcor/, Tammany Society.



Marching Italian and Irish Societies.

II — Title Car of Dutch Period
12 — The Half Moon

Characters, United Holland Societies.

13 — Fate of Henry Hudson

Characters, United Holland Societies.

-First Vessel of Manhattan

Characters, United Holland Societies.

15 — Purchase of Manhattan

Characters, United Holland Societies

16 — Bronck's Treaty with the Indians

Characters, United Holland Societies; escort, United
Danish Societies.

-Reception of Peter Stuyvesant

Characters, United Holland Societies.

18 — Bowling on Bowling Green

Characters, United Holland Societies.

ig — Governor Leisler and the Huguenots

Characters and escort. Huguenot Society,

20 — The Dutch Doorway

Characters, United Holland Societies.

21 — New Amsterdam Becomes New York

Characters, United Holland Societies.

2 2 — St. Nicholas

Character. United Holland Societies; escort. Children
of the City History Club.



14



17



Marching Iri.sh Societies.

23 — Title Car of Colonial Period

Escort, English Societies.

24 — Schuyler's Indians .\t the Palace of
St. James

Characters and escort. Society of Colonial War?.
Marching Scotch Societies.

25 — Trial of John Peter Zenger (1734)

Characters and escort. United Scotch Societies.

26 — The Stamp Act

Characters and escort. Junior Order of American Me-
chanics.

27 — Colonial Home

Characters and escort. Patriotic Order of Sons of

America.
Marching Irish Societies.



28 — Governor Dongan and the Dongan
Charter

Characters and escort. United Irish Societies.

29 — Philipse Manor House

30 — Exploit of Marinus Willet

Characters and escort, Sons of the Revolution.

31 — Destruction of Statue of George III

Characters and escort. Sons of the .\merican Revolution.

32 — Publishing the State Constitution

Characters and escort, Sons of the American Revolution.

^;^ — Storming of Stony Point

Characters, Founders and Patriots of America; escort,
.■\merican Continentals.

34 — Capture of Andre

Characters, descendants of Paulding and \'an Wart,
two of the captors.

35 — Order of the Cincinnati

Characters and escort. Order of the Cincinnati.

36 — Hamilton's Har.-^ngue

Characters and escort, Columbia University Students.

37 — Old-Time Punishments

Characters and escort. Patriotic Order of Sons of .Amer-
ica.

38 — Washington Taking Oath of Office

Characters and escort, Washington Continental Guard.

39 — Washington's Coach

Characters and escort. Sons of the American Revolution.

40 — Nathan Hale

Characters and escort. College of the City of New York
Students.

41 — Washington's Farewell to His Officers

Characters and escort. Sons of the Revolution.

-Legend of Rip Van Winkle

Characters, City History Club.

43 — Legend of Sleepy Hollow



42



44 — Title Car: United St.^tes and Modern
Period

Marching Irish Societies.

45 — The Clermont

Characters and e.'tcort. United Irish Societies.



—Fulton's Ferry

Characters and escort. United Scotch Societies..



-Reception of Lafayette

Characters and escort. United French Societies.

-Erie Canal Boat

Characters and escort. United Irish Societies.
Marching Veteran Firemen.

49 — Old Fire Engine

Characters and e!;corl, Exempt and \'olunteer Fire-
men's Associations.

-Old Broadway Sleigh

Characters United Danish Societies.
Marching Italian Societies.

-Garibaldi's House, Staten Island

Characters and escort. United Italian Societies.
Marching Colored Men.

52 — Introduction of Croton Water

Escort, United Syrian Societies.

53 — St.a.tue of Liberty

Characters and e.'tcort. United French Societies.

54 — Father Knickerbocker Receiving



50



51



64



OFFICIAL PROGRAM

Consisting of 32 pages, size 9^ x 12, giving authentic informa-
tion regarding the purposes of the Celebration and a full program of
the events taking place each day. Containing, also, illustrations of
all the floats used in the Historical and Carnival Parades. Cover
in seven colors, illustrating the " Half Moon " and " Clermont."

Price, postpaid, 25 Cents per Copy

CARNIVAL PAGEANT SOUVENIR

Consisting of 64 pages, size 4^ x 6i/^, illustrating the fifty
floats of the Carnival Parade with a descriptive sketch of the subject
portrayed. Cover in seven colors.

Price, postpaid, 10 Cents per Copy



REDFIELD BROTHERS, Inc. 311 West 43d Street, New York

Sole Authorized Publishers of the above books
for The Hudson -Fulton Celebration Commission



i



LIBRARY OF CONGRESS




I III III I Hi III nil Hill I

014 109 717 9 C,







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Online LibraryHudson-Fulton Celebration CommissionHistorical pageant : Hudson-Fulton celebration, September 25 to October 9, 1909 → online text (page 5 of 5)