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THE



ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA



ELEVENTH EDITION



FIRST edition, published in three volumes, 17681771.

SECOND ten 17771784.

THIRD eighteen 17881797.

FOURTH twenty 1801 1810.

FIFTH twenty 18151817.

SIXTH twenty 1823 1824.

SEVENTH twenty-one 18301842.

EIGHTH twenty-two 18531860.

NINTH twenty-five 18751889.

TENTH ninth edition and eleven

supplementary volumes, 1902 1903.

ELEVENTH ,, published in twenty-nine volumes, 1910 1911.



COPYRIGHT

in all countries subscribing to the
Bern Convention

by
THE CHANCELLOR, MASTERS AND SCHOLARS

of the
UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE



All rights reserved



THE



ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA



DICTIONARY

OF

ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE AND GENERAL

INFORMATION



ELEVENTH EDITION



VOLUME XXV

SHUVALOV to SUBLIMINAL SELF




Cambridge, England:

at the University Press

New York, 35 West 3 2nd Street
1911



R



Copyright, in the United States of America, 1911,

by
The Encyclopaedia Britannica Company



INITIALS USED IN VOLUME XXV. TO IDENTIFY INDIVIDUAL

CONTRIBUTORS, 1 WITH THE HEADINGS OF THE

ARTICLES IN THIS VOLUME SO SIGNED.

A. B. G. REV. ALEXANDER BALLOCH GROSART, LL.D., D.D. /Stirling, William Alexander,

See the biographical article: GROSART, ALEXANDER BALI.OCH. \ Earl ol (in part).

A. C. McG. ARTHUR CUSHMAN McGnrjERT, M.A., PH.D., D.D. f Socrates (Church Historian)

Professor of Church History, Union Theological Seminary, New York. Author of I / . . ,\ .
History of Christianity in the Apostolic Age; &c. Editor of the Historic. Ecclesia] ^ *jT, f \

of Eusebius. I Sozomen (in part).

A. D. HENRY AUSTIN DOBSON, LL.D., D.C.L. / steele > Slr Richard (in part);

See the biographical article: DOBSON, H. AUSTIN. \Sterne, Laurence (in part).

A. De. ARTHUR DENDV, D.Sc., F.R.S., F.Z.S., F.L.S. f

Professor of Zoology in King's College, London. Zoological Secretary of the J Snonees

Linnean Society of London. Author of memoirs on systematic zoology, com- 1
parative anatomy, embryology, &c.

A. E. H. A. E. HOUGHTON.

Formerly Correspondent of the Standard in Spain. Author of Restoration of the! Spain: History (in part).
Bourbons in Spain.

A. E. S. ARTHUR EVERETT SHIPLEY, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S. J Sipunculoidea;

Master of Christ's College, Cambridge. Reader in Zoology, Cambridge University, "j Smith, William Robertson.
Joint-editor of the Cambridge Natural History.

A. F. E. ALLEN F. EVERETT. J Signal: Marine Signalling

Commander, R.N. Formerly Superintendent of the Signal School, H. M.S. "Victory, " 1 u n p ar f\
Portsmouth.

A. F. P. ALBERT FREDERICK POLLARD, M.A., F.R.HiST.Soc.

Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford. Professor of English History in the Uni- I Somerset, Edward Seymour,
versity of London. Assistant Editor of the Dictionary of National Biography, -| Dlllw of
1893-1901. Author of England under the Protector Somerset; Life of Thomas
Cranmer; &c. L

A. Go.* REV. ALEXANDER GORDON, M.A. / _ .

Lecturer in Church History in the University of Manchester. \ *' mus -

A. Ha. ADOLF HARNACK, D.PH. J So rat s

See the biographical article: HARNACK, ADOLF. ( tn

[ Sozomen (in part).

A. H. S. Rev. ARCHIBALD HENRY SAYCE, LITT.D., LL.D. f

See the biographical article: SAYCE, A. H. "[ Sippara.

A. J. G. REV. ALEXANDER JAMES GRIEVE, M.A., B.D. r

Professor of New Testament and Church History at the United Independent College, J Smyth John
Bradford. Sometime Registrar of Madras University and Member of Mysore 1
Educational Service. I

A. Ma. ALEXANDER MACALISTER, M.A., LL.D., M.D., D.Sc., F.R.S. f

Professor of Anatomy in the University of Cambridge, and Fellow of St John's J
College. Formerly Professor of Zoology in the University of Dublin. Author of 1
Text-Book of Human Anatomy; &c. I

A. Mel. ARTHUR MELLOR. f Silk: Spinning of "Silk

Of Messrs J. & T. Brocklehurst & Sons, Silk Manufacturers, Macclesfield. \ Waste."

A. M. C. AGNES MARY CLERKE. f Smyth, Charles Piazzi;

See the biographical article: CLERKE, AGNES M. \ Stone, Edward James.

A. M. F.* ARTHUR MOSTYN FIELD, F.R.S., F.R.A.S., F.R.G.S., F.R.MET.S. f

Vice-Admiral, R.N. Admiralty Representative on Port of London Authority. -I Bounding.
Hydrographer of the Royal Navy, 1904-1909. I

1 A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final volume.

V

1994



vi INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES

A. M.-Fa. ALFRED MOREL-FATIO. f .. ,

Professor of Romance Languages at the College de France, Paris. Member of the I Spam: Language (tn part),
Institute of France; Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Secretary of the Ecole 1 and Literature (in part).
des Charles, 1885-1906; &c. Author of L'Espagne au XVI' et au XVII' sticks. I

r Siskin; Skimmer; Skua;

A. N. ALFRED NEWTON, F.R.S. J Snake-bird; Snipe; Sparrow:

See the biographical article: NEWTON, ALFRED. I Spoonbill; Stilt; Stork.

A. P. H. ALFRED PETER HILLIER, M.D., M.P.

Author of South African Studies; The Commonweal; &c. Served in Kaffir War, c nll ti, Afripa-
1878-1879. Partner with Dr L. S. Jameson in medical practice in South Africa \ oo " 111 " !~
till 1896. Member of Reform Committee, Johannesburg, and Political Prisoner at \ ln port).
Pretoria, 1895-1896. M.P. for Hitchin division of Herts, 1910. L

A. S.* ARTHUR SCHUSTER, F.R.S. , PH.D., D.Sc. f

Professor of Physics at the University of Manchester, 1888-1907. President of ^he I
International Association of Seismology. Author of Theory of Optics and papers in | Spectroscopy.
the Proceedings and Transactions of the Royal Society. L

A. So. ALBRECHT SOCIN, PH.D. (1844-1899). [ .... T , D.-/./.-../

Formerly Professor of Semitic Philology in the Universities of Leipzig and Tubingen. i
Author of Arabische Grammatik ; &c. L SttUt.

A. S. E. ARTHUR STANLEY EDDINGTQN, M.A., M.Sc., F.R.A.S.

Chief Assistant at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich. Fellow of Trinity College, j Star.

Cambridge.
A. S. P.-P. ANDREW SETH PRINGLE-PATTISON, M.A., LL.D., D.C.L. f

Professor of Logic and Metaphysics in the University of Edinburgh. Gifford I

Lecturer in the University of Aberdeen, 1911. Fellow of the British Academy. |

Author of Man's Place in the Cosmos ; The Philosophical Radicals ; &c.

A. W. H.* ARTHUR WILLIAM HOLLAND. f oM mm ith Viscount

Formerly Scholar of St John's College, Oxford. Bacon Scholar of Gray's Inn, 1900. \ ol

A. W. P. ALFRED WALLIS PAUL, C.I.E.

Member of the Indian Civil Service, 1870-1895. Political Officer, Sikkim Expedition. J Sikkim.
British Commissioner under Anglo-Chinese Convention of 1890. Deputy Com- I
missioner of Darjeeling.

f Signal: Army Signalling (in

B. B, A. BRAMAN BLANCHARD ADAMS. 4 part), and Railway Signal-

Associate Editor of the Railway Age Gazette, New York. L /j w U n p ar f)

B. K.* BENJAMIN KIDD, D.C.L. f Sociology.

Author of Social Evolution ; Principles of Western Civilization ; &c. L

B. W. G. BENEDICT WILLIAM GINSBURG, M.A., LL.D. [

St Catharine's College, Cambridge. Barrister-at-Law of the Inner Temple. I Steamship Lines.
Formerly Editor of the Navy, and Secretary of the Royal Statistical Society. |
Author of Hints on the Legal Duties of Shipmasters ; &c. L

C. A. G. B. SIR CYPRIAN ARTHUR GEORGE BRIDGE, G.C.B. f c ._ .. ., . ,-,. .

Admiral R.N. Commander-in-Chief, China Station, 1901-1904. Director of J Sl 8 nal - Marine Signalling
Naval Intelligence, 1889-1894. Author of The Art of Naval Warfare; Sea-Power (in part),
and other Studies ; &c.

C. B.* CHARLES BEMONT, LITT.D. (Oxon.). / Sorel, Albert.

See the biographical article: BEMONT, CHARLES. \

C. D. W. HON. CARROLL DAVIDSON WRIGHT. f Strikes and Lock-outs:

See the biographical article: WRIGHT, HON. CARROLL DAVIDSON. I United, States.

C. F. A. CHARLES FRANCIS ATKINSON. f Spanish Succession, War of

Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Captain, 1st City of London (RoyaH /: j. nrl )
Fusiliers). Author of The Wilderness and Cold Harbor.

C. H.* SIR CHARLES HOLROYD, LITT. D. f strang, William.

See the biographical article: HOLROYD, SIR CHARLES. I

C. H. Ha. CARLTON HUNTLEY HAYES, A.M., PH.D. f Sixtus IV.;

Assistant Professor of History in Columbia University, New York. Member of } Stilicho t Flavius.
the American Historical Association. \.

C. L. K. CHARLES LETHBRIDGE KINGSFORD, M.A., F.R.HiST. Soc., F.S. A. f Somerset, Edmund Beaufort,

Assistant Secretary to the Board of Education. Author of Life of Henry V. Editor -! jjuke of
of Chronicles of London and Stow's Survey of London. [

C. P.* CARL PULFRICH, PH.D. f

On the staff of the Carl Zeiss Factory, Jena. Formerly Privatdozent at the -i Stereoscope.
University of Bonn. Member of the Astronomical Societies of Brussels and Paris. L

C. Pa. CESARE PAOLI. / ,._

See the biographical article: PAOLI, CESARE. \ Sl ina

C. ft. CHRISTIAN PFISTER, D. ES L. f

Professor at the Sorbonne, Paris. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of J Sigebert, King.
Eludes sur le regne de Robert le Pieux; Le Duche merovingien d' Alsace et la legende |
de Sainte-Odile. \.

C. R. B. CHARLES RAYMOND BEAZLEY, M.A., D.LiTT., F.R.G.S., F.R.Hisi.S. f

Professor of Modern History in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow I Simon of St Quentin;

of Merton College, Oxford, and University Lecturer in the History of Geography, i sindbad the Sailor Voyages of.

Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1889. Lowell Lecturer, Boston, 1908. Author of

Henry the Navigator; The Dawn of Modern Geography; &c.



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES



Vll



c. s. s.
c. w. w.

D. F. T.
D. G. H.



CHARLES SCOTT SHERRINGTON, M.A., D.Sc., M.D., F.R.S., LL.D. f

Professor of Physiology in the University of Liverpool. Author of The Integrative \ Spinal Cord' Phvsioloev
Action of the Nervous System. |_ ""

SIR CHARLES WILLIAM WILSON, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., F.R S. (1836-1907). f

Major-General, Royal Engineers. Secretary to the North American Boundary
Commission, 1858-1862. British Commissioner on the Servian Boundary Com- J . , .
mission. Director-General of the Ordnance Survey, 1886-1894. Director-General] " lvas \ in
of Military Education, 1895-1898. Author of From Korti to Khartoum; Life of
Lord Clive; &c. [

DONALD FRANCIS TOVEY.

Author of Essays in Musical Analysis, comprising The Classical Concerto, The
Goldberg Variations, and analyses of many other classical works.

DAVID GEORGE HOGARTH, M.A. [ Side; Sis;

Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. J Sivas (in part)-
Fellow of the British Academy. Excavated at Paphos, 1888; Naucratis, 1899 and ] q mvrn a !! 4, n 'rf\-
1903; Ephesus, 1904-1905; Assiut, 1906-1907. Director, British School at Athens,
1897-1900. Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899. [SOU (Asia Minor).



I Sonata Forms;
1 Spohr, Ludwig.



D. H.

D. M. W.

E. A.
E. A. F.
E. C. B.

E. G.

E. H. M.

Ed. M.
E. Ma.
E. M. S.

E. M. T.

E.O.*
E. Pr.

E. W. H.

F. A. B.



DAVID HANNAY.

Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona.

Navy ; Life of Emilia Castelar ; &c.



Author of Short History of the Royal .



SIR DONALD MACKENZIE WALLACE, K.C.I.E., K.C.V.O.

Extra Groom of the Bedchamber to H.M. King George V. Director of the Foreign
Department of The Times, 1891-1899. Member of Institut de Droit International
and Officier de 1'Instruction Publique of France. Joint-editor of the New Volumes
(loth ed.) of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Author of Russia; Egypt and the
Egyptian Question ; The Web of Empire ; &c.

EDWARD ARBER, D.Lrrr., F.S.A. f

See the biographical article: ARBER, EDWARD.

EDWARD AUGUSTUS FREEMAN, LL.D., D.C.L.
See the biographical article: FREEMAN, E. A.

Rx. REV. EDWARD CUTHBERT BUTLER, O.S.B., M.A., D.LITT.

Abbot of Downside Abbey, Bath. Author of " The Lausiac History of Palladius '
in Cambridge Texts and Studies.

EDMUND GOSSE, LL.D.

See the biographical article: GOSSE, EDMUND.



Sluys, Battle of;

Spain: History (in part);

Spanish Succession, War of:
Naval and Military Opera-
tions;

Spinola, Ambrose.



Shuvalov, Count.



Smith, John (1579-1631).



| Sicily: History (in part).

, J Silvestrines;
[ Simeon Stylites, St.

Song (Literary);
I Stanley, Thomas;
j Stevenson, Robert Louis;
[ Style.



ELLIS HOVELL MINNS, M.A. f Slavs;

University Lecturer in Palaeography, Cambridge. Lecturer and Assistants Slovaks;
Librarian at Pembroke College, Cambridge. Formerly Fellow of Pembroke College. I Slovenes; Sorbs

EDUARD MEYER, PH.D., D.LITT., LL.D. f

Professor of Ancient History in the University of Berlin. Author of Geschichte des ! Smerdis.
Alterthums; Geschichte des alien Aegyptens; Die Israeliten und ihre Nachbarstdmme. [_

EDWARD MANSON.

Barrister-at-Law. Joint-editor of the Journal of Comparative Legislation. Author
of Law of Trading Companies; Practical Guide to Company Law; &c.

ELEANOR MILDRED SIDGWICK (MRS HENRY SIDGWICK), D.LITT., LL.D.

Principal of Newnham College, Cambridge, 1892-1910. Hon. Secretary to the
Society for Psychical Research. Author of Papers in the Proceedings of the Society
for Psychical Research.



Stocks and Shares.



| Spiritualism.



SIR EDWARD MAUNDE THOMPSON, G.C.B., I.S.O., D.C.L., LITT.D., LL.D.

Director and Principal Librarian, British Museum, 1898-1909. Sandars Reader
in Bibliography, Cambridge University, 1895-1896. Hon. Fellow of University
College, Oxford. Author of Handbook of Greek and Latin Palaeography. Editor erf
the Chronicon Angliae. Joint-editor of publications of the Palaeographical Society
the New Palaeographical Society, and of the Facsimile of the Laurentian Sophocles!

EDMUND OWEN, F.R.C.S., LL.D., D.Sc.

Consulting Surgeon to St Mary's Hospital, London, and to the Children's Hospital,
Great Ormond Street, London. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of
A Manual of Anatomy for Senior Students.

EDGAR PRESTAGE.

Special Lecturer in Portuguese Literature in the University of Manchester. Com-
mendador, Portuguese Order of S. Thiago. Corresponding Member of Lisbon Royal
Academy of Sciences and Lisbon Geographical Society ; &c.

ERNEST WILLIAM HOBSON, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S., F.R.A.S.

Fellow and Tutor in Mathematics, Christ's College, Cambridge. Stokes Lecturer in
Mathematics in the University.

FRANCIS ARTHUR BATHER, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S., F.R.G.S.

Assistant Keeper of Geology, British Museum. Rolleston Prizeman, Oxford, 1892. ,
Author of " Echinoderma ' in A Treatise on Zoology; Triassic Echinoderms of
Bakony; &c.



j Stichometry.

(Skull: Cranial Surgery
Spinal Cord (Surgery) ;
Stomach.

(Silva, Antonio J. da;
Sousa, Luiz de.

-j Spherical Harmonics.

f

Starfish.



viii INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES

F. C. S. S. FERDINAND CANNING SCOTT SCHILLER, M.A., D.Sc. f

Fellow and Tutor of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Author of Riddles of the -| Spencer, Herbert.
Sphinx; Studies in Humanism; &c-

F. G. M. B. FREDERICK GEORGE MEESON BECK, M.A. f Sigurd;

Fellow and Lecturer in Classics, Clare College, Cambridge. \ Strathelyde.

F. G. P. FREDERICK GYMER PARSONS, F.R.C.S., F.Z.S., F.R.ANTHROP.INST. Skeleton;

Vice-President, Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Lecturer onj Skin and Exoskeleton;

Anatomy at St Thomas's Hospital and the London School of Medicine for Women, 1 Skull;

London. Formerly Hunterian Professor at the Royal College of Surgeons. [ Spinal Cord (in part).

F. J. H. FRANCIS JOHN HAVERFIELD, M.A., LL.D., F.S.A. f

Camden Professor of Ancient History in the University of Oxford. Fellow of silures*

Brasenose College. Formerly Censor, Student, Tutor and Librarian of Christ -\ '

Church. Ford's Lecturer, 1906-1907. Fellow of the British Academy. Author of Spain: History, Ancient.

Monographs on Roman History, especially Roman Britain ; &c.

F. J. S. FREDERICK JOHN SNELL, M.A. f M _. . , . .,

Balliol College, Oxford. Author of The Age of Chaucer; &c. I Spenser, Edmund (in part).

F. LI. G. FRANCIS LLEWELLYN GRIFFITH, M.A., PH.D., F.S.A. r

Reader in Egyptology, Oxford University. Editor of the Archaeological Survey and .

Archaeological Reports of the Egypt Exploration Fund. Fellow of Imperial -i Sphinx (in part).
German Archaeological Institute. Author of Stories of the High Priests of Memphis ;
&c.

F. L. L. LADY LUGARD.

See the biographical article: LUGARD, SIR F. J. D.

F. N. M. COLONEL FREDERIC NATUSCH MAUDE, C.B.

Lecturer in Military History, Manchester University. Author of War and ihe\ Strategy.
World's Policy; The Leipzig Campaign; The Jena Campaign.

F. Po. SIR FREDERICK POLLOCK, BART., LL.D., D.C.L. f c*i,h n ci, t w

See the biographical article : POLLOCK : Family. \ ste P nen 5Ir J - F -

Siwa; Sobat (in part);



F. R. C. FRANK R. CANA.



Author of South Africa from the Great Trek to the Union.



Somali land;
South Africa: Geography and
Statistics; History (in part),



and Bibliography;
Stanley, Sir Henry.
F. W.* FRANK WARNER. r

President of the Silk Association of Great Britain and Ireland ; Hon. Secretary J _... / . >

of the Ladies' National Silk Association. Chairman of the Silk Section, London 1 &IIK <"* P^t).
Chamber of Commerce, and of the Council of the Textile Institute. [

F. W. R.* FREDERICK WILLIAM RUDLER, I.S.O., F.G.S. f Sinter;

Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London, 1879-1902.-^ Spinel;
President of the Geologists' Association, 1887-1889. [ Spodumene.

G. A. C.* REV. GEORGE ALBERT COOKE, D.D. r

Oriel Professor of the Interpretation of Holy Scripture, Oxford, and Fellow of
Oriel College. Canon of Rochester. Hon. Canon of St Mary's Cathedral, Edinburgh
Author of Text-Book of North Semitic Inscriptions ; &c.

G. A. Gr. GEORGE ABRAHAM GRIERSON, C.I.E., PH.D., D.Lrrr.

Member of the Indian Civil Service, 1873-1903. In charge of the Linguistic

Survey of India, 1898-1902. Gold Medallist, Royal Asiatic Society, 1909. Vice- ^ Sindhi and Lahnda.

President of the Royal Asiatic Society. Formerly Fellow of Calcutta University.

Author of The Languages of India ; &c.

G. C. L. GEORGE COLLINS LEVEY, C.M.G.

Member of the Board of Advice to the Agent-General of Victoria. Formerly
Editor and Proprietor of the Melbourne Herald. Secretary, Colonial Committee of



Royal Commission to Paris Exhibition, 1900. Secretary, Adelaide Exhibition, -
1887. Secretary, Royal Commission, Hobart Exhibition, 1894-1895. Secretary to
Commissioners for Victoria at the Exhibitions in London, Paris, Vienna, Phila-
delphia and Melbourne.



Stawell, Sir William.



G. C. W. GEORGE CHARLES WILLIAMSON, Lrrr.D. C

Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of Portrait Miniatures ; Life of Richard J q mar * i n hn
Cosway, R.A.; George Engleheart; Portrait Drawings; &c. Editor of new edition 1 a
of Bryan's Dictionary of Painters and Engravers. I

G. E. H. GEORGE ELLERY HALE, LL.D., Sc.D. [

Director of the Mt. Wilson Solar Observatory of the Carnegie Institution of Washing-
ton at Pasadena, California. Director of the Yerkes Observatory, Chicago, 1895- I SpectrohelioTaph.
1905. Foreign Member of the Royal Society of London. Inventor of the Spectro- j
heliograph. Author of Papers on solar and stellar physics in the Astrophysical
Journal; &c. [

G. G. B. VERY REV. GEORGE GRANVILLE BRADLEY, D.D. /Stanley, Dean (in part).

See the biographical article: BRADLEY, GEORGE GRANVILLE. \



G. G. C. GEORGE GOUDIE CHISHOLM, M.A. f oj-nv r *i, A

Lecturer on Geography in the University of Edinburgh. Secretary of the Royal J ' '.... l ,? n
Scottish Geographical Society. Author of Handbook of Commercial Geography.] Statistics (in part).
Editor of Longman's Gazetteer of the World. I

G. G. S. GEORGE GREGORY SMITH, M.A. [ Stirling, William Alexander,

Professor of English Literature, Queen's University of Belfast. Author of The -j Earl of (in part)
Days of James IV.; The Transition Period; Specimens of Middle Scots; &c. L



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES ix

G. J. T. GEORGE JAMES TURNER.

Barrister-at-Law, Lincoln's Inn. Editor of Select Pleas of the Forests for the Selden -j SOK6.
Society.

G. Mo. GAETANO MOSCA. / Sicily: Geography and Statistics

Professor of Constitutional Law, University of Turin. I (in part).

G. Sa. GEORGE SAINTSBURY, D.C.L., LL.D. J stagl m aaame fl e

See the biographical article: SAINTSBURY, GEORGE E. B.

G. W. T. REV. GRIFFITHES WHEELER THATCHER, M.A., B.D. J _.,,,...

Warden of Camden College, Sydney, N.S.W. Formerly Tutor in Hebrew and Old ] Slbawaihi.
Testament History at Mansfield College, Oxford.

H. Br. HENRY BRADLEY, M.A., PH.D. f

Fellow of the British Academy. Joint-editor of the New English Dictionary (
(Oxford). Author of The Story of the Goths; The Making of English; &c.

H. Cl. SIR HUGH CHARLES CLIFFORD, K.C.M.G.

Colonial Secretary, Ceylon. Fellow of the Royal Colonial Institute. Formerly) Singapore;
Resident, Pahang. Colonial Secretary, Trinidad and Tobago, 1903-1907. Author 1 o, raif ,
of Studies in Brown Humanity; Further India, &c. Joint-author of A Dictionary
of the Malay Language.

H. E. S.* HORACE ELISHA SCUDDER (d. 1902).

Formerly Editor of the Atlantic Monthly. Author of Life of James Russell Lowell; ~\ otowe, Mrs Beecner.
History of the United States ; &c. I _ _

H. F. G. HANS FRIEDRICH GADOW, M.A., F.R.S., PH.D. f . ;. ' n , ,

Strickland Curator and Lecturer on Zoology in the University of Cambridge.-^

Author of " Amphibia and Reptiles " in the Cambridge Natural History; &c. I Spnenodon.

H. H. F. H. HAMILTON FYFE. f

Special Correspondent of the Daily Mail; Dramatic critic of The World. Author of J Slepniak, Sergius.
A Modern Aspasia; The New Spirit in Egypt; &c. |_

H. Ja. HENRY JACKSON, M.A., LITT.D., LL.D., O.M. f Socrates;

Regius Professor of Greek in the University of Cambridge, and Fellow of Trinity I Sophists'
College. Fellow of the British Academy. Author of Texts to illustrate the History *

of Greek Philosophy from Tholes to Aristotle. - SpeusippUS.

H. M. R. HUGH MUNRO Ross. f Signal: Army Signalling (in

Formerly Exhibitioner of Lincoln College, Oxford. Editor of The Times Engineering -( part) and Railway Signalling
Supplement. Author of British Railways. (j n p a rl).

H. M. Wo. HAROLD MELLOR WOODCOCK, D.Sc.

Assistant to the Professor of Proto-Zoology, London University. Fellow of Uni- J gporozoa
versity College, London. Author of " Haemoflagellates " in Sir E. Ray Lankester's
Treatise of Zoology, and of various scientific papers.

H. 0. F. HENRY OGG FORBES, LL.D., F.R.G.S., F.G.S., F.Z.S.

Director of Museums to the Corporation of Liverpool. Reader in Ethnography in

the University of Liverpool. Explorer of Mount Owen Stanley, New Guinea, J Sokotra (in part).

Chatham Islands and Sokotra. Author of A Naturalist's Wanderings in the Eastern

Archipelago; Editor and part-author of Natural History of Sokotra and Abd-el-

Kuri; &c.

H. R. T. HENRY RICHARD TEDDER, F.S.A. J~ Societies, Learned.

Secretary and Librarian of the Athenaeum Club, London. I.

H. St. HENRY STURT, M.A. J Space and Time.

Author of Idola Theatri; The Idea of a Free Church; Personal Idealism. \_

H. S. J. HENRY STUART JONES, M.A. f

Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Trinity College, Oxford, and Director of the British I gtrabo.
School at Rome. Member of the German Imperial Archaeological Institute. |
Author of The Roman Empire; &c.

H. W. C. D. HENRY WILLIAM CARLESS DAVIS, M.A. f simpon of Durham-

Fellow and Tutor of Balliol College, Oxford. Fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford, , K |1_ f p' , and
1895-1902. Author of England under the Normans and Angevins; Charlemagne. I ^P 11611 ' Km S OI *<ngiana.

I. A. ISRAEL ABRAHAMS, M.A. f simon Ben Yo & ai;

Reader in Talmudic and Rabbinic Literature in the University of Cambridge. I Singer, Simeon;
Formerly President, Jewish Historical Society of England. Author of A Short j Smolenskin, Perez;
History of Jewish Literature; Jewish Life in the Middle Ages; Judaism; &c. Steinschneider, M.

J. A. Co. HON. SIR JOHN ALEXANDER COCKBURN, K.C.M.G., M.D. r

Knight of Grace of the Order of St John of Jerusalem. Premier and Chief Secretary, J c ou th Australia' Hislorv
South Australia, 1889-1890; Minister of Education and Agriculture, 1893-1898; 1
Agent-General in London, 1898-1901. Author of Australian Federation; &c. (_

J. A. E. JAMES ALFRED EWING, C.B., LL.D., F.R.S., M.lNST.C.E. j" Siemens, Sir William;

Director of (British) Naval Education. Hon. Fellow of King's College, Cambridge. I Steam Engine;
Professor of Mechanism and Applied Mechanics in the University of Cambridge, 1 gt ren gt n O f Materials.
1890-1903. Author of The Strength of Materials; &c.

J. A. H. JOHN ALLEN HOWE. [ .,, , _

Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London. Author of -j



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