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THE



ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA



ELEVENTH EDITION



FIRST

SECOND

THIRD

FOURTH

FIFTH

SIXTH

SEVENTH.

EIGHTH

NINTH

TENTH

ELEVENTH



edition, published in three volumes, 1768 1771.

ten 17771784.

eighteen 17881797.

twenty 1801 1810.

twenty 18151817.

twenty 18231824.

twenty-one 18301842.

twenty-two 1853 1860.

twenty-five 18751889.
ninth edition and eleven

lupplementary volume*, 1902 1903.

published in twenty-nine volumes, ipio 1911.



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in all countries subscribing to the
Bern Convention

by
THE CHANCELLOR, MASTERS AND SCHOLARS

of the
UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE



A II righti reserved



THE



ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA



DICTIONARY

OF

ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE AND GENERAL

INFORMATION

ELEVENTH EDITION



VOLUME IX
EDWARDES to EVANGELICAL ASSOCIATION




Cambridge, England:

at the University Press

New York, 35 West 3 2nd Street
1910



.



A EL'S



Copyright, in the United States of America, 1910,

by
The Encyclopaedia Britannica Company.



INITIALS USED IN VOLUME IX. TO IDENTIFY INDIVIDUAL

CONTRIBUTORS,! WITH THE HEADINGS OF THE

ARTICLES IN THIS VOLUME SO SIGNED.



A. A.T.

A. C.

A. C. McG.

A. E. G.*

A. E. H.

A. E. H. L.

A. PL*

A F K.
A. P. P.

A. Co.*

A.HL

A. H. 0.

A. H. S.
A. H.-S.
A. J. C.

A. Mw.



ARTHUR AUGUSTUS TILLEY, M.A.

Fellow and Lecturer in Modern Languages, King's College, Cambridge. Author
The Literature of the French Renaissance; &c.

ARTHUR CAYLEY, LL.D., F.R.S.

See the biographical article: CAYLEY, ARTHUR.

ARTHUR CUSHMAN MCGIFFERT, M.A., PH.D., D.D.

Professor of Church History, Union Theological Seminary, New York. Author of,
History of Christianity in the Apostolic Age; &c. Editor of the Historic Ecclesia of
Eusebms.

REV. ALFRED ERNEST GARVIE, M.A., D.D.

Principal of New College, Hampstead. Member of the Board of Theology and .
the Board of Philosophy, London University. Author of Studies in the Inner Life
of Jesus ; &c.

A. E. HOUGHTON.

Formerly Correspondent of the Standard in Spain. Author of Restoration of the -
Bourbons in Spain.

AUGUSTUS EDWARD HOUGH LOVE, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S.

Sedleian . Professor of Natural Philosophy in the University of Oxford. Hon. .
Fellow of Queen's College. Formerly Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge.
Secretary of the London Mathematical Society.

ALEXANDER FISHER. [

Expert Examiner to the Board of Education, London. Gold Medallist, Barcelona. J
Hon. Associate, Royal College of Art. Author of The Art of Enamelling on Metals; \
&c.

A. F. KENDRICK.

Keeper of the Victoria and Albert Museum, South Kensington.

ALBERT FREDERICK POLLARD, M.A., F.R.HisT.Soc. f

Fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford. Professor of English History in the University I
of London. Assistant Editor of the Dictionary of National Biography, 1893-1901."]
Author of England under the Protector Somerset; Life of Thomas Cranmer;&c.



Estlenne.



- Equation.



Euseblus: of Caesarea.



Eschatology.



Espartero.



Elasticity.



Enamel.

Embroidery (in part).

Elizabeth, Queen;
Eiuser; Englefleld;
English History (VII. and
XIII.).

Erastus.



REV. ALEXANDER GORDON, M.A.

Lecturer on Church History in the University of Manchester.
ARTHUR HASSALL, M.A.

Student and Tutor of Christ Church, Oxford. Author of A Handbook of European

History; The Balance of Power; &c. Editor of the 3rd edition of T. H. Dyer's

History of Modern Europe.

ALAN HENDERSON GARDINER, M.A.

Joint Editor of the New Hieroglyphic Dictionary, Berlin. Formerly Worcester^ Egypt: Ancient Religion.
Reader in Egyptology, University of Oxford.

REV. A. H. SAYCE, Lrrr.D., LL.D. f

See the biographical article: SAYCE, A. H. \



Europe: History (in part).



Elam;
Esar-haddon.



-j Elburz.



Si* A. HOUTUM-SCHINDLER, C.I.E.

General in the Persian Army. Author of Eastern Persian Irak.

REV. ALEXANDER JAMES GRIEVE, M.A., B.D.

Professor of New Testament and Church History at the United Independent J pni.Ho r, . ,..i\
College, Bradford. Sometime Registrar of Madras University and Member of 1 * pl * e u " fan >-
Mysore Educational Service. L

ALLEN MAWER, M.A. r

Professor of English Language and Literature, Armstrong College, Newcastle-on- J BHI.H r\r \
Tyne. Fellow of Gonvilie and Caius College, Cambridge. Formerly Lecturer in ] tn 8na (V.).
English at the University of Sheffield.

1 A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final volume.



1978



VI

A. McM.

A. H. C.
A. M. Cl.

A.N.

A.Se.*

A. S. C.

A. W. H.*
A. W. R.

C. B.
C. EL

C. E. N. R.
C. F. B.

C. H. Ha.
C. W. C. 0.

C. W. W.

D. G. H.

D. H.
D. J. M.
D. H. W.

D. S. M.*



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES

ALEXANDER MACMORRAN, K.C., M.A. [

Bencher of the Middle Temple. Author of works on the Local Government Act "j England: X. (in part).
1888; Local Government Act 1894; London Government Act 1899; &c.



AGNES MARY CLERKE.

See the biographical article: CLERKE, A. M.



Encke.



AGNES MURIEL CLAY (MRS WILDE).

Formerly Resident Tutor of Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford. Joint Author of Sources -J Eupatridae.
of Roman History, 133-70 B,C.



ALFRED NEWTON, F.R.S.

See the biographical article : NEWTON, ALFRED.



/ Eider;
I Emeu.



ADAM SEDGWICK, M.A:, F.R.S.

Professor of Zoology at the Imperial College of Science and Technology, London. J Embryology.
Fellow, and formerly Tutor, of Trinity College, Cambridge. Professor of Zoology
in the University of Cambridge, 1907-1909.

ALAN SUMMERLY COLE, C.B.

Assistant Secretary for Art, Board of Education, 1900-1908. Author of Ancient -I Embroidery (in part).
Needle Point and Pillow Lace; Embroidery and Lace; Ornament in European
Silks; &c.



ARTHUR WILLIAM HOLLAND.

Formerly Scholar of St John's College, Oxford.

ALEXANDER WOOD RENTON, M.A., LL.B.



Bacon Scholar of Gray's Inn, 1900.



Einhard.



f Ejectment;



tjUUVI/bA VV UUL JXJLIN1UIN, IVA.n., LlU.U. IT M +

Puisne Judge of the Supreme Court of Ceylon. Editor of Encyclopaedia of the Laws \ *

of England. l Eminent Domain.



REV. CHARLES BOUTELL, M.A. (1812-1877).

Author of English Heraldry; A Manual of British Archaeology; &c.



Effigies (in part).



SIR CHARLES NORTON EDGCUMBE ELIOT, K.C.M.G., C.B., M.A., LL.D., D.C.L. r
Vice-Chancellor of Sheffield University. H.M.'s Commissioner and Commander-in-
Chief for the British East Africa Protectorate ; Agent and Consul-General at J Ephthalites;
Zanzibar; Consul-General for German East Africa, 19001904. Formerly Fellow | Esthonia (in part).
of Trinity College, Oxford. Author of Turkey in Europe; Letters from the Far
East; &c.



Founder of the \ Epee de Combat.



English Finance.



CHARLES EDMUND NEWTON ROBINSON, M.A.

Trinity College, Cambridge. Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple.
Epee Club, London. Author of The Golden Hind; &c.

CHARLES FRANCIS BASTABLE, M.A., LL.D.

Regius Professor of Laws and Professor of Political Economy in the University of
Dublin. Author of Public Finance; Commerce of Nations; Theory of International
Trade. I

CARLTON HUNTLEY HAYES, A.M., PH.D. (~

Assistant Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City. Member^ Ellgenius HI. and IV.
of the American Historical Association.

CHARLES WILLIAM CHADWICK OMAN, M.A., F.S.A. r

Chichele Professor of Modern History, Oxford University. Fellow of All Souls'

College. Fellow of the British Academy. Corresponding Member of the Madrid \ English History (I., II., III.,
Academia de la Historia. Author of The Art of War in the Middle Ages; The Great IV., V., VI.).
Revolt of 1381 ; Warwick the King-maker ; &c.

SIR CHARLES WILLIAM WILSON, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., F.R.S. (1836-1907). f

Major-General, Royal Engineers. Secretary . to the North American Boundary Erzerum (in part)
Commission, 1858-1862. British Commissioner on the Servian Boundary Commis- J ,, . ,. . A'

sion. Director-General of the Ordnance Survey, 1886-1894. Director-General of 1 trzin g an I** Part)',
Military Education, 1895-1898. Author of From Korti to Khartoum; Life of Lord Euphrates (m part).
Clive;&c. I



DAVID GEORGE HOGARTH, M.A. r

Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, and Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Fellow



Egin;



of the British Academy. Excavated at Paphos, 1888; Naukratis, 1899 and 1903 ; J ' .



Ephesus, 1904-1905; Assiut, 1906-1907. Director, British
1897-1900; Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899.

DAVID HANNAY.



School at Athens, J



j Ensenada;



Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona. Author of Short History of Royal Navy, J, * . '

1217-1688 ; Life of Emilia Castelar ; &c. \ Espagnols sur Mer.

D. J. MATTHEWS. r

Hydrographer, Laboratory of the Marine Biological Association of the United \ English Channel (in part).
Kingdom, Plymouth.

SIR DONALD MACKENZIE WALLACE, K.C.I.E., K.C.V.O. r

Extra Groom of the Bedchamber to H.M. King George V. Director of the Foreign !*_..*. M n J,, m,t nr *
Department of The Times, 1891-1899. Member of Institut de Droit International J Egy . ptl ** Htstor y
and Officer de 1'Instruction Publique of France. Joint Editor of New Volumes] ( m P art >>
(loth ed.) of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Author of Russia; Egypt and the \ Europe: History (in part).
Egyptian Question ; The Web of Empire ; &c.

DAVID SAMUEL MARGOLIOUTH, M.A., p.Lirr. r Egyp t: History (Mahommedan

Laudian Professor of Arabic, Oxford. Fellow of New College. Author of Arabic \ p fr ; nt f).
Papyri of the Bodleian Library; Mohammed and the Rise of Islam; Cairo, Jerusalem 1 .f_
and Damascus. I Ethiopia.



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES vii

E. A. S.* EDWARD ANTHONY SPITZKA. f

Professor of General Anatomy, Jefferson Medical College and Hospital, Philadelphia. I Electrocution
Mrmber of Association 01 American Anatomists, American Anthropologists' |
Association, &c. I

E. Br. ERNEST BARKER, M.A. f Electors;

Fellow of, and Lecturer in Modern History at, St John's College, Oxford. Formerly -s Emperor;
FVllow and. Tutor of Merlon College. Craven Scholar, 1895. I Empire.

E. B. T. EDWARD BURNETT TYLOR, D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S. f Klinilfth

See the biographical article : TYLOR, E. B. \

E. C. B. RT. REV. EDWARD CUTHBERT BUTLER, O.S.B., M.A.. D.Lrrr. (Dublin).

Abbot of Downside Abbey, Bath. Author of " The Lausiac History of Palladius," , Ellas,
in Cambridge Texts and Studies, vol. vi.

E. G. EDMUND GOSSE, LL.D. j ggj .^SPS^**"''

See the biographical article: GOSSK, EDMUND W. j EtCd g el EuphS.'

E. Ga. EMILE GARCKE, M.I.vsT.E.E. | Electricity Supply:

Managing Director of British Electric Traction Co., Ltd. Author of Manual of\ ,

Electrical Undertakings; &c.

E. Go. SIR ELDON GORST, K.C.B. /Egypt: Finance (in part).

Sec the biographical article: GORST, SIR JOHN ELDON. I

E. Gr. ERNEST ARTHUR GARDNER, M.A. f Eleusis; Ells; Epidaurus;

See the biographical article: GARDNER, PERCY. \ Erechtheum; Eretria.

E. He. EDWARD HEAWOOD, M.A. f

Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Librarian of the Royal Geographical ~i Elgon.
Society, London. I

Ed. M. EDUARD MEYER, PH.D., D.Lrrr. (Oxon.), LL.D. , Eucratides;

Professor of Ancient History in the University of Berlin. Author of Geschichte des "j Euthvdemus
Alterthums; Geschichte des alien Agyptens; Die Israel iten und ihre Nachbarstdmme. I

E. S. P. EDWARD STANLEY POOLE. j Egypt: History (II. in part).

See the biographical article: POOLE, REGINALD STUART. I

E. V. REV. EDMUND VENABLES (1810-1895). f Ember Days and Ember

Canon and Preceptor of Lincoln. Author of Episcopal Palaces of England. \ Weeks.

E. Wo. FIELD-MARSHAL SIR EVELYN WOOD, V.C., G.C.M.G. f .__. . ,, ,

See the biographical article: WOOD, SIR EVELYN. \ fcgypt ' Modern , Arm y-

F. C. C. FREDERICK CORNWALUS CONYBEARE, M.A., D.Tn. (Giessen). f Epiphany;

Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Fellow of University College, Oxford. 1 Eucharist'
Author of The Ancient Armenian Texts of Aristotle; Myth, Magic and Morals; &c. I

F. G. M. B. FREDERICK GEORGE MEESON BECK, M.A. f Edwin;

Fellow and Lecturer in Classics, Clare College, Cambridge. I Essex, Kingdom of.

F. J. H. FRANCIS JOHN HAVERFIELD, M.A., LL.D. (Aberdeen), F.S.A.

Camden Professor of Ancient History in the University of Oxford. Fellow of

Brasenose College, Oxford. Fellow of the British Academy. Member of the J Ermine street.

German Imperial Archaeological Institute. Formerly Senior Censor, Student,

Tutor and Librarian of Christ Church, Oxford. Ford's Lecturer, 1906. Author of

Monographs on Roman History; &c.

F. LI. G. FRANCIS LLEWELYN GRIFFITH, M.A., PH.D. r

Reader in Egyptology, Oxford University. Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, J w.-.-*. * . ,
Oxford. Editor of the Archaeological Survey and Archaeological Reports of the | M **P l - An
Egypt Exploration Fund. Fellow ol Imperial German Archaeological Institute. I

F. R. C. FRANK R. CANA. f Ear . J)i . Mode ... , in ...,-)

Author of South Africa from the Great Trek to the Union. \ ^ yP ( P '"

F. R. M. FRANCIS RICHARD MAUNSELL. C.M.G. r

Lieutenant-Colonel, R.A. Military Vice-Consul, Sivas, Trebizond, Van (Kurdistan), I Erzerum (in part);
1897-1898. Military Attache", British Embassy, Constantinople, 1901-1905. 1 Erzlngan (M Part).
Author of Central Kurdistan ; &c. I

F. W. H. FREDERICK WILLIAM MAITLAND, LL.D. f v> ni ,ii.h i

See the biographical article : MAITLAND, F. W. \ g

F. W. R.* FREDERICK WILLIAM RUDLER, I.S.O., F.G.S. f Emerald-

Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London, 1870-1002. 1 .
President of the Geologists' Association, 1887-1889. I Emer y-

G. C. W. GEORGE CHARLES WILLIAMSON, LiTT.D. r

Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of Portrait Miniatu'es; Life of Richard \ Eneleheart
Corway, R.A.; George Engleheort; Portrait Drawings; &c. Editor of new edition 1
of Bryan's Dictionary of Painters and Engraven.

G. E. REV. GEORGE EDMUNDSON, M.A., F.R. HIST. S. f

Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Brasenose College, Oxford. Ford's Lecturer,
1 909-.' 9 !> Employed by British Government in preparation of the British \ Egmont, Count of.
case in the British Guiana-Venezuelan and British Guiana-Brazilian boundary
arbitrations.



G. G. C.



GEORGE GOUDIE CRISROLM, M.A. r

Lecturer on Geography in the University of Edinburgh. Secretary of the Royal J Europe: Geography and
Scottish Geographical Society. Author of Handbook of Commercial Geography \ Statistics.
Fxlitor of Longman's Gazetteer of the World. I



viii INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES

G. H. C. GEORGE HERBERT CARPENTER, B.Sc. J

Professor of Zoology in the Royal College of Science, Dublin. Author of Insects: ~\ Entomology.
Their Structure and Life. I

G. S. C. SIR GEORGE SYDENHAM CLARKE, G.C.M.G., G.C.I.E., F.R.S. f Eevnt- Miliiarv Oberat

Governor of Bombay. Author of Imperial Defence; Russia's Great Sea Power -A *
The Last Great Naval War; &c. 88 S-

H. A. E. D. HANS A. E. DRIESCH, PH.D., LL.D. f

Giffprd Lecturer at the University of Aberdeen, 1907-1908. Author of Die Or- J Embryology : Physiology o;
ganischen Regulationen; Der Vitalismus als Geschichte und als Lehre; The Science 1 Development,
and Philology of the Organism ; &c. I

H. Br. HENRY BRADLEY, M.A., PH.D. f

Fellow of the British Academy. Joint Editor of the New English Dictionary -\ English Literature (I.).
(Oxford). Author of The Story of the Goths ; The Making of English ; &c. L

H. Ch. HUGH CHISHOLM, M.A. f

Formerly Scholar of Corpus Christ! College, Oxford. Editor of the nth edition-^ English History: XII. (in part)
of the Encyclopaedia Britaanica. Co- Editor of the loth edition. L

H. C. R. MAJOR-GENERAL SIR HENRY CRESWICKE RAWLINSON, BART., G.C.B. J Euphrates (in part)

See the biographical article: RAWLINSON, SIR H. C.

H. F. T. REV. HENRY FANSHAWE TOZER, M.A., F.R.G.S. f

Hon. Fellow and formerly Tutor of Exeter College, Oxford. Fellow of the British
Academy. Corresponding Member of the Historical Society of Greece Author of -j Euboea.
History of Ancient Geography; Classical Geography; Lectures on the Geography of
Greece; &c.

H. Ha. HEBER HART, LL.D. f

Barrister-at-Law, Middle Temple. { Estate and House Agents.

H. H. W. REV. HENRY HERBERT WILLIAMS, M.A.

Fellow, Tutor and Lecturer in Philosophy, Hertford College, Oxford. Examining -! Ethics (in part).
Chaplain to the Bishop of Llandaff. L

H. M. R. HUGH MUNRO Ross. f

Formerly Exhibitioner of Lincoln College, Oxford. Editor of The Times Engineering J. English Channel (in part).
Supplement. Author of British Railways.

H. M. R. M. HILDA MARY R. MURRAY, M.A. f _ ,. . T / .

Lecturer on English at Royal Holloway College. \ En S lls h Language (in part).

H. N. G. HARRY NORMAN GARDINER, A.M. f"

Professor of Philosophy, Smith College, Northampton, U.S.A. Editor of Jonathan < Edwards, Jonathan (in par?.
Edwards a Retrospect.

H. R. M. HUGH ROBERT MILL, D.Sc., LL.D.

Director of British Rainfall Organization. Formerly President of the Royal Meteoro-



logical Society. Hon. Member of Vienna Geographical Society. Hon. Correspond-
ing Member of Geographical Societies of Paris, Berlin, Budapest, St Petersburg,
Amsterdam, &c. British Delegate to International Conference on the Exploration
of the Sea at Christiania, 1901. Author of The Realm of Nature; The Clyde Sea
Area; The English Lakes; The International Geography. Editor of British Rainfall.



England : Physical Geograpny
(II., IV.).



H. S. HENRY SIDGWICK, LL.D. f Pfhi .,, / . .A

See the biographical article : SIDGWICK, H. \ Etmcs (in t art >-

H. Sw. HENRY SWEET, M.A., PH.D., LL.D.

University Reader in Phonetics, Oxford. Member of the Academies of Munich, J EsnerantO
Berlin, Copenhagen and Helsingfors. Author of A History of English Sounds since |
the Earliest Period ; A Handbook of Phonetics ; &c. [_

H. van D. HENRY VAN DYKE, A.M., D.D., LL.D. f

Professor of English Literature, Princeton University, U.S.A. Author of The Poetry J Emerson.
of Tennyson; The Ruling Passion; The Spirit of America; &c.

H. W. C. D. HENRY WILLIAM CARLESS DAVIS, M.A.

Fellow and Tutor of Balliol College, Oxford. Fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford, 4 Eleanor of Aquitaine.
1895-1902. Author of England under the Normans and Angevins; Charlemagne.

I. A. ISRAEL ABRAHAMS, M.A. r Einhorn, David ;

Reader in Talmudic and Rabbinic Literature, University of Cambridge. President, J Eliiah Wilni
Jewish Historical Society of England. Author of A Short History of Jewish Litera- 1 *..' * ' ,

lure ; Jewish Life in the Middle Ages ; &c. I Ellsna ben Abuyah.

Electrical Machine ;



J. A. P. JOHN AMBROSE FLEMING, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S.

Fender Professor of Electrical Engineering in the University of London. Fellow of
University College, London. Formerly Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge. -

r Vice-President ofthe Institution of Electrical Engineers. Author of The Principles

of Electric Wave Telegraphy ; Magnets and Electric Currents ; &c.



Electricity ;
Electricity Supply ;
Electrokinetics ;
Electromagnetism ;
Electrometer ;



Electrophorus ;

. Electroscope ; Electrostatics.

J. A. H. JOHN ALLEN HOWE, B.Sc. r Enir | ftni i . r, f },, (TTT \.

Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London. Author of J. *
Geology of Building Stones. [ Eocene.

J. A. H. M. SIR JAMES AUGUSTUS HENRY MURRAY, LL.D., D.C.L., Lrrr.D. f -,_ ,,. T

See the biographical article : MURRAY, SIR JAMES A. H. \ En S lisn Language.

J. G. C. A. JOHN GEORGE CLARK ANDERSON, M.A. f

Censor and Tutor of Christ Church, Oxford. Formerly Fellow of Lincoln College; < Euyuk.
Craven Fellow, Oxford, 1896. Conington Prizeman, 1893.



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES



J G. M.
J. C. R.

J. H. F.
J. H. Rs.

J. HI. R.
J. J. T.

J. L.*

J. L.H.

J. M. H.
J. M. Ha.

J. P. Pe.
J. S. F.
J. S. M.

J. T. B.
J. T. C.

J. W. He.

K. S.

L.D.*
L.J.S.

L.V.*



JOHN GRAY MCKENDRICK, M.I)., LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.S. (Edin.).

Emeritus Profeor of Physiology at the University of Glasgow. Professor of "> Equilibrium.
Physiology, 1876-1906. Author of Life in Motion; Life of lielmholli; &c.



JOHN GEORGE ROBERTSON, M.A., PH.D.

ProfcMor of German Language and Literature, University of London. Editor of
the Modern Language Journal. Author of History of German Literature; Schiller
after a Century; OK.

JOHN HENRY FREESE. M.A.

Formerly Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge.



' Eulenspiegel.
{ Equites.





I Epheslans, Epistle to the.



Enghien, Duo d',



Electric Waves.



Energetics ;
Energy (HI part).



Epirus.



Erlgena (in part).



REV. JAMES HARDY ROPES, D.D.

Bussey Professor of New Testament Criticjsm and Interpretation, and IVxtrr
Lecturer on Biblical Literature, Harvard University. Author of The Apostolic
Age in the Light of Modern Criticism; &c.

JOHN HOLLAND ROSE, M.A., Lrrr.D.

Lecturer on Modern History' to the Cambridge University Local Lectures Syndicate.
Author of Life of Napoleon I. ; Napoleonic Studies ; The Development of the European
Nations; The Life of Pitt; &c.

SIR JOSEPH JOHN THOMSON, D.Sc., LL.D., Ph.D., F.R.S.

Cavendish Professor of Experimental Physics, Cambridge. Fellow of Trinity
College. President of the British Association, 1909-1910. Author of A Treatise-
on the Motion of Vortex Rings; Application of Dynamics to Physics and Chemistry;
Recent Researches in Electricity and Magnetism ; &c.

SIR JOSEPH LARMOR, M.A., D.Sc., LL.D., F.R.S.

Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge. Lucasian Professor of Mathematics in
Cambridge University. Secretary of the Royal Society. Professor of Natural.
Philosophy, Queen's College, Galway, and in the Queen's University of Ireland,
1880-1885. Author of Ether and Matter, and various memoirs on Mathematics and
Physics.

JOHN LINTON MYRES, M.A., F.S.A.

Wykeham Professor of Ancient History in the University of Oxford. Formerly
Gladstone Professor of Greek and Lecturer in Ancient Geography, University of
Liverpool, and Lecturer on Classical Archaeology, University of Oxford.

JOHN MALCOLM MITCHELL.

Sometime Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Lecturer in Classics, East London
College (University of London). Joint Editor of Grote's History of Greece.

JOHN MATTHEWS MANLY. A.M., PH.D.

Professor and Head of the Department of English in the University of Chicago.

Managing Editor of Modern Philology. Author of The Language of Chaucer's Legend < English Literature (II.).

of Good Women; &c. Editor of Specimens of the Pre-Shakespearean Drama;

English Prose, 1137-1800; English Poetry, 1170-1802; &c.

REV. JOHN PUNNETT PETERS, PH.D., D.D. r %Mth

Canon Residentiary, Cathedral of New York. Formerly Professor of Hebrew in the I 17-1.1.. .'
University of Pennsylvania. Director of the University Expedition to Babylonia, 1
1888-1895. Author of Nippur, or Explorations and Adventures on the Euphrates. I Euphrates (in part).

JOHN SMITH FLETT, D.Sc., F.G.S. r

Petrographer to the Geological Survey. Formerly Lecturer on Petrology in Edin- J Epidiorite ;
burgh University. Neill Medallist of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Bigsby 1 Epidosite
Medallist of the Geological Society of London.

JOHN STURGEON MACKAY, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. (Edin.). f

Chief Mathematical Master at Edinburgh Academy, 1873-1904. First President
of the Edinburgh Mathematical Society. Author of Arithmetical Exercises;
Elements of Euclid.

JOHN T. BEALBY.

Formerly^ Editor of the Scottish Geographical -I Esthonia (in Part).

JOSEPH THOMAS CUNNINGHAM, M.A., F.Z.S. r

Lecturer on Zoology at the South-Western Polytechnic, London. Formerly Fellow J _ .
of University College, Oxford. Assistant Professor of Natural History in the | Eel-
University ot Edinburgh. Naturalist to the Marine Biological Association. I

JAMES WYCUFFE HEADLAM, M.A. r

Staff Inspector of Secondary Schools under the Board of Education. Formerly
Fellow of King's College, Cambridge, and Professor of Greek and Ancient History J Ernest II.
at Queen's College, London. Author of Bismarck and the Foundation of the German I
Empire; &c.



. .

Joint Author of Stanford's Europe.
.Magazine. Translator of Sven Hedin's Through Asia, Central Asia and Tibet; &c



KATHLEEN SCHLESINGER.

Author of The Instruments of the Orchestra; &c.
Archaeology.



Editor of the Portfolio of Musical



Epigonlon ;
Euphonium.



/ Eleutherius ;
I Eugenlus I. and



Louis DUCHESSE.

Sec the biographical article : DUCHESNE, L. M. O.

LEONARD JAMES SPENCER, M.A.

Assistant in the Department of Mineralogy, British Museum. Formerly Scholar of Enstatlte ;



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