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only a very short one between the former and the incisors. The
orbit is completely open behind. In other respects the palaeo-
theres resemble the ancestral horses. They were, however,
essentially marsh-dwelling animals, and exhibit no tendency to
the cursorial type of limb so characteristic of the horse-line. They
were, in fact, essentially inadaptive creatures, and hence rapidly
died out. (R.L.*)

PALAEOZOIC ERA, in geology, the oldest of the great time
divisions in which organic remains have left any clear record.
The three broad divisions — Palaeozoic, Mesozoic, Cainozoic —

which are employed by geologists to mark three stages in the
development of hfe on the earth, are based primarily upon the
fossil contents of the strata which, at one point or another, have
been continuously forming since the very earliest times. The
precise fine in the " record of the rocks " where the chronicle
of the Palaeozoic era closes and that of the Mesozoic era opens —
as in more recent historical documents — is a matter for editorial
caprice. The early geologists took the most natural dividing
lines that came within their knowledge, namely, the line of change
in general petrological characters, e.g. the " Transition Series "
{(Jbergaiigsgcbirgc), the name given to rocks approximately of
Palaeozoic age by A. G. Werner because they exhibited a transi-
tional stage between the older crystaUine rocks and the younger
non-crystaUine; later in Germany these same rocks were said to
have been formed in the " Kohlenperiode " by H. G. Bronn and
others, while in England H. T. de la Beche classed them as a
Carbonaceous and Greywacke group. Finally, the divisional time
separating the Palaeozoic record from that of the Mesozoic was
made to coincide with a great natural break or unconformity of
the strata. This was the most obvious course, for where such
a break occurred there would be the most marked differences
between the fossils found below and those found above the
physical discordance. The divisions in the fossil record having
been thus established, they must for convenience remain, but
their artificiality cannot be too strongly emphasized, for the
broad stratigraphical gaps and hthological groups which made
the divisions sharp and clear to the earher geologists are proved
to be absent in other regions, and fossils which were formerly
deemed characteristic of the Palaeozoic era are found in some
places to commingle with forms of strongly marked Mesozoic
type. In short, the record is more nearly complete than was
originally supposed.

The Palaeozoic or Primary era is divided into the following
periods or epochs: Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian,
Carboniferous and Permian. The fact that fossils found in the
rocks of the three earlier epochs — Cambrian, Ordovician, Sdurian
— have features in common, as distinguished from those in the
three later epochs has led certain authors to divide this era into
an earlier, Protozoic (Proterozoic) and a later Deuterozoic time.
The rocks of Palaeozoic age are mainly sandy and muddy
sediments with a considerable development of limestone in
places. These sediments have been altered to shales, slates,
quartzites, &c., and frequently they are found in a highly meta-
morphosed condition; in eastern North America, however, and
in north-east Europe they stOl maintain their horizontality and
primitive texture over large areas. The fossils of the earlier
Palaeozoic rocks are characterized by the abundance of trilobites,
graptolites, brachiopods, and the absence of all vertebrates except
in the upper strata; the later rocks of the era are distinguished by
the absence of graptolites, the gradual failing of the trilobites, the
continued predominance of brachiopods and tabulate corals, the
abundance of crinoids and the rapid development of placoderm
and heterocercal ganoid fishes and amphibians. The land plants
were all cryptogams, Lepidodendron, Sigillaria, followed by
Conifers and Cycads. It is obvious from the advanced stage of
development of the organisms found in the earliest of these
Palaeozoic rocks that the beginnings of Hfe must go much farther
back, and indeed organic remains have been found in rocks
older than the Cambrian; for convenience, therefore, the base
of the Cambrian is usually placed at the zone of the trilobite
Olenellus. (J.A.H.)

PALAEPHATUS, the author of a small extant treatise, entitled
Ilepi 'AttIcttuj' (On " Incredible Things "). It consists of a series
of rationalizing explanations of Greek legends, without any
attempt at arrangement or plan, and is probably an epitome,
composed in the Byzantine age, of some larger work, perhaps the
AiKjets tS)v fivOiKus elprqiifvuv, mentioned by Suidas as the
work of a grammarian of Egypt or Athens. Suidas himself
ascribes a Ilepi 'Att'lctoov, in five books, to Palaephatus of Paros or
Priene. The author was perhaps a contemporary of Euhemerus
(3rd century B.C.). Suidas mentions two other \vriters of the
name: (i) an epic poet of Athens, who lived before the time of



Homer; (2) an historian of Abydus, an intimate friend of


See edition by N. Festa, in Mythographi graeci (1902), in tlie
Teubner series, with valuable prolegomena supplementary to

Inlorno all' opuscolo di Palefato de incredibilibus (1890), by the
same writer.

PALAESTRA (Gr. TraXaiorpa) , the name apparently applied
by the Greeks to two kinds of places used for gymnastic and
athletic exercises. In the one case it seems confined to the places
where boys and youths received a general gymnastic training,
in the other to a part of a gymnasium where the athlctac, the
competitors in the public games, were trained in wresthng
(iraXateti', to wrestle) and boxing. The boys' palaestrae were
private institutions and generally bore the name of the manager
or of the founder; thus at Athens there was a palaestra of Taureas
(Plato, Charmidcs). The Romans used the terms gymnasium and
palaestra indiscriminately for any place where gymnastic exercises
were carried on.

PALAFOX DE MENDOZA, JUAN DE (1600-1659), Spanish
bishop, was born in Aragon. He was appointed in 1839 bishop
of Angelopolis (Puebla dc los Angeles) in Mexico, and there
honourably distinguished himself by his efforts to protect the
natives from Spanish cruelty, forbidding any methods of con-
version other than persuasion. In this he met with the uncom-
promising hostility of the Jesuits, whom in 1647 he laid under an
interdict. He twice, in 1647 and 1649, laid a formal complaint
against them at Rome. The pope, however, refused to approve
his censures, and aU he could obtain was a brief from Innocent X.
(May 14, 1648), commanding the Jesuits to respect the episcopal
jurisdiction. In 1653 the Jesuits succeeded in securing his trans-
lation to the little see of Osma in Old Castile. In 1694 Charles II.
of Spain petitioned for his canonization; but though this passed
through the preliminary stages, securing for Palafox the title
of " Venerable," it was ultimately defeated, under Pius VI.,
by the intervention of the Jesuits.

See Antonio Gonzalez de Resende, Vie de Palafox (French trans.,
Paris, 1690).

PALAFOX Y MELZI, JOSE DE (1780-1847), duke of Sara-
gossa, was the youngest son of an old Aragonese family.
Brought up at the Spanish court, he entered the guards at an
early age, and in 1808 as a sub-lieutenant accompanied Ferdinand
to Bayonne; but after vainly attempting, in company with
others, to secure Ferdinand's escape, he fled to Spain, and
after a short period of retirement placed himself at the head
of the patriot movement in Aragon. He was proclaimed by
the populace governor of Saragossa and captain-general of
Aragon (May 25, 1808). Despite the want of money and of
regular troops, he lost no time in declaring war against the French,
who had already overrun the neighbouring provinces of Catalonia
and Navarre, and soon afterwards the attack he had provoked
began. Saragossa as a fortress was both antiquated in design
and scantily provided with munitions and supplies, and the
defences resisted but a short time. But it was at that point
that the real resistance began. A week's street fighting made
the assailants masters of half the town, but Palafox's brother
succeeded in forcing a passage into the city with 3000 troops.
Stimulated by the appeals of Palafox and of the fierce and
resolute demagogues who ruled the mob, the inhabitants resolved
to contest possession of the remaining quarters of Saragossa
inch by inch, and if necessary to retire to the suburb across the
Ebro, destroying the bridge. The struggle, which was prolonged
for nine days longer, resulted in the withdrawal of the P'rench
(Aug. 14), after a siege which had lasted 61 days in all.
Palafox then attempted a short campaign in the open country,
but when Napoleon's own army entered Spain, and destroyed
one hostile army after another in a few weeks, Palafox was
forced back into Saragossa, where he sustained a still more
memorable second siege. This ended, after three months, in
the fall of the town, or rather the cessation of resistance, for the
town was in ruins and a pestilence had swept away many
thousands of the defenders. Palafox himself, suffering from
the epidemic, fell into the hands of the French and was kept

prisoner at Vincennes until December 1813. In June 1814 he
was confirmed in the office of captain-general of Aragon, but
soon afterwards withdrew from it, and ceased to take part in
public affairs. From 1820 to 1823 he commanded the royal
guard of King Ferdinand, but, taking the side of the Constitution
in the civil troubles which followed, he was stripped of all his
honours and offices by the king, whose restoration by French
bayonets was the triumph of reaction and absolutism. Palafox
remained in retirement for many years. He received the title
of duke of Saragossa from Queen Maria Christine. From 1836
he took part in military and political affairs as captain-general
of Aragon and a senator. He died at Madrid on the 15th of
February 1847.

A biographical notice of Palafox appeared in the Spanish trans-
lation of Thiers's Hist, des consulates de t'empire, b^- P. dc Madrago.
E'er the two sieges of Saragossa, see C. W. C. Oman, Peninsular
War, vol. i.; this account is both more accurate and more just
than Napier's.

PALAMAS, GREGORIUS (c. 1296-1359), Greek mystic and
chief apologist of the Hesychasts (q.v.), belonged to a dis-
tinguished Anatolian family, and his father held an important
position at Constantinople. Palamas at an early age retired
to Mt Athos, where he became acquainted with the mystical
theories of the Hesychasts. In 1326 he went to Skete near
Beroea, where he spent some years in isolation in a cell specially
built for him. His health having broken down, he returned to
Mt Athos, but, finding little relief, removed to Thessalonica.
About this time Barlaam, the Calabrian monk, began his attacks
upon the monks of Athos, and Palamas came forward as their
champion. In 1341 and 1351 he took part in the two synods
at Constantinople, which definitively secured the victory of the
Palamites. During the civil war between John Cantacuzene and
the Palaeologi, Palamas was imprisoned. After Cantacuzene's
victory in 1347, Palamas was released and appointed arch-
bishop of Thessalonica; being refused admittance by the
inhabitants, he retired to the island of Lemnos, but subsequently
obtained his see. Palamas endeavoured to justify the mysticism
of the Hesychasts on dogmatic grounds. The chief objects of
his attack were Barlaam, Gregorius Acindynus and Nicephorus

Palamas was a prolific writer, but only a few of his works have
been published, most of which will be found in J. P. Migne, Patro-
logia graeca (cl., cli.). They consist of polemics against the Latins
and their doctrine of the Procession of the Holy Ghost; Hesychastic
writings; homilies; a life of St Peter (a monk of Athos) ; a rhetorical
essay Prosopopeia (ed. A. Jahn, 1884), containing the accusations
brought against the body by the soul, the defence made by the
body, and the final pronouncement of the judges in favour of the
body, on the ground that its sins are the result of inadequate teaching.

See the historical works of John Cantacuzene and Nicephorus
Gregoras, the Vila Palamae by Philotheus, and the encomium by
Nilus (both patriarchs of Constantinople) ; also C. Krumbachcr,
Ceschich'.e der byzantinischen Lilleratur (1897).

PALAMAU, a district of British India, in the Chota-Nagpur
division of Bengal. It was formed out of Lohardaga, in 1894,
and takes its name from a former state or chiefship. The
administrative headquarters are at Daltonganj: pop. (1901),
5837. It consists of the lower spurs of the Chota-Nagpur
plateau, sloping north to the valley of the Son. Area 4914
sq. m.; pop. (1901), 619,600, showing an increase of 3-8% in
the decade; average density, 126 persons per sq. m., being the
lowest in all Bengal. Palamau suffered severely from drought
in 1897. A branch of the East Indian railway from the Son
valley to the valuable coalfield near Daltonganj was opened in
1902. The only articles of export are jungle produce, such
as lac and tussur silk. The forests are unprofitable.

See Palamau District Gazetteer (Calcutta, 1907).

PALAMCOTTAH, a town of British India, in the Tinnevelly
district of Madras, on the opposite bank of the Tambraparni
river to Tinnevelly town, with which it shares a station on the
South Indian railway, 444 m. south of Madras. Pop. (1901),
39,545. It is the administrative headquarters of the district,
and also the chief centre of Christian missions in south India.
Among many educational institutions may be mentioned the
Sarah Tucker College for Women, founded in 1895.



PALAMEDES, in Greek legend, son of Nauplius king of
Euboea, one of the heroes of the Trojan War, belonging to the
post-Homeric cycle of legends. During the siege of Troy, Aga-
memnon, Diomedes and Odysseus (who had been detected by
Palamedes in an attempt to escape going to Troy by shamming
madness) caused a letter containing money and purporting to
come from Priam to be concealed in his tent. They then
accused Palamedes of treasonable correspondence with the
enemy, and he was ordered to be stoned to death. His father
exacted a fearful vengeance from the Greeks on their way home,
by placing false lights on the promontory of Caphareus. The
story of Palamedes was first handled in the Cypria of Stasinus,
and formed the subject of lost plays by Aeschylus {Palamedes),
Sophocles {Nauplius), Euripides {Palamedes), of which some
fragments remain. Sophists and rhetoricians, such as Gorgias
and Alcidamas, amused themselves by writing declamations in
favour of or against him. Palamedes was regarded as the
inventor of the alphabet, lighthouses, weights and measures,
dice, backgammon and the discus.

See Euripides, Orestes, 432 and schol.; Ovid, Metam. xiii. 56;
Servius on Virgil, Aeneid, ii. 82, and Nettleship's note in Conington's
edition; Philostratus, Heroica, 11 ; Euripides, Frag. 581 ; for different
versions of his death see Dictys Cretensis ii. 15; Pausanias
ii. 20, 3;x. 31, 2; Dares Phr>gius, 28; monograph by O. Jahn
(Hamburg, 1836).

PALANPUR, a native state of India, in the Gujarat division
of Bombay, on the southern border of Rajputana. Area, 1766
sq. m.; pop. (1901), 222,627, showing a decrease of 19 % in the
decade. The country is mountainous, with much forest towards
the north, but undulating and open in the south and east. The
principal rivers are the Saraswati and Banas. The estimated
gross revenue is £50,000; tribute to the gaekwar of Baroda, £2564.
The chief, whose title is diwan, is an Afghan by descent. The state
is traversed by the main line of the Rajputana-Malwa railway,
and contains the British cantonment of Deesa. Wheat, rice
and sugar-cane are the chief products. The state has suffered
severely of recent years from plague. The town of Palanpur
is a railway junction for Deesa, 18 m. distant. Pop. (1901),


Palanpur also gives its name to a political agency, or collection
of native states; total area, 6393 sq. m.; pop. (1901), 467,271,
showing a decrease of 28 % in the decade, due to the effects
of famine.

PALANQUIN (pronounced palankeen, a form in which it is
sometimes spelled), a covered Utter used in India and other
Eastern countries. It is usually some eight feet long by four feet
in width and depth, fitted with movable blinds or shutters, and
slung on poles carried by four bearers. Indian and Chinese
women of rank always travelled in palanqidm, and they were
largely used by European residents in India before the railways.
The norimono of Japan and the kiaotsu of China differ from the
Indian palanquin only in the method of attaching the poles to
the body of the conveyance. The word came into European
use through Port, palanqtiim, which represents an East Indian
word seen in several forms, e.g. Malay and Javanese palangki,
Hindostani palki, PaU pallanko, &c., all in the sense of Htter,
couch, bed. The Sansk. paryanka, couch, bed, the source of
all these words, is derived from pari, round, about, and anka,
hook. The New English Dictionary points out the curious
resemblance of these words with the Latin use of phalanga
(Gr. <^dXa7^) for a bearing or carrying pole, whence the Span.
palanca and palanquino, a bearer.

PALATE (Lat. palatum, possibly from the root of pascere,
to feed), the roof of the mouth in man and vertebrate animals.
The palate is divided into two parts, the anterior bony " hard
palate" (see Mouth), and the posterior fleshy " solt palate"
(see Pharynx). For the malformation consisting in a longi-
tudinal fissure in the roof of the mouth, see Cleft Palate.

PALATINATE (Ger. Pfalz), a name given generally to any
district ruled by a count palatine, but particularly to a district
of Germany, a province of the kingdom of Bavaria, lying west
of the Rhine. It is bounded on the N. by the Prussian Rhine
province and the Hessian province of Rhein-Hessen; on the E.

by Baden, from which it is separated by the Rhine; on the
S. by the imperial province of Alsace-Lorraine, from which it is
divided by the Lauter; and on the W. by the administrative
districts of Trier and Coblenz, belonging to the Prussian Rhine
province. It has an area of 2288 sq. m., and a population (1905)
of 885,280, showing a density of 386-9 to the square mile. As
regards religion, the inhabitants are fairly equally distributed
into Roman Catholics and Protestants.

The rivers in this fertile tract of country are the Rhine,
Lauter, Queich, Speirbach, Glan and BUes. The Vosges, and
their continuation the Hardt, run through the land from south
to north and divide it into the fertile and mild plain of the
Rhine, together with the slope of the Hardt range, on the east,
and the rather inclement district on the west, which, running
between the Saarbruck carboniferous mountains and the northern
spurs of the Hardt range, ends in a porphyrous cluster of hills,
the highest point of which is the Donnersberg (2254 ft.). The
country on the east side and on the slopes of the Hardt yield
a number of the most varied products, such as wine, fruit, corn,
vegetables, flax and tobacco. Cattle are reared in great
quantity and are of excellent quality. The mines yield iron,
coal, quicksilver and salt. The industries are very active,
especially in iron, machinery, paper, chemicals, shoes, woollen
goods, beer, leather and tobacco. The province is well served
by railway communication and, for purposes of administration,
is divided into the following 16 districts: Bergzabern,
Diirkheim, Fraiflienthal, Germersheim, Homburg, Kaisers-
lautern, Kirchheimbolanden, Kusel, Landau, Ludwigshafen,
Neustadt, Pirmasens, Rockenhausen, St Ingbert, Spires and
Zweibriicken. Spires (Speyer) is the seat of goverrmient, and
the chief industrial centres are Ludwigshafen on the Rhine,
which is the principal river port. Landau, and Neustadt, the
seat of the wine trade.

See A. Becker, Die Pfalz und die PJdlzer (Leipzig, 1857); Mehlis,
Fahrten durch die Pfalz (Augsburg, 1877); Kranz, Handbuch der
Pfalz (Spires, 1902); Hensen, Pfalzfuhrer (Neustadt, 1905); and
Naher, Die Biirgen der rheinischen Pfalz (Strassburg, 1887).

History. — The count palatine of the Rhine was a royal official
who is first mentioned in the loth century. The first count was
Hermann I., who ruled from 945 to 996, and although the office
was not hereditary it appears to have been held mainly by his
descendants until the death of Count Hermann III. in 11 55.
These counts had gradually extended their powers, had obtsiined
the right of advocacy over the archbishop of Trier and the
bishopric of Juliers, and ruled various isolated districts along
the Rhine. In 11 55 the German king, Frederick I., appointed
his step-brother Conrad as count palatine. Conrad took up
his residence at the castle of Juttenbuhel, near Heidelberg,
which became the capital of the Palatinate. In 1195 Conrad
was succeeded by his son-in-law Henry, son of Henry the Lion,
duke of Saxony, who was a loyal supporter of the emperor Henry
VI. After the latter's death in 1197 he assisted his own brother
Otto, afterwards the emperor Otto IV., in his attempts to gain
the German throne. Otto refused to reward Henry for this
support, so in 1204 he assisted his rival, the German king Philipj
but returned to Otto's side after Philip's murder in 1208. In
1 21 1 Henry abdicated in favour of his son Henry, who died uj
1 2 14, when the Palatinate was given by the German kirtg
Frederick II. to Otto, the infant son of Louis I., duke of Bavariu,
a member of the Wittelsbach family, who was betrothed to
Agnes, sister of the late count, Henry. The break-up of the
duchy of Franconia had increased the influence of the count
palatine of the Rhine, and the importance of his position among
the princes of the empire is shown by Roger of Hoveden, who,
writing of the election to the German throne in 1198, singles
out four princes as chief electors, among whom is the count
palatine of the Rhine. In the Sachsenspiegel, a collection of
German laws which was written before 1235, the count is given
as the butler (dapifer) of the emperor, the first place among the
lay electors.

The Palatinate was ruled by Louis of Bavaria on behalf of
his son until 1228, when it passed to Otto who ruled until his
death in 1253. Otto's possessions were soon afterwards divided,



and his elder son Louis II. received the Palatinate and Upper
Bavaria. Louis died in 1294 when these districts passed to
his son Rudolph I. (d. 1319), and subsequently to his grandson
Louis, afterwards the emperor Louis IV. By the Treaty of
Pavia in 1329, Louis granted the Palatinate to his nephews
Rudolph II. and Rupert I., who received from him at the same
time a portion of the duchy of Upper Bavaria, which was called
the upper Palatinate to distinguish it from the Rhenish, or
lower Palatinate. Rudolph died in 1353, after which Rupert
ruled alone until his death in 1390. In 1355 he had sold a
portion of the upper Palatinate to the emperor Charles IV.,
but by various purchases he increased the area of the Rhenish
Palatinate. His successor was his nephew Rupert II., who
bought from the German king Wenceslaus a portion of the
territory that his uncle had sold to Charles IV. He died in
1398 and was succeeded by his son Rupert III. In 1400 Rupert
was elected German king, and when he died in 1410 his posses-
sions were divided among his four sons: the eldest, Louis III.,
received the Rhenish Palatinate proper; the second son, John,
obtained the upper Palatinate; while the outlying districts of
Zweibriicken and Simmern passed to Stephen, and that of
Mosbach to Otto.

When the possessions of the house of Wittelsbach were
divided in 1255 and the branches of Bavaria and the Palatinate
were founded, a dispute arose over the exercise of the electoral
vote, and the question was not settled until in 1356 the Golden
Bull bestowed the privilege upon the count palatine of the
Rhine, who exercised it until 1623. The part played by Count
Frederick V., titular king of Bohemia, during the Thirty Years'
War induced the emperor Ferdinand II. to deprive him of his
vote and to transfer it to the duke of Bavaria, Maximilian I.
By the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 an eighth electorate
was created for the count palatine, to which was added the
office of treasurer. In 1777, however, the count resumed the
ancient position of his family in the electoral college, and
regained the office of steward which he retained until the formal

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