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used as a propagandist instrument in favour of the Reformed
religion. The licensing of the press by Mary greatly hindered
the production of this kind of literature. F'rom about 1570
there came an unceasing flow of Puritan pamphlets, of which
more than forty were reprinted under the title of A parte of a
register (London, Waldegrave, 4to). In 1584 was pubhshed
a tract entitled A briefc and plaine Declaration concerning the
desires of all those faithful ministers that have and do seeke
for the discipline and reformation of the Church of Englande,
believed to have been written by W. Fulke D.D. Against
this John Bridges, dean of Sarum, preached at Paul's Cross,
and expanded his sermon into what he called A defence of
the government established in the church of England (1587),
which gave rise to Oh read over D. John Bridges .... Printed
at the cost and charges of M. Mar prelate gentleman (1588), which
first gave the name to the famous Martin Marprelate tracts,
whose titles sufticiently indicate their opposition to priestly
orders and episcopacy. Bishop Cooper's Admonition to the
People of England (1589) came next, followed on the other side
by Hay any workc for Cooper . . . by Martin the Metropoli-
tane, and by others from both parties to the number of about
thirty-two. The controversy lasted ten years, and ended in
the discomfiture of the Puritans and the seizure of their secret
press. The writers on the Marprelate side are generally supposed
to have been Penry, Throgmorton, Udal and Fenner, and their
opponents Bishop Cooper, John Lilly and Nash.

As early as the middle of the i6th century we find ballads oi
news ; and in the reigns of Elizabeth and James I. small pamphlets,
translated from the German and French, and known as "news-
books," were circulated by the so-called " Mercury-women."
These were the immediate predecessors of weekly newspapers,
and continued to the end of the 17th century. A proclamation



was issued by Charles II., on the 12th of May 1680, " for
suppressing the printing and publishing of unlicensed news-books
and pamphlets of news."

In the 17th century pamphlets began to contribute more than
ever to the formation of public opinion. Nearly one hundred
were written by or about the restless John Lilburne, but still
more numerous were those of the undaunted Prynne, who him-
self published above one hundred and sixty, besides many
weighty folios and quartos. Charles I. found energetic suppor-
ters in Peter Heylin and Sir Roger L'Estrange, the latter noted
for the coarseness of his pen. The most distinguished pamphle-
teer of the period was John Milton, who began his career in this
direction by five anti-episcopal tracts (1641-1642) during the
Smectymnuus quarrel. In 1643 his wife's desertion caused
him to pubhsh anonymously Doctrine and discipline of divorce,
followed by several others on the same subject. He printed
Of Education; to Mr. Samuel Harllib in 1644, and, unlicensed
and unregistered, his famous Areopagitica — a speech for the
liberty of unlicensed printing. He defended the trial and execu-
tion of the king in Tenure of kings and magistrates {1648). The
Eikon Basilikc dispute was conducted with more ponderous
weapons than the kind we are now discussing. When Monk
held supreme power Milton addressed to him The present means
of a free commonwealth and Readie and easie way (1660), both
pleading for a commonwealth in preference to a monarchy.
John Goodwin, the author of Obstructors of Justice (1649), John
Phillipps, the nephew of Milton, and Abiezer Coppe were violent
and prohiic partisan writers, the last-named specially known
for his extreme Presbyterian principles. The tract Killing no
murder (1657), aimed at Cromwell, and attributed to Colonel
Titus or Colonel Sexby, excited more attention than any other
political effusion of the time. The history of the Civil War period
is told day by day in the well-known collection made by George
Thomason the bookseller, now preserved in the British Museum.
It includes pamphlets, books, newspapers and MSS. relating
to the CivU War, the Commonwealth and Restoration, and
numbers 22,255 pieces ranging from 1640 to 1661, and is bound
in 2008 volumes. Each article was dated by Thomason at the
time of acquisition. William Miller was another bookseller
famous for his collection of pamphlets (1600-1710), which were
catalogued by Tooker. William Laycock printed a Proposal for
raising a fund for buying them up for the nation.

The Catholic controversy during the reign of James II. gave
rise to a multitude of books and pamphlets, which have been
described by Peck {Catalogue, 1735) and by Jones (Catalogue,
Chetham Society, 2 vols., 1859-1865). Pohtics were naturally
the chief feature of the floating literature connected with the
Revolution of 1688. The political tracts of Lord Halifax are
interesting both in matter and manner. He wrote The character
of a trimmer (1688), circulated in MS. as early as 1685. About
the middle of the reign Defoe was introduced to William III.,
and produced the first of his pamphlets on occasional conformity.
He issued in 1607 his two defences of standing armies in support
of the government, and pubhshed sets of tracts on the partition
treaty, the union with Scotland, and many other subjects.
His Shortest Way with the Dissenters (1702) placed him in the

Under Queen Anne pamphlets arrived at a remarkable degree
of importance. Never before or since has this method of
publication been used by such masters of thought and language.
Political writing of any degree of authority was almost entirely
confined to pamphlets. If the Whigs were able to command
the services of Addison and Steele, the Tories fought with the
terrible pen of Swift. Second in power if not in literary ability
were Bolingbroke, Somers, Atterbury, Prior and Pulteney.
The government viewed with a jealous eye the free use of this
powerful instrument, and St John seized upon fourteen book-
sellers and publishers in one day for " libels " upon the adminis-
tration (see Annals of Queen Anne, Oct. 23, 1711). In 1712
a duty was laid upon newspapers and pamphlets, displeasing
all parties, and soon falling into disuse. Bishop Hoadly's

sermon on the kingdom of Christ (1717), denying that there was
any such thing as a visible Church of Christ, occasioned the
Bangorian controversy, which produced nearly two hundred
pamphlets. Soon after this period party-writing declined from
its comparatively high standard and fell into meaner and venal
hands. Under George III. Bute took Dr Shebbeare from
Newgate in order to employ his pen. The court party received
the support of a few able pamphlets, among which may be men-
tioned The consideration of the German War against the policy
of Pitt, and The prerogative droit de Roy (1764) vindicating the
prerogative. We must not forget that although Samuel Johnson
was a pensioned scribe he has for an excuse that his poUtical
tracts are his worst performances. Edmund Burke, on the
other hand, has produced in this form some of his most valued
writings. The troubles in America and the union between
Ireland and Great Britain are subjects which are abundantly
illustrated in pamphlet literature.

Early in the 19th century the rise of the quarterly reviews
threw open a new channel of publicity to those who had pre-
viously used pamphlets to spread their opinions, and later on the
rapid growth of monthly magazines and weekly reviews afforded
controversialists a much more certain and extensive circulation
than they could ensure by an isolated publication. Although
pamphlets are no longer the sole or most important factor of
pubhc opinion, the minor literature of great events is never
likely to be entirely confined to periodicals. The following
topics, which might be largely increased in number, have each
been discussed by a multitude of pamphlets, most of which,
however, are Hkely to have been hopeless aspirants for a more
certain means of preservation: the Bullion Question (1810),
the Poor Laws (1828-1834), Tracts for the Times and the ensuing
controversy (1833-1845), Dr Hampden (1836), the Canadian
Revolt (1837-1838), the Corn Laws (1841-1848), Gorham Contro-
versy (1849-1850), Crimean War and Indian Mutiny (1854-1859),
Schleswig-Holstein (1863-1864), Ireland (1868-1869), the Franco-
German War, with Dame Europa's School and its imitators
(1870-1871), Vaticanism, occasioned by Mr Gladstone's Vatican
Decrees (1874), the Eastern Question (1877-1880), the Irish Land
Laws (1880-1882), Ireland and Home Rule (1885-1886), South
African War (1899-1902) and Tariff Reform (1903).

France. — The activity of the French press in putting forth
small tracts in favour of the Reformed religion caused the Sor-
bonne in 1523 to petition the king to abolish the diabolical art
of printing. Even one or two sheets of printed matter were
found too cumbersome, and single leaves or placards were issued
in such numbers that they were the subject of a special edict
on the 28th of September 1553. An ordonnance of February
1566 was specially directed against libellous pamphlets and
those who wrote, printed or even possessed them. The rivalry
between Francis I. and Charles V. gave rise to many pohtical
pamphlets, and under Francis II. the Guises were attacked by
similar means. Fr. Hotman directed his Epistre envoiee au tygre
de France against the Cardinal de Lorraine. The Valois and
Henry III. in particular were severely handled in Les Hermaphro-
dites {c. 1605), which was followed by a long series of imitations.
Between Francis I. and Charles IX. the general tone of the
pamphlet-literature was grave and pedantic. From the latter
period to the death of Henry IV. it became more cruel and

The Satyre Menippee (1594), one of the most perfect models of
the pamphlet in the language, did infinite harm to the League. The
pamphlets against the Jesuits were many and violent. Pere Richeome
defended the order in Chasse du renard Pasquier (1603), the latter
person being their vigorous opponent £tienne Pasquier. On the
death of the king the country was filled with appeals for revenge
against the Jesuits for his murder; the best known of them was the
Anti-Coton (161 1), generally attributed to C^sar de Plaix. During
the regency of Mary de' Medici the pamphlet changed its severer
form to a more facetious type. In spite of the danger of such proceed-
ing under the uncompromising ministry of Richelieu, there was tio
lack of libels upon him, which were even in most instances printed in
France. These largely increased during the Fronde, but it was Mazarin
who was the subject of more of this literature than any other historical



personage. It has been calculated that from the Parisian press
alone there came sufficient Mazarinades to fill 150 quarto volumes
each of 400 pages. Eight hundred were published during the siege
of Paris (Feb. 8 to March il, 1649). A collection of satirical
pieces was entitled Tableau da gouvernement de Richelieu, Mazarin,
Fonquct, et Colbert (1693). Pamphlets dealing with the amours of
the king and his courtiers were in vogue in the time of Louis XIV.,
the most caustic of them being the Carte geo^raphique de la cotir
{1668) of Bussy-Rabutin. The presses of Holland and the Low
Countries teemed with tracts against Colbert, Le Tellier, Louvois
and Pere Lachaise. The first of the ever-memorable Provinciales
appeared on the 23rd of January 1656, under the title of Letire de
Louis de Montalte d, un provincial de ses amis, and the remaining
eighteen came out at regular intervals during the ne.\t fifteen months.
They excited extraordinary attention throughout Europe. The Jesuit
replies were feeble and ineffectual. John Law and the schemes of
the bubble period caused much popular raillery. During the long
reign of Louis XV. the distinguished names of Voltaire, Rousseau,
Montesquieu, Diderot, D'Alembert, D'Holbach, Helvetius and
Beaumarchais must be added to the list of writers in this class.

The preliminary struggle between the parliament and the Crown
gave rise to hundreds of pamphlets, which grew still more numerous
as the Revolution approached Linguet and Mirabeau began their
appeals to the people. Camille Desmoulins came into notice as
a publicist during the elections for the states-general; but perhaps
the piece which caused the most sensation was the Qu'esl ce que le
Tiers £tat (1789) of the Abbe Sieyes. The Domine salvuin fac
regem and Pange lingua (1789) were two royalist brochures of
unsavoury memory. The queen was the subject of vile attack
and indiscreet defence (see H. d'Almeras, Marie Antoinette el les
pamphlets, 1907). The financial disorders of 1790 occasioned the
Effets des assignats sur le prix du pain of Dupont de Nemours;
Necker was attacked in the Criminelle Neckerologie of Marat; and
the Vrai miroir de la noblesse dragged the titled names of France
through the mire. The massacre of the Champ de Mars, the death
of Mirabeau, and the flight of the king in 1791, the noyades of
Lyons and the crime of Charlotte Corday in 1793, and the terrible
winter of 1794 have each their respective pamphlet literature,
more or less violent in tone. Perhaps the most complete collection
of French revolutionary pamphlets is that in the Bibliotheque
Nationale; the British Museum possesses a wonderful collection
formed by John Wilson Croker. Under the consulate and the
empire the only writers of note who ventured to seek this method
of appealing to the world were Mme de Stael, B. Constant and
Chateaubriand. The royalist reaction in 1816 was the cause of
the Petition of Paul Louis Courier, the first of those brilliant pro-
ductions of a master of the art. He gained the distinction of judicial
procedure with his Simple Discours in 1821, and published in 1824
his last political work, Le Pamphlet des pamphlets, the most eloquent
justification of the pamphlet ever penned. The Memoire d, con-
suiter of Montlosier attacked the growing power of the Congregation.
The year 1827 saw an augmentation of severity in the press laws
and the establishment of the censure. The opposition also increased
in power and activity, but found its greatest support in the songs
of Beranger and the journalism of Mignet, Thiers and Carrel.
M. de Comenin was the chief pamphleteer of the reign of Louis
Philippe. The events of 1848 gave birth to a number of pamphlets,
chiefly pale copies of the more virile writings of the first revolution.
Among the few men of power Louis Veuillot was the Pere Duchesne
of the Clericals and Victor Hugo the Camille Desmoulins or Marat
of the Republicans. After 1852 there was no lack of venal apologies
of the coup d'etat. The second empire suffered from many bitter
attacks, among which may be mentioned the Lettre sur I'histoire
de France (1861) of the Due d'Aumale, Propos de Labienus (1865)
of Rogeard, Dialogue aux enfers (1864) of Maurice Joly and Ferry's
Comptes fantastiques d' Haussmann (1868). In more recent times
the Panama prosecutions and the Dreyfus case gave occasion to an
immense pamphlet literature.

Germany. — In Germany, the cradle of printing, the pamphlet
(Flugsckrifl) was soon a recognized and popular vehicle of
thought, and the fierce religious controversies of the Reformation
period afforded a unique opportunity for its use. The employ-
ment of the pamphlet in this connexion was characteristic of
the new age. In coarse and violent language the pamphlets
appealed directly to the people, whose sympathy the leaders
of the opposing parties were most anxious to secure, and their
issue on an enormous scale was undoubtedly one of the most
potent influences in rousing the German people against the pope
and the Roman Catholic Church. In general their tone was
extremely intemperate, and they formed, as one authority has
described those of a century later, " a mass of panegyric, admoni-
tion, invective, controversy and scurrility." Luther was one of
the earliest and most effective writers of the polemical pamphlet.
His adherents quickly followed his example, and his opponents
also were not slow to avail themselves of a weapon which was

proving itself so powerful. So intense at this time did this
pamphlet war become that Erasmus wrote " apud Germanos, vix
quicquam vendibile est practer Lutherana ae anti Lulherana."

A remarkable feature was the coarseness of many of these
pamphlets. No sense of decency or propriety restrained their
writers in dealing either with sacred or with secular subjects, and
this attracted the notice of the imperial authorities, who were also
alarmed by the remarkable growth of disorder, attributable in part
at least to the wide circulation of pamphlet literature. Accordingly
the issue of libellous pamphlets was forbidden by order of the diet
of Nuremberg in 1524, and again by the diets of Spires in 1529,
of Augsburg in 1530 and of Regensburg in 1541, while in 1589 the
emperor Rudolph II. fulminated against them.

The usual method of selling these pamphlets was by means of
hawkers. J. Janssen (History of the German People, Eng. trans.,
vol. iii.) says these men " went about in swarms offering pamphlets,
caricatures and lampoons for sale; in the larger towns vendors
of every description of printed matter jostled each other in the

The controversies of the earlier period of the Thirty Years' War,
when this struggle was German rather than international, produced
a second flood of pamphlets, which possessed the same characteristics
as the earlier one. In the disturbed years also which preceded the
actual outbreak of war attempts were made in pamphlets to justify
almost every action, however unjust or dishonourable, while at the
same time those who held different opinions were mercilessly and
scurrilously attacked. The leading German princes were among
the foremost to use pamphlets in this connexion, especially perhaps
Maximilian of Bavaria and Christian of Anhalt.

Literature. — An excellent catalogue by W. Oldys of the pam-
phlets in the Harleian Library is added to the loth volume of the
edition of the Miscellany by T. Park; and in the Biblioteca volante
di G. Cinelli (2nd ed., 4 vols. 4to, 1734-1747) may be seen a
bibliography of pamphlet-literature, chiefly Italian and Latin, with
notes. See also Cat. of the three collections of books, pamphlets, &c., in
the British Museum on the French Rev., 1899; Cat. of the Thomason
books, pamphlets &c., 1908, 2 vols. A few of the more representative
collections of pamphlets in English may be mentioned. These
are: The Phenix (2 vols. 8vo, 1707); Morgan's Phoenix britannicus
(4to, 1732); Bishop Edmund Gibson's Preservative against Popery
(3 vols, folio, 1738, new ed., 18 vols. sm. 8vo, 1848-1849), consisting
chiefly of the anti-Catholic discourses of James II. s time; The
Harleian Miscellany (8 vols. 410, 1744-1753; new ed. by T. Park,
10 vols. 4to, 1808-18x3, containing 600 to 700 pieces illustrative
of English history, from the library of Edward Harley, carl of
Oxford) ; Collection of scarce and valuable tracts [known as Lord Somers'
Tracts] (16 parts 4to, 1748-1752, 2nd ed. by Sir W. Scott, 13 vols.
4to, 1 809-1 8 1 5), also full of matter for English history; The
Pamphleteer (29 vols. 8vo, 1813-1828), containing the best pamphlets
of that day; and Arthur Waugh, The Pamphlet Library (4 vols.
8vo, 1897-1898), giving examples of political, religious and literarj-
pamphlets from Wyclif to Newman, with historical essays.

For the derivation of the word pamphlet consult Skeat's Etymo-
logical Z)/c/. ; Pegge's Anonymiana; Notes and Queries, 3rd series,
vol. iv. pp. 315, 379, 462, 482, vol. v. pp. 167, 290; 6th series, vol.
ii. p. 156; 7th series, vol. vi. pp. 261, 432; Murray's New English
Diet. vol. vii. The general history of the subject may be traced in
M. Davies, Icon libellorum (1715); W. Oldys, "History of the
Origin of Pamphlets," in Morgan's Phoenix Brit, and Nichols's
Lit. Anecdotes; Dr Johnson's Introduction to the Harleian Miscellany;
D'Israeli, Amenities of Literature ; Revue des deux mondes (April I,
1846); Irish Quart. Review, vii. 267; Edinburgh Review (Oct. 1855);
Quarterly Review (April 1908); The Library, new series, vol i. 298;
Huth's Ancient Ballads and Broadsides (Philobiblon Soc.) ; W. Mas-
kell, Martin-Marprelate Controversy (1845); E. Arber, Sketch of
Marprelate Controversy (1895); W. Pierce, Hist. Introd. to the Mar-
prelate Tracts (1908); T. Jones, Cat. of collection of tracts for and
against Popery — the whole of Peck's lists and his references (Chetham
Soc, 1856-1865); Blakey's Hist, of Political Literature; Andrews,
Hist, of British Journalism; Larousse, Grand Diet. Universel; Nodier,
Sur la liberie de la presse; Leber, De L'etat reel de la presse (1834) ;
Moreau, Bibliographie des mazarinades (1850-1851); Bulletin du
Bibliophile Beige (1859-1862); Nisard, Hist, des livres populaires
(1854); A. Germond de Lavigne, Des Pamphlets de la fin de
I'empire, &c. 1814-1817, Catalogue (Paris, 1879); Paris, Bibl.
nationale, catalogue des Factums, etc., anterieurs d //po, by A. Corda,
Paris, 1890; A. Maire, Repertoire des theses de doctorates lettres des
universites frangaises 1810-IQOO (Paris, 1903) ; and the annual
Catalogue des Thises et Merits .Academtques (Hachette) 1885-1910.
For German academical dissertations see G. Fock, Calalogus disserta-
tionum philologicorum classicarum (Leipzig, 1894), and many special
catalogues by Klussmann (1889-190^), Kukula (1892-1893).
Milkan (for Bonn, 1818-1885), Pretzsch (for Breslau, 1811-1885)
and others. For Dutch pamphlets see L. D. Petit, Bibliotheck van
nederlandsche Pamfletten (2 vols. 4to, Hague, 1 882-1 884); and
W. P. C. Knuttel, Calalogus van de Pamfletten Verzameting
berustende in de K. Bibliotheck 1486-17QS (5 parts 4to, Hague, 1889-
1905). For methods of dealing with pamphlets in libraries, see
various articles in Library Journal (1880, 1887, 1889, 1894). (H. R. T.)



PAMPHYLIA, in ancient geography, the region in the south
of Asia Minor, between Lycia and Cihcia, extending from the
Mediterranean to Mt Taurus. It was bounded on the N. by
Pisidia and was therefore a country of small extent, having a
coast-Une of only about 75 m. with a breadth of about 30 m.
There can be little doubt that the Pamphylians and Pisidians
were the same people, though the former had received colonies
from Greece and other lands, and from this cause, combined with
the greater fertility of their territory, had become more civilized
than their neighbours in the interior. But the distinction
between the two seems to have been established at an early
period. Herodotus, who does not mention the Pisidians,
enumerates the PamphyHans among the nations of Asia Minor,
while Ephorus mentions them both, correctly including the one
among the nations on the coast, the other among those of the
interior. The early Pamphylians, like the Lycians, had an
alphabet of their own, partly Greek, partly " Asianic," which a
few inscriptions on marble and coins preserve. Under the
Roman administration the term PamphyUa was extended so as
to include Pisidia and the whole tract up to the frontiers of
Phrygia and Lycaonia, and in this wider sense it is employed by

Pamphylia consists almost entirely of a plain, extending from
the slopes of Taurus to the sea, but this plain, though presenting
an unbroken level to the eye, does not all consist of alluvial
deposits, but is formed in part of travertine. " The rivers
pouring out of the caverns at the base of the Lycian and Pisidian
ranges of the Taurus come forth from their subterranean courses
charged with carbonate of lime, and are continually adding to
the Pamphylian plain. They build up natural aqueducts of
limestone, and after flowing for a time on these elevated beds
burst their walls and take a new course. Consequently it is
very difficult to reconcile the accounts of this district, as trans-
mitted by ancient authors, with its present aspect and the
distribution of the streams which water it. By the sea-side in
the west of the district the travertine forms cliffs from 20 to
80 ft. high " (Forbes's Lycia, ii. 1S8). Strabo describes a
river which he terms Catarractes as a large stream falling with
a great noise over a lofty chff. This is the cataract near Adalia.
East of Adalia is the Cestrus, and beyond that again the
Eurymedon.both of which were considerable streams, navigable
in antiquity for some little distance from the sea. Near the
mouth of the latter was a lake called Caprias, mentioned by
Strabo; but it is now a mere salt marsh.

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