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revolution brought about by the invention of pistons.

The invention of the ophicleide is generally but falsely attributed
to Alexandre Frichot, a professor of music at Lisieux, department of
Calvados, France. The instrument, which the inventor called
" basse-trompette," was approved of as early as 13th November
1806 bv a commission composed of professors of the Paris Con-

' Gerber, Lexicon der Tonkiinstler (Leipzig, 1790).
" Lexikon, edition of 1812.



servatoire, but the patent bears the date 31st December 1810. The
" basse-trompette," which Frichot in his specification had at first,
in imitation of the English basshorn, called " basse cor," was, like
the English instrument, entirely of brass, and had, like it, six holes;
it only differed in a more favourable disposition brought about by
the curvings of the tube, and by the application of four crooks
which permitted the instrument to be tuned " in C low pitch and
C high pitch for military bands, in C# for ehurches, and in D for
concert use." The close relationship between the two instruments
suggests the question whether this was the Frichot who worked with
Astor in London in 1800.

The first idea of adding keys to instruments with cupped mouth-
pieces, unprovided with lateral holes, with the aim of filling up some
of the gaps between the notes of the harmonic scale, goes back,
according to Gerber {Lexicon of 1790), to Kolbcl, a horniilayer in
the Russian imperial band, about 1760. Anton Weidinger,-' trumpeter
in the Austrian imperial band, improved upon this first attempt,
and applied it in 1800 to the trumpet. But the honour belongs to
Joseph Halliday, bandmaster of the Cavan militia, of being the first
to conceive, in 1 8 10, the disposition of a certain number of keys
along the tube, setting out from its lower extremity, with the idea
of producing by their successive or simultaneous opening a chromatic
scale throughout the extent of the instrument The tjugle-horn
was the object of his reform; the scale of which, he says, in the
preamble of his patent, " until my invention contained but five



— j. My improvements on that



tones, VIZ.

instrument are five keys, to be used by the performer according
to the annexed scale, which, with its five original notes, render it
capable of producing twenty-five separate tones in
regular progression." Fig. i represents the keyed
bugle of Joseph Halliday.

It was not until 1815 that the use of the new
instrument spread upon the Continent. We find
in the account-books of a Belgian maker, Tuer-
linckx of Mechlin, that his first supply of a bugle-
horn bears the date of 25th March 1815, and it was
made " aen den Hecr Muldener, lieutenant in
hct regiment due d'York."

The acoustic principle inaugurated by Halliday
consisted in binding together by chromatic degrees

the second and third harmonics,

Fig. I . — Keyed
He attained it, as we have just seen, Bugle.




by the help of five keys. The principle once discovered, it became
easy to extend it to instruments of the largest size, of which the
compass, as in the " basson russe," began with the fundamental
sound. It was simply necessary to bind this fundamental

s2^ to the next harmonic sound



^ ^ -^- by a larger number of keys. This



was done in 181 7 by Jean Hilaire Aste, known
as Halary, a professor of music and instru-
ment-maker at Paris. We find the description
of the instruments for which he sought a
patent in the Rapport de I' Academie Royale
des Beaux-Arts de I' Institut de France, meeting
of the i9thof July 1817. These instruments were
three in number: (l) the clavi-tube, a keyed
trumpet; (2) the quinti-tube, or quinti-clave;
(3) the ophicleide, a keyed serpent. The clavi-
tube was no other than the bugle-horn slightly
modified in some details of construction, and
reproduced in the different tonalities Ab, F, Eb,
D, C, Bb, A and Ab. The quinti-tube had
nearly the form of a bassoon, and was, in the
first instance, armed with eight keys and
constructed in two tonalities, F and Eb. This
was the instrument afterwards named " alto
ophicleide." The ophicleide (fig. 2) had the
same form as the quinti-tube. It was at first
adjusted with nine or ten keys, and the
number was carried on to twelve — each key
to give a semitone (additional patent of l6th
August 1822). The ophicleide or bass of the
harmony was made in C and in Bb, the contra-bass in F and in Eb.'

' The announcement of Weidinger's invention of a Klappen-
irompete, or trumpet with keys, appears in the Allg. musik. Ztg.
(Leipzig, November 1802), p. 158; and further accounts are given in
January 1803, p. 245, and 1815, p. 844.

* The report of the Academie des Beaux-Arts on the subject of this
invention shows a strange misconception of it, which it is interesting
to recall. " As to the two instruments which M. Halary designs




F1G.2. — Ophicleide

of Halarj'.



128



OPHIR— OPHTHALMOLOGY



It is certain that from the point of view of invention Halary's
labours had only secondary importance; but, if the principle of
keyed chromatic instruments with cupped mouthpiece' goes back
to Halliday, it was Halary's merit to know how to take advantage
of the principle in extending it to instruments of diverse tonalities,
in grouping them in one single family, that of the bugles, in so com-
plete a manner that the improvements of modern manufacture have
not widened its limits either in the grave or the acute direction.
Keyed chromatic wind instruments made their way rapidly ; to their
introduction into militar>- full or brass bands we can date the
regeneration of military music. After pistons had been invented
some forty years, instruments with keys could still reckon their
partisans. Now these have utterly disappeared, and pistons or
rotary cylinders remain absolute masters of the situation.

(V. M.; K. S.)

OPHIR, a region celebrated in antiquity for its gold, which
was proverbially fine (Job xxii. 24, xxviii. 16; Psalms xlv. 9;
Isa. xiii. 12). Thence Solomon's Phoenician sailors brought gold
for their master (i Kings ix. 28, x. 11; 2 Chron. viii. 18, ix. 10);
Ophir gold was stored up among the materials for the Temple (i
Chron. xxix. 4). Jehoshaphat, attempting to follow his ancestors'
example, was foiled by the shipwreck of his navy (i Kings xxii.
48). The situation of the place has been the subject of much
controversy.

The only indications whereby it can be identified are its
connexion, in the geographical table (Gen. x. 20), with Sheba
and Havilah, the latter also an auriferous country (Gen. ii. 11),
and the fact that ships saihng thither started from Ezion-Geber
at the head of the Red Sea. It must, therefore, have been
somewhere south or east of Suez; and must be known to be a
gold-bearing region. The suggested identification with the
Egyptian Punt is in itself disputable, and it would be more
helpful if we knew exactly where Punt was (see Egypt).

(i) East Africa. — This has, perhaps, been the favourite theory
in recent years, and it has been widely popularized by the
sensational works of Theodore Bent and others, to say nothing
of one of Rider Haggard's novels. The centre of speculation
is a group of extensive ruins at Zimbabwe, in Mashonaland,
about 200 m. inland from Sofala. Many and wild words have
been written on these imposing remains. But the results
of the saner researches of Randall Maclver, announced first
at the South Africa meeting of the British Association (1905)
and later communicated to the Royal Geographical Society,
have robbed these structures of much of their glamour; from
being the centres of Phoenician and Hebrew industry they have
sunk to be mere magnified kraals, not more than three or four
hundred years old.

(2) The Far East. — Various writers, following Josephus and
the Greek version, have placed Ophir in different parts of the
Far East. A chief argument in favour of this view is the length
of the voyages of Solomon's vessels (three years were occupied
in the double voyage, going and returning, i Kings x. 22) and
the nature of the other imports that they brought — " almug-
trees " {i.e. probably sandal- wood) , ivory, apes and peacocks.
This, however, proves nothing. It is nowhere said that these
various imports all came from one place; and the voyages must
have been somewhat analogous to those of modern " coasting
tramps," which would necessarily consume a considerable time
over comparatively short journeys. It has been sought at

under the names of ' quinti-clave ' and ' ophicleide, ' they bear a great
resemblance to those submitted to the Academy in the sitting of the
nth of March 181 1 by M. Dumas, which he designed under the
names of ' basse et contrebasse guerrieres.' . . . The opinion of our
commission on the quinti-clave and ophicleide is that M. Halary can
only claim the merit of an improvement and not that of an entire
invention; still, for an equitable judgment on this point, we should
compare the one with the other, and this our commission cannot do,
not having the instruments of M. Dumas at our disposal." This is
what the commission ought to have had, but it would have sufficed
had they referred to the report of the sittings of 6th and 8th April,
in which it is clearly explained that the instruments presented by
M. Dumas were bass clarinets (Moniteur Universel of 19th April
1811).

' We designedly omit the use of the word " brass " to qualify
these instruments. The substance which determines the form of a
column of air is demonstrably indifferent for the timbre or quality of
tone so long as the sides of the tubes are equally elastic and rigid.



Abhira, at the mouth of the Indus (where, however, there is no
gold); at Supara, in Goa; and at a certain Mount Ophir in
Johore.

(3) Arabia. — On the whole the most satisfactory theory is
that Ophir was in some part of Arabia — whether south or east
is disputed, and (with the indications at our disposal) probably
cannot be settled. Arabia was known as a gold-producing
countrj' to the Phoenicians (Ezek. xxvii. 22); Sheba certainly,
and Havilah probably, are regions of Arabia, and these are
coupled with Ophir in Genesis x.; and the account of the arrival
of the navy in i Kings x. 11, is strangely interpolated into the
story of the visit of the queen of Sheba, perhaps because there
is a closer connexion between the two events than appears at
first sight.

Historians have been at a loss to know what Solomon could
give in exchange for the gold of Ophir and the costly gifts of
the queen of Sheba. Mr K. T. Frost {Expos. Times, Jan. 1905)
shows that by his command of the trade routes Solomon was able
to balance Phoenicians and Sabaeans against each other, and
that his Ophir gold would be paid for by trade facihties and
protection of caravans. (R. A. S. M.)

OPHITES, or Ophians (Gr. 6<^is, Heb. Binj, " snake "), known
also as Naasenes, an early sect of Gnostics described by
Hippolytus {Philosoph. v.), Irenaeus {adv. Haer. i. 11), Origen
{Contra Celsum, vi. 25 seq. and Epiphanius {Haer. xxvi.). The
account given by Irenaeus may be taken as representative
of these descriptions which vary partly as referring to different
groups, partly to different dates. The honour paid by them
to the serpent is connected with the old mythologies of Babylon
and Egypt as well as with the popular cults of Greece and the
Orient. It was particularly offensive to Christians as tending
to dishonour the Creator who is set over against the serpent
as bad against good. The Ophite system had its Trinity: (i) the
Universal God, the First Man, (2) his conception {ivvoLo), the
Second Man, (3) a female Holy Spirit. From her the Third Man
(Christ) was begotten by the First and Second. Christ flew
upward with his mother, and in their ascent a spark of hght
fell on the waters as Sophia. From this contact came laldabaoth
the Demiurgos, who in turn produced six powers and with them
created the seven heavens and from the dregs of matter the
Nous of serpent form, from whom are spirit and soul, evil and
death. laldabaoth then announced himself as the Supreme,
and when man (created by the six powers) gave thanks for
life not to laldabaoth but to the First Man, laldabaoth created
a woman (Eve) to destroy him. Then Sophia or Prunikos sent
the serpent (as a benefactor) to persuade Adam and Eve to eat
the tree of knowledge and so break the commandment of lalda-
baoth, who banished them from paradise to earth. After a long
war between mankind aided by Prunikos against laldabaoth
(this is the inner story of the Old Testament), the Holy Spirit
sends Christ to the earth to enter (united with his sister Prunikos)
the pure vessel, the virgin-born Jesus. Jesus Christ worked
miracles and declared himself the Son of the First Man. lalda-
baoth instigated the Jews to kill him, but only Jesus died on
the cross, for Christ and Prunikos had departed from him.
Christ then raised the spiritual body of Jesus which remained
on earth for eighteen months, initiating a small circle of elect
disciples. Christ, received into heaven, sits at the right hand
of laldabaoth, whom he deprives of glory and receives the souls
that are his own. In some circles the serpent was identified
with Prunikos. There are some resemblances to the Valentinian
system, but whereas the great Archon sins in ignorance,
laldabaoth sins against knowledge; there is also less of Greek
philosophy in the Ophite system.

See King, The Gnostics and their Remains (London, 1887); G.
Salmon, art. " Ophites " mDict. Chr. Biog.

OPHTHALMOLOGY (Gr. o^eaX/iOS, eye), the science of the
anatomy, physiology and pathology of the eye (see Eve and
Vision). From the same Greek word come numerous other
derivatives: e.g. ophthalmia, the general name for conjunctival
inflammations (see Eye diseases, under Eye) ; and the instruments
ophthalmometer and ophthalmoscope (see Vision).



OPIE, A.— OPITZ VON BOBERFELD



129



OPIE, AMELIA (1760-1853), English author, daughter of
James Alderson, a physician in Norwich, and was born there-
on the 1 2th of November 1760. Miss Alderson had inherited
radical principles and was an ardent admirer of Home Tooke.
She was intimate with the Kembles and with Mrs Siddons,
with Godwin and Mary Wollstonecraft. In 1708 she married
John Opie, the painter. The nine years of her married life
were very happy, although her husband did not share her love
of society. He encouraged her to write, and in 1801 she produced
a novel entitled Father and Daughter, which showed genuine
fancy and pathos. She published a volume of graceful verse
in i3o2; Adeline Mowbray followed in 1804, Simple Tales in
1806, Temper in 181 2, Tales of Real Life in 1S13, Valentine's
Eiie in 1816, Tales of the Heart in 1818, and Madeline in 1822.
At length, in 1825, through the influence of Joseph John Gurncy,
she joined the Society of Friends, and beyond a volume entitled
Detraction Displayed, and contributions to periodicals, she
wrote nothing more. The rest of her life was spent in travelling
and in the exercise of charity. Mrs Opie retained her vivacity
to the last, dying at Norwich on the 2nd of December 1853.

A Life, by Miss C. L. Brightwell, was published in 1854.

OPIE, JOHN (1761-1807), English historical and portrait
painter, was born at St Agnes near Truro in May 1761. He
early showed a taste for drawing, besides having at the age
of twelve mastered Euclid and opened an evening school for
arithmetic and writing. Before long he won some local reputation
by portrait-painting; and in 1780 he started for London, under
the patronage of Dr Wolcot (Peter Pindar). Opie was introduced
to the town as " The Cornish Wonder," a self-taught genius.
The world of fashion, ever eager for a new sensation, was
attracted; the carriages of the wealthy blocked the street
in which the painter resided, and for a time he reaped a rich
harvest by his portraits. But soon the fickle tide of popularity
flowed past him, and the painter was left neglected. He now
applied himself with redoubled diligence to correcting the
defects which marred his art, meriting the praise of his rival
Northcote — " Other artists paint to live; Opie lives to paint."
At the same time he sought to supplement his early education
by the study of Latin and French and of the best English classics,
and to polish the rudeness of his provincial manners by mixing
in cultivated and learned circles. In 1786 he exhibited his first
important historical subject, the" Assassination of James I., "and
in the following year the " Murder of Rizzio," a work whose merit
was recognized by the artist's immediate election as associate
of the Academy, of which he became a full member in 1788. He
was employed on five subjects for Boydell's " Shakespeare
Gallery "; and until his death, on the gth of April 1807, his
practice alternated between portraiture and historical work.
His productions are distinguished by breadth of handling and
a certain rude vigour, individuality and freshness. They are
wanting in grace, elegance and poetic feeUng. Opie is also
favourably known as a writer on art by his Life of Reynolds in
Wolcot's edition of Pilkington, his Letter on the Cultivation
of the Fine Arts in England, in which he advocated the formation
of a national gallery, and his Lectures as professor of painting
to the Royal Academy, which were published in 1809, with a
memoir of the artist by his widow (see above).

OPINION (Lat. opinio, from opinari, to think), a term used
loosely in ordinary speech for an idea or an explanation of
facts which is regarded as being based on evidence which is
good but not conclusive. In logic it is used as a translation
of Gr. 66^a, which plays a prominent part in Greek philosophy
as the opposite of knowledge {iwiarr^fxT] or aKrid(ia). The
distinction is drawn by Parmenides, who contrasts the sphere of
truth or knowledge with that of opinion, which deals with mere
appearance, error, not-being. So Plato places 56^a between
aicrdr)(ns and Siai'ota, as dealing with phenomena contrasted
with non-being and being respectively. Thus Plato confines
opinion to that which is subject to change. Aristotle, retaining
the same idea, assigns to opinion (especially in the Ethics) the
sphere of things contingent, i.e. the future: hence opinion
deals with that which is probable. More generally he uses



jjopulur opinion — that which is generally held to be true {8oKttv)
— as the starting-point of an inquiry. In modern philosophy
the term has been used for various conceptions all having
much the same connotation. The absence of any universally
acknowledged definition, especially such as would contrast
" opinion " with " belief," " faith " and the like, deprives it
of any status as a philosophic term.

OPITZ VON BOEERFELD. MARTIN (1597-1639), German
poet, was born at Bunzlau in Silesia on the 23rd of December
1507, the son of a prosperous citizen. He received his early
education at the Gymnasium of his native town, of which
his uncle was rector, and in 1617 attended the high school —
" Schonaichianum " — at Beuthen, where he made a special
study of French, Dutch and Italian poetry. In 1618 he entered
the university of Frankfort-on-Oder as a student of literac
humaniorcs, and in the same year published his first essay,
Aristarchus, sive De contcmptu linguae Teutonicac, a plea for
the purification of the German language from foreign adultera-
tion. In 1619 he went to Heidelberg, where he became the leader
of the school of young poets which at that time made that
university town remarkable. Visiting Leiden in the following
year he sat at the feet of the famous Dutch lyric poet Daniel
Heinsius (1580-1655), whose Lobgcsang Jesu Christi and
Lobgesang Bacchi he had already translated into alexandrines.
After being for a short year (1622) professor of philosophy at
the Gymnasium of Weissenburg (now Karlsburg) in Transylvania,
he led a wandering life in the service of various territorial
nobles. In 1624 he was appointed counciflor to Duke George
Rudolf of Liegnitz and Brieg in Silesia, and in 1625, as reward
for a requiem poem composed on the death of Archduke Charles
of Austria, was crowned laureate by the emperor Ferdinand
II. who a few years later ennobled him under the title " von
Boberfeld." He was elected a member of the Fricchtbringende
Gesellschaft in 1629, and in 1630 went to Paris, where he made
the acquaintance of Hugo Grotius. He settled in 1635 at
Danzig, where Ladislaus IV. of Poland made him his historio-
grapher and secretary. Here he died of the plague on the 20th
of August 1639.

Opitz was the head of the so-called First Silesian School
of poets(see G'ER'many -.Literature), and was during his life regarded
as the greatest German poet. Although he would not to-day
be considered a poetical genius, he may justly claim to have
been the " father of German poetry " in respect at least of its
form; his Buch von der dcutschen Poeterey (1624) put an end
to the hybridism that had until then prevailed, and established
rules for the " purity " of language, style, verse and rhyme.
Opitz's own poems are in accordance with the rigorous rules
which he laid down. They are mostly a formal and sober
elaboration of carefully considered themes, and contain little
beauty and less feeling. To this didactic and descriptive category
belong his best poems, Trosi-Gedichte in Widerwdrtigkeil des
Krieges (written 1621, but not published till 1633); Zlatna,
oder von Ruhe des Gemiits (1622); Lob des Feldlebens (1623);
Vielgut, oder vont wahren Gliick (1629), and Vesuvius (1633).
These contain some vivid poetical descriptions, but are in the
main treatises in poetical form. In 1624 Opitz pubHshed a
collected edition of his poetry under the title Acht Biicher
deutscher Poematum (though, owing to a mistake on the part
of the printer, there are only five books); his Dafne (1627),
to which Heinrich Schiitz composed the music, is the earliest
German opera. Besides numerous translations, Opitz edited
(1639) Das Annolied, a Middle High German poem of the end
of the nth century, and thus preserved it from obhvion.

Collected editions of Opitz's works appeared in 1625, 1629, 1637,
1641, 1690 and 1746. His Ausgewdhlte Dichtungen have been edited
by J. Tittmann (1869) and by H. Oesterley (Kurschner's Deutsche
Nationalliteratur, vol. xxvii. 1889). There are modern reprints of
the Buch von der deutschen Poeterey by W. Braune (2nd ed., 1882).
and, together with Aristarchus, by G. Witkowski (1888), and also of
the Teutsche Poemata. of 1624, by G. Witkowski (1902). See H.
Palm, Beitrdge zur Geschichle der deutschen Literatur des lOten und lyten
Jahrhunderts (1877); K. Borinski, Die Poetik der Renaissance (1886);
R. Reckherrn, Opitz, Ronsard und Heinsius (1888). Bibliography by
H. Oesterley in the Zentralblatl fiir Bibliothekswesen for 1885.

XX. 5



I30



OPIUM



OPIUM (Gr. oTriov, dim. from ottos, juice), a narcotic drug
prepared from the juice of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum,
a plant probably indigenous in the south of Europe and western
Asia, but now so widely cultivated that its original habitat is
uncertain. The medicinal properties of the juice have been
recognized from a very early period. It was known to Theo-
phrastus by the name of fir)KU>vi.ov , and appears in his time to
have consisted of an extract of the whole plant, since Dioscorides,
about A.D. 77, draws a distinction between ixfjUicvtiov, which he
describes as an extract of the entire herb, and the more active
OTTOS, derived from the capsules alone. From the ist to the 12th
century the opium of Asia Minor appears to have been the only
kind known in commerce. In the 13th century opium thebaicum
is mentioned by Simon Januensis, physician to Pope Nicholas IV.,
while meconium was still in use. In the i6th century opium is
mentioned by Pyres (1516) as a production of the kingdom of
Cous (Kuch Behar, south-west of Bhutan) in Bengal, and of
Malwa.' Its introduction into India appears to have been
connected with the spread of Islam. The opium monopoly was

the property of the Great
Mogul and was regularly
sold. In the 17th century
Kaempfer describes the
various kinds of opium
prepared in Persia, and
states that the best sorts
were flavoured with spices
and called " theriaka."
These preparations were
held in great estimation
during the middle ages,
and probably suppHed to
a large extent the place
of the pure drug. Opium
is said to have been intro-
duced into China by the
Arabs probably in the
13th century, and it was
originally used there as a
medicine, the introduc-
tion of opium-smoking
being assigned to the
17th century. In a



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