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COMMERCE IN WAR






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BY THE SAME AUTHORS

THE MINERS' GUIDE TO THE COAL MINES
REGULATION ACTS



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COMMERCE IN WAR



. - I BY

L.' A: 4THERLEY-JONES, K.C., M.P. ^

RECORDER OF NSWCASTLB-VPON-TYNB ^4

OF BRASENOSE COLLEGE, OXFORD '

AND OF THE IMNBR TEMPLE AND NORTH-EASTERN ORCUIT

ASSISTED BY

HUGH H. L. BELLOT, M.A„D.C.L.

OF TRINITY COLLEGE, OXFORD

AND OF THE INNER TEMFLE AND MIDLAND CIRCUIT

BARRI8TER-AT-LAV



METHUEN & CO.

36 ESSEX STREET W.C.

LONDON



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First Published in igo^



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CONTENTS

Preface p^^g^ ix-x

Tabls or Cases xi-xxii

CHAPTER I

COMTRABAKD : Definition— TheoFf— Doctrine of neotxality— Bynkershoek's defi-
nition — Sale of armed ships by neutrals — ^Foreign enlistment acts — ^View of
Wolfios — Immmiity from visit and search— Grotius's three classes of contraband
— Modem classification — Qualified capture— Gentilis's distinction — Imperial or-
dinances— Lateran Council — Early treaties— England, Spain, and Burgundy-
England and Spain — Sweden and the Low Countries — Great Britain and the
Low Countries— Letters of Mareschal de Bassompierre — ^France and the
United Provinces— England and Portugal — Spain and Hanseatic towns —
England and Sweden— England and the United Provinces— France and Han-
seatic towns— France and England— France and Spain— Portugal and United
Provinces — ^France and United Provinces — Great Britain and Spain— Great
Britain and United Provinces— Great Britain and Denmark— Great Britain
smd United Provinces — ^France and Great Briuin— France and United Pro-
vinces — Great Britain and Algiers — ^Denmark and United Provinces — ^Treaty
of Utrecht— France and Hanseatic towns— Sweden and England— Great Britain
and Russia — France and Holland — Great Britain and Russia— Russian
manifesto— United Sutes and France— First Armed Neutrality— Russia and
Sweden— -Great Britain and Denmaik — United Provinces and United States —
United States and Prussia— England and France— Russia and Two Sicilies —
Russia and Sweden — Second Armed Neutrality— -Great Britain and Russia —
Danish ordinance— Great Britain and United Sutes— And Portugal— Den-
mark and Prussia — ^United States and Confederation of Central America-
France and Brazil— Prussia and Braril — Great Britain and Brazil — Denmark
and Brazil — ^United States and Mexico— Hanseatic towns and Mexico— United
States and Chili — And Venezuela — Hanseatic towns and Guatemala — United
States and Guatemala — And Peru — Crimea War — Declaration of Paris, 1856
— France and Honduras — And Nicaragua — British proclamation, 1861 —
United States declaration— Slidell and Mason— Earl RusseU's despatch-
Prussian regulations, 1864— Canadian proclamation, 1864 — Danish proclama-
tion, 1S64— Austrian ordinance— United States and Hayti— United States
proclamation, 1865 — Spanish declaration, 1866— Coal— Argentine Republic
and Peru — Intenticm as a test — ^Dominica — Guatemala — British proclamation,
1877 — ^Russian decree, 1877 — Danish proclamation, 1877 — Egyptian proclama-
tion, 1882— Franco-Chinese War, 1885— Rice— Spanish decree, 1898— Japanese
declaration, 1904 — Russian declaration, 1904 — Cotton — Horses — Money —
Ships — Naval stores — Provisicms— Troops — List of treaties— Policy of. principal



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vi COMMERCE IN WAR

maritime powers reviewed— Table of cases— Decitions— Pitch and tar—- Masts,
spars, deals — Guns, powder, soldiers — Deals, guns, iron, shot — Hemp, pewter,
copper, hogsheads — Sailcloth, deals, copper sheets, iron, tar, pitch — Masts —
Cheese— Pitch and tar— Balks, fir planks, battens— Tallow, sailcloth— Cordilla
hemp — Pitch and tar — ^Wines — Resin — Ships — Masts — Copper sheets — Cheese
— Biscuit and flour — Ship timber— Despatches — Grain — Com— Army bluchers,
artillery, harness, army boots, regulation blankets — Money, plate, bullion —
Provisions — Horses, tar, coal— The ''Allanton "judgment of Vladivostock
prize court— The ^'Calchas"— Judgment of Vladivostock prize court— Judgment
of supreme prize court pog^s 1-91

CHAPTER II

Blockade : Definition — Pacific — Origin of right^HautefeuiUe— Gessnei^— Grotius
— Bynkershoek— Vattel— Kliiber—Bluntachli—Dupuis- Ortolan— Effective
— Bluntsclu — Calvo — Scott— First Armed Neutrality— Blockade of Martinique
and Guadeloupe^French bkxrkade of i8o6^Black Sea, 1855— China, i8s7-*
Formosa, i8S4r— Hayti, i88&^Confederate States, 1861— RuKO-Japanese War
— Notification— Practice — Calvo-^France — Great Britaift*— United State»-^
Pacific— Greece— Hautefeuille— Portugal— i.ouis Philippe— Blockade of the
Scheldt— Mexico— Axgentine, 1838— Argentine and Uiruguay» i84$«-Greecc^
i85o-^£cuador, 1858— Rio de Janeiro^ i86ir**GaAta, 1861— Foimosa, 1885-^
Greece, 1886 — Crete, 1897^-Veaezttela, I902«-British regulations— Blockade
act of sovereign state-r-Deiegatioo — Cessation of^HaiUefeuill^-* English doc-
trine-*-United Provinces— Treaty between Greali Britaitt and Holland, 1689-*
Sweden— Russiar-^Blockade of Gibraltar-^reat Britain— Russia and Sweden
— Great Britain and Russia— BerHn decre^^Post-Napoleonic blockadesr—
Chronological table of cases— Decisions of British prise courts—Decisions of
United States prize courts 93-252

CHAPTER III

CONTINTTOUS VOYAGE : Rule of war of 1756— English doctrine— United Stales
doctrine— Gessner — Scott on internal communication — Canal transit — Belli-
gerent destination— Decisions of prize courts 253-283

CHAPTER IV

Carriage of Property at Sea— Enemy's Goods in Neutral Ships-
Neutral Goods in Enemy's Ships : Declaration of Paris, 1856— The com-
peting rules — Doctrine of Ccnsolato del mor^f— Quality of goods determined
by character of owner— English policy— France — Prussian memorial, 1753 —
Free ships, free goods ; enemy's ships, enemy's goods — Quality of goods deter-
mined by character of carrier — United Provinces — France — Spain — Russia —
United States— Great Britain— Incidental loss 284-298

CHAPTER V

Right or Search, or Right of Visit and Search : Definition-^Origin-^
Antiquity— Merchant vessels— Mail-boats— Modem practice— Inununities of
mail-boats by treaty^On the high seas— Noxious despatches— Character of



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CONTENTS vil

despatches«^NQxioas penoas — Ignorance«*Comptilsloii — Right of belligerent
to take out of an inaoceiit nential vessel aoKJous persons— Dana — Esrceptions
to right of yisit and seaicli-*Scott-— Vattel— Sliddl and Mason— Belligerent
ship of war lawfbUy commissioned — Story-^Hall— Sir L. Jenkins— Sea laws —
Privateering— Inviolability of private p ro p e rly at sea— Prussian decree, 1870—
Italy— Austria— Instttutde Droit Intemational^United States and Spain, 1898
— ^I^wfoUy commissionedr— Prince of Orange— Mexican civil war— Cohunbian
dvil war— Neutral merchantmen tmder convoy not exempt — Great Britain —
Continental powers — United States — Directions toresist visitation — Hautefeuille
—Ortolan — Right of search limited to duration of the war — Exception to right
of visit and search— Right limited by treaty— Great Britain— France— German
Emfnre— United States— Russia— Italy A^^ 299*357



CHAPTER VI

FoRMAUTiis or Visit and Sxarch : The approach— Ortolanr-General rule
-^S^monce^ coup de canon tPassurance-'lAxagrtd^ — Story— False colours —
HantefeuiDe — Azuni— British regulations— The visit— Modem practice — British
regulations — Ship^s papers— Certificate of registry— Passport— Sea-letter» or
sea-brief- Charter-party — Official log-book— Ship's log— Builder's contract-
Bin of sale— Bills of lading— Invoices — Manifest— Clearance— Muster roll—
Ship|»ng articles— Bill of health— List of papers— Austria, Belgium, Brazil,
Denmark, France, German Empire, Great Britain, Greece, Holland, Italy,
Portugal, Norway, Russia, Finland, Spsun, Sweden, Turkey, and United States
— Institnt de Droit International — The Search— Lampredi — Azuni — Ortolan —
De Martens — Mass^— British regulations — Spanish regulations— United States
regulations — Institut de Droit International . . . . 338-360



CHAPTER VII

Capturk and CoKDXifVATjQN : Resistance to visitation and search-*-Scott—
United States— The ^Nereide^—^tory— Kent— Johnson— Acting as enemy's
tran^xnrt, or carrying enemy's military or naval officers or crews — Scott*-*-
Carrying enemy's despatches— Scott— ^Carrying contraband of war^-Ancient
practice — Modem practice : ( i) where ship and cargo h^ong to the same person ;
(2) where caigo carried widi fiilse destination, £idse papers, or other circum-
stances of war ; (3) where owner of ship bound by treaty not to carry contra-
band — Ortolan — Hautefeuille — ^Freight and expenses — Scott— Ignorance no
excuse — United States— Confiscation attaches from commencement of illicit
voyage — Scott*~Right to continue voyage upon surrender of contraband goods
-Institnt de Droit International — ^Treaties^Attempting to break a de facto
blockade after official notice^ or with knowledge: (i) effect on the ship, Scott,
liability to penalty ceases from moment blockade is laised ; (2) effect on the
cargo^ Lushington, Scott, deviation presumed to be in fiivour of cargo, Scott —
££fect of ccmtingent destination— Engaging in colonial trade of enemy— Rule
of war of 1756 — Scotfs decisions — Forfeiture of freight — Coasting trade of
belligerent — Rule of war of 1756 — Scott's decisions— ^American view of rule of
war — Sale of vessels equipped for war to a belligerent — British decisions —
United States decisions — ^American view — Equipping, fiimishing, fitting oat,
or arming, or allowing the same to be so equipped, ftimished, fitted out, or armed,
for the use of belligerents — United States — Statutes — Cases — ^Augmentation



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viii COMMERCE IN WAR

cases — ^Slave trade acts — Canadian rebellion, i837^Invasion of Cuba — Nica*
lagua— Fenian raids— Great Britain — Statutes — Cases — ^The "Florida"— The
"Alabama"— The "Georgia ''—The "Shenandoah"— Tribunal of arbitration—
The three rules — Effect of decree — Due diligence — Intent as a test of guilt —
Validity of commission — ^Foreign Enlistment Act, 1870 — Decisions — ^The three
rules, Calvo — ^Foreign enlistment of other nations — France, Belgium, Nether-
lands, Spain, Portugal, Russia, Prussia, Sweden, Denmark, Austria, Bavaria,
Brazil, Japan, United States— American decisions .... >^^ 361-5 11

CHAPTER VIII

Formalities of Capture : Duties of belligerent commander— Prize-master —
Sending in — Convenient port, security, capacity, accessibility — Captors respon-
sible for acts of agents — ^Detention of neutral ships — Delay by captors in
proceeding to adjudication— Delay by claimants — Treatment of neutral crew
by captors — Inviolability of neutral property on captured vessel — Conversion
— Embezzlement— Right of Crown to release before adjudication— Destruction
of enemy vessels by a belligerent— Destruction of neutral vessels— Scott —
Lushington — Holland — Cohen — Russian regulations — United States — France
— ^English and Japanese regulations— Lawrence— Institut de Droit Inter-
national—Status of Russian Volunteer Fleet— Being in sight— Privateers-
Public ships of war — Constructive assistance — Antecedent or subsequent
services— Tenders — Ship's boats— Transports— Conjunct military and naval
expeditions— Proof of joint claim — ^Distribution of proceeds of prise — Statutory
regulations. Great Briuin, United States — Spanish regulations — United States
regulations— British regulations— Regulations of the Institut de Droit Inter-
national 512-594

CHAPTER IX

Recapture and Rescue: Recapture or rescue from a pirate— General rule
— Grotittfr— Spain— France— Recapture or rescue from a captor lawfully com-
missioned—Scott—United States— Salvage— General rule— British decisions —
Recapture or rescue from an enemy— /icf p0stliminU-—ComolaU M mart -
Grotius—Vattd— Scott— De Martens— France— Spain— Portugal— United
Provinces — Denmark— Sweden — Hanseatic towns— Great Britain— Prize Act,
2864 — Treaties — Twenty-four hours' possession — Grotius— GentiHs — Scott
— Paik— Sir L. Jenkins — Mansfield — Setting forth as a ship of war — ^British
decisions— Recapture of property of allies— Scott — United States, condemna-
tion before recapture, Story ; salvage an incident to prize, Story ; recapture of
property of allies. Story— Actual or constructive capture, Scott— Hostile re-
capture, Marshall— Recapture, British, French^ and United States decisions-
Rights of recaptures, Scott— Absmdonment by original recaptors, British deci-
sions, United States, France ; Pothier, Valin, Azuni, Emerigon— Recapture by
neutrals — Donation by original captors to neutrals — Donation by original
captors to enemies — Ransom, laws of Oleron, Black Book of the Admiralty,
Cansalafo dd mare^ Bynkershoek, British decisions, foreign practice, Haute-
feuiUe, Gessner, Woolsey, Scott— Where hostage given— Recapture of ransom
bill— Extent of safe-conduct. Prize Act, 1864, United Sutes, Story— Formalities
of recapture— Great Britain 595-646

Index 647-654



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PREFACE

THE purpose of this work is to provide a full exposition of
the rules of International Law which govern the commercial
relations of the subjects of neutral and belligerent States.

In treatises which embrace the whole range of International
Law it is impracticable to do more than refer to authority in
support of the propositions of law that may be advanced ; the
more limited scope of this work has enabled me to give full
quotations from treaties, ordinances, judgments, and the opinions
of great jurists ; thus the reader is spared the tedious task of
continual reference to other books.

It is hoped that this treatise may prove useful not only to
the lawyer, but to the shipowner and shipper, and also to that
large class of public servants— diplomatists and consuls — ^who
are compelled, many of them in remote parts of the earth, to
discharge weighty and responsible functions in the protection of
British commerce against the action of belligerents.

Mr. Hugh H. L. Bellot has been associated with me in the
preparation of this book to such a degree indeed, that I feel
the expression on the title page, which his modesty dictates —
"assisted by"* — inadequately denotes the large part he has taken
in its production. It is unnecessary to say that his erudition
and large experience as an author of books of law and general
literature afford ample assurance of the excellence of his work.

My grrateful acknowledgments are also due to Mr. T. Baty,
D.C.L., one of the secretaries of the International Law Associa-



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X COMMERCE IN WAR

tion, whose repute as a writer on International Law gives pecu-
liar value to the suggestions he has been good enough to make,
and the many valuable emendations and additions he has con-
tributed

With his kind consent I dedicate this work to my Right
Honourable friend Mr. Asquith, K.a, m.p., Chancellor of the
Exchequer, who, felicitously for the purposes of this dedication,,
combines the attributes of a great lawyer and a distinguished

statesman.

L. A. ATHERLEY-JONES
4 Paper Buildings, Temple



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TABLE OF CASES

PAGS

AcUt&H^ The, 2 Dods^ 48 53i, 532» S89> 605

Actif^ The, £dw^ 184 618, 620

-4<&i^ The, 6 Wall, 267 249

Adikttdi^ The, 2 Rob^ no note (a) 194, 234

Adelaide^ The, 3 Rob., 281 200

Adeline^ The, 9 Crancfa, 244 626

Admiral^ The, 3 Wall, 603 245

AdmiUance^ The {sttjecker v. Montgomery)

Adomis, The, 5 Rob., 256 205, 368, 393. 397

i4<&Ai, The, 176 U. S. Rep., 361 117

Adventure^ The, i Wheaton, 127 («.) 636

AUrtOy The Brig, 9 Cranch, 365 3, 425

ililrjam^ The, I GalL, 532 513,516

Alexander^ The, 3 Mason, 175 435

AUxttmder^ The, 4 Rob., 93 202, 393, 397

AUxandra^ The (see A.-G, v. 5i//^)

i4(/^<^ 7%^, Moodii v., 3 DalL, 307 424

Aline and Fanny^ The, Spinks, 322 j 10 Moo. P. C, 491 . 239, 247, 252, 576

AUanton^Tht 83

AHen^ Parkman v., i Stair's Decisions, 529 214

AlUgaior^ The, i GalL, 145 497

Ambrose Light, The, 25 Federal Rep., 408 322, 496

America^ The, 3 Rob., 36 259

Amesy Untied States y.^ 99 U. S. Rep., 3$ 497

AmiaMe Isabella^ The, 6 Wheaton, i 293

i^OTuAi^^ iPtMv, The, H. Curtis, 673 426

Amitie^ The, 6 Rob., 261 544

i4iK/r<?m^i£i, The, 2 Wall, 481 243

i4«iw,'The,5Rob.,373 513,576,586

Anna Dorothea^ The, 3 Rob., 233 401

i^ii/lfZt^, The, 10 Wheaton, 56 435

Anthon v. Fisher^ DougL, 649 («.) 640

Apollo^ The, 4 Rob., 158 69, 74, 76

Apollo^ The, 5 Rob., 286 206

i^m^The 90

Argosy The, Code des Prises, II, 1044 606

Aries^ The, 2 Sprague, 262 565

Armroydy Williams v., 7 Cranch, 423 223

Arnold, Del Col v.<iZ^^i33Z $^7, 523

Arthur^ The, Edw., 202 220

Arthur The, i Dods. 425 223, 251



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xii COMMERCE IN WAR

Assievtedov, Cambridge^ lMCZSy7i) "'•"". 619

Astraa^ The, i Wheaton, 125 650

Atalanta^ The, 6 Rob., 440 79, 507

yl/a/^fr/a, The, 3 Wheaton, 415 293»37i

Atlanta^ The, 3 Wall, 425 562

Atlanta^ The, 2 Sprague, 251 563

Atlas^ The, 3 Rob., 299 404i 510

AUomey-Gengral V. SilltfHy 2 H. & C,^ 4S^ 440

A/fyy Dawson v., 7 East, 367 508

Austin Friars SUam Shipping Co. v. Sirack^ [1905] 2 K. B. 315 . .441

Baigorry^ The, 2 Wall, 474 246

Ballam^ Justin v., i Salk., 34 640

Baltazsi v. Ryder^ 12 Moo. P. C. C, 173 (and see the Panaghia Rhomba) . 392, 396

Baltic^ The, i Acton, 25 ... 270

Baring v. Christie^ 5 East, 398 507

Baring v. Royal Exchangi Assurance Co.^ 5 East, 99 507

Barker v. Phctnix Assurance Co,y 8 John., 307 . . . . 507

Barton v. Pinkertony 2 Ex., 340 441

Belle CoquetUy The, i Dods., 18 *N^52

Benito Estenger^ The, 176, U. S. Rep., 568 ^ 82, 511

Bermuda^ The, 3 Wall, 514 27!^, 279, 282

^^/f<Ki The, 36 Ct CL, 256 510

Betsey^ The^ Moodie v., 3 DalL, 288 . . 424

Betsy^ The (Murphy), i Rob., 92 98, 188, 231, 516

Betsy^ The (Goodhue), i Rob., 332 102, 103, 192

Betsy^ The, 2 Rob., 210 («.) 585

Bettenham^ Ricord v.. Burr., 1734 640, 643

Bird, The, 38 Ct CL (U. S.), 228 83

Blagge V. A^. K Insurance Co., i Caines, 549 506

Blenden Hall, The, i Dods., 414 631

Brita Cecilia, The, Marriott, 234 71

British Consul, The, v. The Mermaid, Bee's Am. Ad. Rep., 69 ... . 423

British Consul, The, v. The Nancy, Bee's Am. Ad. Rep., 73 423

Brothers, The, Benj, Moodie v.. Bee's Am. Ad. Rep., 76 423

Brutus, The, 5 Rob., 331 and Appx. . 77, 407

Buenos Ayres Prixe-money, 1 Dods., 28 . 550

Calchas, The 48, 49> 61, 87

Calypso, The (Schulte), 2 Rob., 298 196 •

Calypso, The, 2 Rob., 154 259, 500

Cambridge, Assievedo v., Lucas, 79 619

Cancre v. C/nion Insurance Co,, Cond. Marsh, 406a 508

Cape 0/ Good Hcpe, 2 Rob., 274 553

Car/, The, Spinks, 238 551

Carlos F. Roses, The, 177 U. S. Rep., 655 510

Gtr/9//^The,4Rob., 156 601 ■

Carolina, The, 3 Rob., 75 196, 259

CVir^y/r'iMi, The, 4 Rob., 256 37S> S'^ '

C/ir^/i>itf,The,6Rob.,46i ^ 79, 304i 307, 308, 313 '

Carondelet, The, 37 FederallRep., 799 4^5 /'

Ciutor, The, i Dods., 397 622 f

Catharina Elisabeth, The, 5 Rob., 232 ; i Acton, 309 362, 365, 368, 514, 586^ 597, 598 i



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TABLE OF CASES xiii

rAGB

CatJiariMe and AwtOtT^^ 4 ^^i 39 5i6> S^?

Ciylan^ The, i Dods., 105 607, 620

Chtarlotta^ The, £dw., 252 220, 221

Ciarlotte^ The (KoltzenbeigX 5 Roh, 305 729 77) 78

Ckarhtte^ The (WittX 5 Rob^ 281 550

CkarlciU^ The (FocksX 5 Rob^ 275 382

CkarlctU Caroline^ The, i Dods., 192 631

CharlotU Christine^ The, 6 Rob., loi 208

CharlotU Sophia^ The, i Acton, 56 ; 6 Rob., 204 (is.) . . . 210, 212, 259, 267

Ckofvasse^ €xp^ in re GroMebrook^ 34 L. J., Bank., 17 409, 412

Cheshire^ The, 3 WalL, 235 245

CArirt^MMS^^r^, The, 6 Rob., 376 213

CAmi&, ^onif^v., 5 East, 398 507

ChrUtoplur^ The, 2 Rob;, 209 . . ' 585

Circassian^ The, 2 WalL, 135 241

C^/vM^The, I Rob., 154 19I9 205

Cmii4The,£dw 32. . . *^ 216

Comely The, S Rob., 96 586

C^mnurcen^ The, i Wheat, 382 . .... 61, 80, 81, 82, 271, 376, 385

CcnconUa^ The, 2 Rob., 102 523

Concordia AJUmtatis^ The, i Marriott, 169 71

Canferenzri^h^ The, 6 Rob., 362 396, 402

€cHservaj The, 38 Federal Rep., 431 487

Omsianiia, The, 6 Rob., 261 (is.) 305

Convenientia^ The, 4 Rob., 201 259

CtffiM&Wj, The, 3 WalL, 214 243

* Croudsan v. Leonard^ 4 Cranch, 434 214

Dashing IVave^ Yhe, 5 WalL, 170 247

Dawson v. Atfy^ 7 East, 367 508

Delaware Insurance Co.^ King v., 6 Cranch, 71 222

Decatur v. U. S.^ Div. Ct CL, 201 569



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