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. BEETHOVEN, ( Lewis von,) one of the
finest musical geniuses that ever existed,
but so eccentric in his habits, that the
world was long inclined to call him a
madman.* He was born on the 17th of
December, 1770, at Bonn, on the Rhine,
his father occupying the situation of tenor
at the electoral chapel. It has, however,
been said, that his father was Frederic
William II. of Prussia, as if none but a
royal descent was adequate to his genius.
His faculties developed themselves so
early, that his father began to instruct
him when he was only five years old, but
soon found him above his lessons. Hence
he gave him over to Van der Enden, one
of the best pianists of that time. Sub-
sequently, Neefe, by orders of the elector
Maximilian, became Beethoven's master.
He initiated the extraordinary child into
the works of Sebastian Bach and Handel,
which ever excited his reverence and
veneration. At the age of eight (so it
is said, at least), he excelled as a violin
player ; and at thirteen, some of his com-
positions were printed. But it was im-
provisation and the fantasia libera, in
which he shone most brightly, and which
he first exhibited before the learned com-
poser, Junker, at Cologne, pouring forth
a superabundance of rich and brilliant
ideas. It was in this sort of boundless
ramble, as it were, that his mind found
nourishment and scope. In composition,
he continually violated the rules of har-
mony then received. This caused an
opposition that often harassed him, and
probably injured his temper. The talents
which he showed on the organ, induced
his patron, the elector, to send him in

Theextraordinary novelty of his works shocked
the greatest masters. Haydn considered him but
a good pianist, Salieri said he was mad, Neefe pro-
hibited him seriously from composing, and Albrechts-
berger talked of putting him in prison. It appears
even, that his father died of grief at having a son
who did not care about counterpoint. (A. Del-
riuu, 1. c.)

VOL. IV. 1


1 792 to Vienna, to perfect under Haydn
his theoretic and practical acquirements.
Just in the same way as Corneille had not
been able to understand Racine, Haydn
was mistaken in Beethoven, whom ho
thought " not destined to be a musical
composer;" and when asked his opinion
about him, said drily, " he plays well on
the piano." Mozart, however, had shown
more penetration. When Beethoven had
previously made a visit to Vienna, in
1790, and had executed a fantasia libera
before him, he cautiously said at first
nothing, thinking that it had been pre-
viously practised and played by heart.
But as Beethoven, suspecting this, re-
quested Mozart to give him some theme,
and receiving one of a very complicated
nature, he followed it extempore, during
three-quarters of an hour. Holding his
breath, Mozart slipped on tip-toe into
the next room, and said to some friends
there, " Mark well this young man, you
will hear more of him."

When Haydn went to England, he left
Beethoven under the care of Albrechts-
berger, from whom he received important
lessons in counterpoint, as he gratefully
acknowledged in his posthumous Studien.
His reputation as a pianist and composer
began now to be established, but it was
his fantasia libera which carried away
every hearer. At that period he also
learnt much of ancient and modern lan-
guages, history, and the belles-lettres, his
life being generally spent alone. A musi-
cian, however, named Wolff (now for-
gotten) competed then with him as a
player; yet, although rivals, they bore
a sincere friendship towards each other.
The crowd of amateurs became divided ;
prince Lichnowsky giving the palm to
Beethoven, baron Wetzlar to Wolff. It
was in the charming villa of the latter,
near Schonbrunn, that contests between
the two champions were often prolonged
until late at night nights, which will


never be forgotten by the few who still
remain to remember them. In 1801 his
patron, the elector, having died, he deter-
mined on remaining at Vienna, then the
capital of the musical world. Two of his
younger brothers had followed him thither,
and on that account, also, he declined a
most favourable offer to go to London.
Prince Lichnowsky received Beethoven
about 1802 as an inmate in his house,
but accustomed to compose mostly out of
town, amidst mountains and forests, un-
ruly and averse from any system not
emanating from himself, he was soon
induced to change his quarters. An
anecdote is related of Lichnowsky, which
shows that he was a prince even in mind.
When Beethoven had moved into his
palace, he ordered his domestics, that
if he and the latter should ring at the
same time, the guest should be attended

The works which first showed Beet-
hoven's genius as a composer, were his
quartets for stringed instruments, which
kind of composition also he carried to the
very limits of our present conceptions.
His intimacy with M. Salieri, and the
general desire of the public, led him also
to theatrical composition. The result was
the opera Leonora, afterwards named
Fidelio. It was first performed at Prague
(about 1811), with no great success, and
was not thoroughly appreciated till much
later. The immense power, nay, stress of
the orchestra and chorus, laid upon the
word Freyheit (freedom), was one of the
first manifestations of those republican
opinions of Beethoven, which showed
themselves so strongly in after life.
About the same time his oratorio, Christ
on the Mount of Olives, the symfonia
heroica, and pattorale, made then: ap-

Beethoven, however, was yet not a
man established. in the world, having no
income but that which his continual ex-
ertions procured him from clay to day.
"At the age of thirty-seven, equivocal
trials as a composer, an unhappy amour, a
deceived ambition, and a rude behaviour,
had made him completely miserable."
(Delrieu.) It was Jerome Bonaparte,
king of Westphalia, who, in 1809, made
Beethoven the first offer of a permanent
and honourable situation, as maitre de
chapelk at Cassel. This aroused others,
and the archduke Rudolph (his musical
pupil), with the princes Lobkowitz and
Kinsky, secured to him (in terms most
flattering) a yearly pension of 4000 florins
Of paper money (then worth about 70/.),


on condition of staying in the Austrian
dominions. About this time, his bodily
afflictions had risen to a height which
embittered his life to the utmost degree.
He laboured under a defect in hearing,
the more tormenting to him, as he felt
that he ought to possess that sense more
perfectly than any other ; in fact, he
had possessed it in his younger years,
with a nicety very rarely known. His
disaster was partially alleviated by marks
of respect and sympathy showered upon
him either a medal with his por-
trait, struck at Paris, or a costly piano
sent him by London artists and ama-
teurs, a diploma of the Royal Academy
of Sweden, or that of honorary citizen-
ship of Vienna. Beethoven's happiest
days were passed between 1817 and
1819. He lived then much at Bruck
am Gebiirge, a village near Vienna,
whence he continually rambled over
the adjoining charming country. It was
at that time, that his portrait (repre-
senting him amidst a bower of foliage)
was taken, which is really himself
several representations of him being ab-
surd caricatures. An incident, which
happened about this time to the writer
of this article and some friends, will
best picture Beethoven's mode of life.
We were once taking a drive to Bruck,
when a heavy thunder-storm began to
threaten, and, at a mile from the vil-
lage, burst forth with unusual violence.
We made therefore all speed possible,
when we perceived a solitary rambler,
stalking right across the fields, and
making, at times, most eccentric ges-
tures. It was Beethoven. One of our
party recognised him first, and waved his
hat to him ; Beethoven nodded in return,
but on he went. Such a man could repre-
sent a storm from real and intimate in-
tercourse with nature.

Beethoven had two brothers ; the
younger, John, was an apothecary, who
had become prosperous by his means,
but, notwithstanding, contimially preyed
upon his purse, even when he was ill.
Both brothers incessantly meddled with
his affairs, and did every thing to alienate
him from his friends. But he was so
kind as to say of each of them, " He is,
after all, my brother." His fame was
constantly spreading over half the world,
still he lived solitary and retired. In
the coffee-room which he frequented at
Vienna, he sat alone, self-absorbed, some-
times making strange gestures. But every
one -treated him most respectfully.

In politics, Beethoven displayed his



usual eccentricity. A symphony of his
was to have been dedicated to Bona-
parte, when first consul ; but before it
appeared, its intended patron was an
emperor. The composer said imme-
diately, that he would have nothing to
do with him, and the title-page was
destroyed. The piece, indeed, came forth,
but its character was changed from gay
to sad, and it bore another title. Thus,
too, when he and Goethe were once
walking in Carlsbad, during the season,
engaged in conversation, the imperial
family and other princes came that way.
Beethoven would have turned aside, and
continued the conversation ; but Goethe
stopped, and made one of his courtly
bows. For this, Beethoven, who had run
away, severely reproached him. Hence
it is not surprising, that this great com-
poser, although living for thirty years in
the Austrian metropolis, never inscribed
a line of his music to either the emperor
Francis or prince Metternich.

Another of his characteristics was an
avarice, that made him ever willing to
plead poverty. This gained him 200/.
from George IV. of Great Britain, when
regent. Not long before his death, he
applied to the Harmonic Society of Lon-
don to give a concert for his benefit.
He received instantly a present of 1001.
When he died, however, 10,000 florins
were found in an old trunk.

Beethoven was very partial to the son
of his elder brother, who, for a time, had
been his constant companion. This young
man, who greatly abused his kindness,
late in the autumn of 1826 came suddenly
to Baden, and earnestly besought him to
save him from his creditors. On this
application, the kind uncle walked a
distance of more than twelve miles, and
when he reached his house, was drenched
with rain. A violent cold ensued, then
an inflammation of the lungs, which
brought on dropsy. He died on the 26th
of March, 1827, at half-past five A.M.
Thirty thousand people assisted at his
funeral !

Beethoven's countenance was one of
those which might be known amongst
millions. Hisframe was strong, but he was
only of ordinary size, perhaps even a little
under it. His forehead, perhaps one of the
finest ever seen, was of extraordinary
breadth, and of a form highly symmetrical.
His eyes, generally serious and stern,
when he was excited became like stars.

At moments when occupied by some lofty
idea, " his exterior at once underwent a
striking alteration, and assumed an aspect

visibly inspired and commanding, which,
to the bystanders, made his short figure
appear as gigantic as his mind."

His principal works are, seventeen
quartets, three quintets, five trios, a
septuor, for stringed instruments; thirty-
three sonatas for the piano alone ; nine
symphonias, one with choruses ; the
Battle of Vittoria, symphony ; two
masses ; Christ on the Mount of Olives,
oratorio ; Adelaide and Armide, can-
tatas; Egmont, melodrama; Prometheus,
ballet ; overtures to Coriolanus, theRuins of
Athens, and the Dedication of the Temple;
concerts for the piano and for the violin,
and a host of other minor compositions.
To these we must add his Studien, or
treatise on harmony and composition
a work full of useful advice for the com-
poser, and showing that Beethoven knew
thoroughly those rules of counterpoint,
which he seemed to disregard in his com-
positions. Readers who require a detailed
musical review of his works, may consult
Schilling's Encyclopedic der Music. Of
his vanity as a composer, the following
anecdote may give some idea. When
Ries spoke of two consecutive fifths, in
his violin concert, and expressed some
doubt of their correctness-, Beethoven
said, " Well, and who then has forbidden
the use of them?" Ries cited some of
the first authorities, when the proud reply
was given, " Then / allow them. Yo
el Rey."

The materials for Beethoven's life are
increasing every day. Schindler's Leben
is perhaps the most complete, of which
M. Moschelles has published an English
edition. See also Ferdinand Ries. Biog.
Univ. Suppl. Hogarth's Musical History.
Polytechnic Journal, 1 840. Tait's Maga-
zine, 1841. Le SiScle, 14 Sept. 1840,
A. Delrieu.

BEFFA-NEGRINI,( Anthony,! 532
1602,) a poet and miscellaneous writer,
born at Asola, in the province of Brescia,
and descended from a noble family. He
wrote the history of several distinguished
houses, a life of the countess Matilda,
and some other historical works, of which
all have not seen the light. (Biog. Univ.)

Stephen, 1754 1825,) a native of Laon,
of a distinguished but impoverished
family. He was an officer of grenadiers
when the revolution broke out, and im-
mediately became one of its decided par-
tisans. This was the way. to fortune ;
he filled, in succession, several important
offices, and in 1792 was deputed to the
National Convention, where he voted for
B 2



the death of Lewis. From this time, his
attention was chiefly turned to finance
and agriculture, of which he was made
commissioner. On the restoration of the
Bourbons he was exiled as a regicide,
and he retired to Liege, where he ended
his days. He published one or two tracts
of no importance. (Biog. Univ. Suppl.)

Abel, 17571811,) brother of the pre-
ceding, better known by the name of
Cousin Jacques, an author who first tried
a frivolous style of writing, but afterwards
changed it, and his dramatic pieces had
considerable success. All his works have
a moral tendency, and are replete with
honest sentiments, with which he con-
stantly strives to inspire his readers. He
rendered himself conspicuous by giving,
in 1800, his Dictionnaire Neologique des
Hommes et des Choses de la Revolution.
Among his numerous works may be re-
marked, Les Petites Maisons du Parnasse,
Poeme comique d'un Genre nouveau en
Vers et en Prose, Bouillon, 1783, in 8vo.
Marlborough, Poeme comique en Prose
rimee, Londres et Paris, 1783, in 8vo.
Histoire de France pendant trois Mois,
Paris, 1789, in 8vo. Soirees chantantes,
on le Chansonnier Bourgeois, avec les Airs
Notes, Paris, 1 802, in 8vo. He composed
the music to his operas, and which, if it
savour of negligence in style, is very
often both easy and agreeable. He died
in obscurity at Charenton.

BEGA, (St. Bee,) an Irish virgin, who
retired about the middle of the seventh
century to a spot in Copeland, near Car-
lisle, where a religious house was even-
tually founded to her memory. Her
" day " is the 7th of September ; or,
according to Dempster, who places her
amongst the Scottish saints, the 6th of
that month. (Butler, Lives of the Saints.
Dempster. Strype's Grindal.)

BEGA, (Cornelius, 1620 Aug. 27,
1664,) a painter, born at Haarlem, son
of a sculptor named Peter Begyn. He
changed his name toBega in consequence,
it is said, of having been disowned by
his father for irregularities in conduct.
He was a disciple of Ostade, and his
pictures, like his master's, represent Dutch
peasants regaling and amusing them-
selves ; interiors of Dutch cottages ; exte-
riors with landscape and cattle intro-
duced; all which subjects he treated with
great humour of character and excellence
of effect. They are not, indeed, equal to
the pencilling of Ostade, but his touch
was delicate and his colouring lucid.
Bega died of the plague which ravaged

Holland in 1664, it is said, in consequence
of his attendance on a young woman to
whom he was tenderly attached, and
who, being attacked by the malady, was
abandoned by all but her lover. If this
story be true, the date of Bega's birth, as
stated above, would appear to be correct,
rather than that of 1600, as given by M.
Durdent in the Biographic Universtlle.
Bega etched several drolleries, and a set
of thirty-four prints, representing ale-
house scenes, &c. (Pilkington's and
Bryan's Dictionaries. Biog.Univ. Strutt's
Diet, of Eng.)

BEGARELLI, (Anthony, about 1498
1565,) a native of Modena, and a most
eminent modeller in clay. That city was
celebrated for its practitioners in this art,
which consisted in modelling all sorts of
figures in plaster, stucco, and clay. Guiclo
Mazzoni, otherwise called Paganini, had
already made considerable progress in
this class of sculpture in 1484 ; he had
had for a rival Giovanni, the father of
Nicolo del' Abbate, but Begarelli sur-
passed as well Mazzoni and Abbate, as
all their pupils. He executed figures as
large, and sometimes larger than life.
In the church and monastery of the Bene-
dictines is preserved 'a noble collection
of them. As he lived long, and worked
to the end of his life, he filled the churches
of Modena with monuments, groups, and
statues, besides others which he modelled
for Parma, Mantua, and other places.
Vasari praises him for the fine air of his
heads, for beautiful drapery, exquisite
proportions, and for the colour of marble ;
relating also, that Michael Angelo said of
Begarelli's works, " If this clay were only
to become marble, woe betide the ancient
statues," a species of eulogy, in the opi-
nion of Lanzi, most desirable to an artist,
" in particular when we reflect upon the
profound science of Buonarotti, and how
tardy he was to praise." Begarelli was
also an able designer, and taught that as
well as the art of modelling, whence he
greatly influenced the art of painting ;
and to him, in the opinion of Lanzi, we
are, in a great measure, to trace that
correctness, relief, and foreshortening, and
degree of grace, approaching nearly to
Raffaelle's, in all of which this part of
Lombardy boasted such a conspicuous
share. (Lanzi, Stor. Pitt. iv. 29. Biog.

BEGAT, (John,) born at Dijon in
1523, who acquired considerable reputa-
tion for learning and eloquence as an ad-
vocate in that town. He was employed to
solicit from Charles IX. the revocation of



the edict of the 17th of. January, 1562,
which tolerated the Calvinists in all parts
of the kingdom. His remonstrances were
successful, and the edict was recalled.
He also opposed, but without the same
result, the edict of the 19th of March, in
favour ot the protestants. He died, pre-
sident of the parliament of Burgundy, on
the 10th of June, 1572. It has been
stated that Begat was author of " Remon-
strances to Charles IX. on the Edict of
1560J" which gave toleration to the pro-
testants, but the edict belongs to 1562,
and Begat's Remonstrances, on this occa-
sion, were never printed. His Remon-
strances to oppose the edict of March,
1563, were, however, produced at Ant-
werp the same year, without his consent.
Several correct editions were subsequently
published, and the work was translated
into Latin, Italian, Spanish, and German.
A protestant, about this time, published
an apology for the king's edict, to which
Begat replied, in a work without date or
printer's name. He is also the author of
a book entitled, Commentarii Rerum Bur-
gundiarum, which has the fault of being
replete with anachronisms. (Biog. Univ.)

BEGAULT, (Giles, 16601725?)
canon and archdeacon of Nimes, a cele-
brated preacher. His Panegyrics and
Sermons have been printed in five
volumes. (Biog. Univ. Suppl.)

BEGER, (Laurence,) born at Heidel-
berg in 1633, the son of a tanner, who,
perceiving his talents, gave him a supe-
rior education, but required him to study
theology. At the death of his father,
however, Beger abandoned it, and be-
came librarian to the elector palatine,
Charles Lewis. He gained the favour of
this prince by his Considerations upon
Marriage. The elector desired to marry a
young lady, of whom he was enamoured,
during the life of his wife, a princess of
Hesse-Cassel a union which he actually
accomplished by a left-handed marriage.
Beger's work was in favour of polygamy.
Prince Charles, son of the elector by his
first wife, on the death of his father, com-
pelled him to write a pamphlet on the other
side, but it was never printed. Charles
Lewis had a passion for collecting coins,
and on Beger was laid the task one
very agreeable to his taste and previous
pursuits of describing them. This he did
in a work entitled, Thesaurus ex The-
sauro Palat. Selectus, Heidelbergce, 1685.
On the death of his patron, in 1685, his
collections were dispersed; the coins went
to Berlin, and the library to Cassel ; but
Beger found a better post, as superin

tendent of the elector of Brandenburg's
numismatic collection at Cleves, and from
this period date some of his best works.
These were, a Description of the Bran-
denburg Collection ; several tracts on
particular antiquities, gems, &c. ; and an
edition of Florus, a work exhibiting more
of critical pretence than critical ability.
He died in 1705. (Ersch und Gruber.)

BEGER, (Laurence,) an engraver at
Berlin, nephew of the preceding. After
having worked some time at Berlin, he
went to Heidelberg, to Frankfort-on-the-
Maine, and lastly, according to Nicolai, to
England, in 1711, a circumstance which
is disproved by Husgen. Professor Christ
says that he engraved, about 1700, at
Berlin, a set of twelve anatomical plates,
taken from the designs of Vesalius, and
adds, that it is likely that the greater part
of the plates of antiquities, published by
his uncle, under the title of Thesaurus
Brandenburgicus, were engraved by Be-
ger. (Heinecken. Strutt's Diet, of Eng.)


BEGGI-JAN, the familiar appellation
of Shah Mourad Beg, a singular personage,
who, in the latter part of the last century,
attained sovereign power in the Uzbek
kingdom of Bokhara. At the death of
his father, the Emir Daniel, who had vir-
tually ruled the country in the name of
the pageant monarch Abdul-Ghazi Khan,
Beggi-Jan, who made pretensions to the
highest degree of ascetic sanctity, de-
clared his determination to take no part
in the strife for power which broke out
among his numerous brothers ; the anar-
chy, however, into which the country
was speedily thrown, and the supplica-
tions of the people and the titular king,
(who regarded him, in consequence of
his sooffi, or mystic aspirations, as the
especial favourite of heaven,) overcame
this feigned reluctance ; and he assumed,
about 1783, the absolute direction of the
state, which he continued to administer
till his death in 1800. His accession to
power, however, produced no change in
his previously adopted habits, which were
those of a dervise, or religious mendi-
cant ; his support was derived from the
sale of whips, which he plaited with his
own hands ; and, while surrounded by
splendid nobles, his only dress was a
patched and filthy green robe ; but this
apparent self-denial and humiliation was
the result of deep and crafty policy, and
enabled him to retain in willing obe-
dience the fierce tribes, from the Oxus to
the Jaxartes, who would have spurned
subjection to a less saintly ruler, imen-


dowed with any legitimate claim to their
allegiance. His administration of justice,
according to the Koran, was rigid and
impartial ; and the observance of both
the precepts and prohibitions of the
Moslem law was enforced on the inha-
bitants of Bokhara with a strictness un-
known for many ages in the annals of
Islam. His renown, in the double capa-
city of a saint and a ruler, spread through-
out Asia, and he even received more than
one embassy from Catharine II. of Rus-
sia, with whom he maintained, till her

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