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Hugh Longbourne Callendar.

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thank'd, rank'd ; banged, wrong'd, wing'd, long'd, length 108,
strengthen.



Progressive Writing Exercises.



XVII. UNACCENTED SHORT VOWELS INDICATED, BUT NOT
WRITTEN :

Shortened 71, 6pened 73, f6rtune 84, spacious 84, fallacious,
luscious, Persian 85, Asian, g6rgeous (cp. gorges 83), human
87, climate, ardent, merchant, earnest, circuit, aiidit, urgent,
certain, perfect, cautious (c), purchase.

Debate 54, defer 70, relate, dictate, rem6te, return, devote,
belief, exrt, extent 82, exp6se, expdrt, exc(e)pt 108, expand,
cxh6rt, divide, polite, delight, decide, denied, marine, reverse,
relume 86, renew, salute, surr6und, career, best6w, devdur,
.despair, delay, declare, supply, minute (cp. minute), papa,
regard, repdrt; array, around, opp6se, entice, induce.

Attic 73, etiquette 73, abbot 73, adept (cp. adapt), senate (cp.
sent), sabbath, women (wim) 87, shilling 89, challenge, orange
69, Errand, hatchet 78, prentice 78, justice, h6stess, rigid 78,
locket (cp. lock'd), 6ven 69, pellet 86, c6met (cp. commit),
merit, magic, gr(a)phic 54, tippet (cp. tipp'd), rapid (cp. wrapt),
rabbit, rabid, 6ffice, preface, limit, thicket, current, deafen,
weapon, happen.

Depend 73, defend, detach, finesse 73, Thibet 73, become,
begin, canal (cp. cannel), relax (cp. relics), request, defect,
corrupt, entrap, intend, intrust (cp. interest), indent, suggest.

D(e)cimal 71, animal 88, h6nesty, apathy, attitude, appetite,
edify, certify, Excellent, militant, company, c6mbatant, affable,
m6veable (move 108), vegetable, typical, article, 16gical, metri-
cal, statistical, political, mtrop61itan, penetrability, stability,
solidity, acc6mmodate 65, agitate 65, intimate 87, ultimate,
conjugate, relative, adjective, argumentative 87, orthography,
sten6grapher, patrimony, customary, military, history 71,
me'mory 87, aspirate 86, naturalist (natcr-l-st), ignorant, guaran-
t6e, capital, ethical, accuracy, benefit, f6athery, Expeditious.

Yesterday 73, understand, advertise, permit 73, exercise 82,
interdict, appertain, pr6perty 73, liberty, p6verty, shepherdess,
Saturday, m6dern, Eastern, pattern, govern ; effort 73, com-
fort (come 87), forget 104, forbid, forb6re, particular 78, 6ppor-
tunity 78, reformation, purport, prdverb, surprise, niggard.

XVIII. UNACCENTED SHORT VOWELS INSERTED TO FACILI-
TATE JOININGS:

BEFORE AND AFTER THE S-TICK : acid, assets, asses 72, fancies
83, happinesses 83, Alice, person 72, present 77 (3), subsidy 83,
consequent, p(ur)pose 108, possess, beside, gazette, pursuit.

AFTER ERY, NDJ : engine, dungeon, injury ; hemorrhage,



Vowel Indication. 117



horizontal, character, historic, Part's, correspondent, origin,
lyric, satiric, satirist, ferrous, 6racle, courage, America.

BEFORE AND AFTER C AND CON : parish, cherish, flourish,
nourish, perish, apish, machine 84, vicious 84, precious 83,
sufficient 85, passionate 85, missionary, questionist 85, fac-
tious 84, anxiows 84, ancient 84, physician, species, treasury,
proportionate, abolitionist.

AFTER 3 ) : sceptic, peptic, practise, practical, lighten 81,
whiten, afternoon 108.

XIX. E-TICK OMITTED IN CASES WHERE THE ACCENT NEED
NOT BE MARKED ( 73) (The words in brackets are written
with the A-tick) : Ten (ton), tent, 'tis, test, ting, tend, den
(dun), dent, d(e)cimal, d(i)smal 71, d(i)ng 89, dazzle, dizzy,
sting, steady (study), st(ca)d 83, st(a)nzas 83, stand, stet,
intend, indent, t(e)nsion, int(e)ntion, distinction 85, petition,
than, thank, that, then, this (thus), thing 108 (thong 89), thin,
thither, pathetic, gent, general 108, (John), Jenny (Johnnie),
jet, chat, January, chance, gender, jest, suggest, Jack.

Miscellaneous; Scripture 84, except 108, exception 85,
living 89 (loving 80), never 108, spirit 108, ninny (nonny),
river, financial 84, p'raps, particular 78, description, February,
Nancy, preface, graphic 54, prediction (cp. production), next.

XX. OMISSION OF LONG VOWELS ( 65) : Long vowels are
omitted in the following common words, the outlines of which
will be found in the list on p. 106: ow, about, amou?tt,
without; oo, because, cause, according, call, lord, short,
thought', AO, after, half, laughter, can't, shan't, charge; eo,
purpose, perfect; ly, been, between, indeed, people; Ay, behind,
bind, find, kind, mind, child, combine, scribe; irw, Jury,
proof, prove, approve, move, remove, super-.

The vowels ao, AW, oy, are always expressed.

Omission of ey : again, against, arrange, range, strange,
change, danger, great, lady, late, nature, same, stage, state.

Termination -ate : dedicate, indicate, accommodate 65,
liquidate, mitigate, assimilate, decimate, fascinate 65, termi-
nate, operate 65, execrate, tolerate, agitate 65, meditate,
cogitate, reinstate, sulphate (cp. sulphite 81), irate, com-
memorate, indicator, navigator, testatrix. (Note ; This termi-
nation is generally short in adjectives and substantives.)

Ey should also be omitted in the termination -ization, as in
nationalization, crystallization, etc., the outlines being formed
by simply turning the -tion circle on the final z of nationalize,
crystallize. The vowel should be inserted after c, kt, pt, and



118 Progressive Writing Exercises.

in dissyllables when accented : as in, appreciate 78, vitiate,
negociate, associate (omit y after c in these words), narrate,
dictate, co-optate.

XXI. SHORT VOWELS are omitted ( 73) in the following
common words; the outlines will be found on pp. 106, 107 ; the
words in brackets are distinguished by the insertion of their
vowels.

Above, another, body, but (bet), come (cam), become, did
(dead), does, done (dun), enough, except accept, gone (gun),
judge, jwst, land (lend), length, long (ling), man (men), manner
(manna), many (Minnie), month, none (nun), not (net),
nothing, other, pwt (pot), shall (shell), should (shod), some
(sam), stt'll, till tell, until, young, when (pen pun).

MODE OF HIATUS.

XXII. BEFOKE A VOWEL :

MODE (1) W ( 58, 75) ; qua, queer, equal, where, whey 58,
quite 81, quinquangular 89, quote, equation, equip, quick,
quality, quart, square, squirt, vanquish, relinquish, distinguish,
anguish, language 89, unguent; Gwen, Guadafui, guano,
Guatemala, Puebla, Buenos, bivouac; acquiesce 58, requiem,
aqueous, obsequious ; twirl, twist, twin, twain, twice, dwell,
dwarf, thwack ; sweet 76, swallow, sway, swear, swore, swung,
swan, persuade; away, aware, await, bewail, beware, noway,
nowhere, nowise, midway, highway, fta/fway 108, Conway 76,
lengthways 108, always, otherwise 108, ivayword, forward 81,
towards 75, inward, outward; Darwin, Spurway, herewith 81.

Terminations -ual, etc. (U unaccented, character J omit-
ted) ; usual, continuation, vacuum, valuable 75, Mantua,
Mantuan, annual, manual, virtual, actuate, actuary, J(a)nuary,
unctuous, virtuous, conspicuous, spirituous, influence, valua-
tion, situation, residuum, menstruum.

MODE (2), BEFOBE H; mishap 76, priesthood, behind 75,
rehearse, adhere 58, shorthand 71, longhand 89, withhold 81,
madchen 90, inhale, unhealthy.

MODE (3), Y; abuse, acute, argue, due, adieu, duty, issue,
virtue 84, minutiae 76: creation 75, foliation, mediation,
permeation, conciliation, appreciate; sheer, cashier 84,
sincere 76, idea, cohere, Jehu, Mayhew; Appii, embryo, Komeo,
Antonio, signer, poignant 76, Naenia, Mercutio, folio, studio,
nuncio, ratio, meow, piano (pyeonow).

Terminations; future 84, departure, overture, stature,
furniture, temperature 84, culture, posture, texture, mixture,



Mode of Hiatus. 119

gesture, picture 84, lecture, structure, procedure, hosier,
exposure 84, composure, seizure : India 75, mania, hernia,
saviour, warrior, easier, copier, pannier; obvious, piteous,
odious, impious; sodium 75, premium, idiom, opium; Christian
p. 91, lenient; idiot, immediate, Juliet; lineal, cordial,
spaniel, nausea, carrier, collier, happiest, easiest, atheist,
medieval, polyanthus.

XXIII. HIATUS BETWEEN Two CONSONANTS, 77 (1) :
MODE (1) is used for terminations and abbreviated words

( 100).

MODE (2), ABSENCE OF VOWELS; Ezra 69, Elsie 71, tipsy,
Betsy, wisps, stems, comes 83; snare 71, snore, small 71,
smoke 87, realm 86, dismal 71 ; anxious 84, noxious, nuptial
(-col), factious 84, anxiety 83, igneous, recognize 91, dogmatic,
alma, pigmy.

COMPOUND WORDS ; fit-ful 71, sight-less, sad-ness, king-dom
89, wis-dom 83; hand-maid 71, short-hand 71, long-hand 89,
first-class 71, up-shot 84, off-shoot 84, text-book 71, out-do 71,
sing-song 89, night-shirt, bank-rupt; ab-scissa, dis-content,
in-stead 83, in-constant 89, in-crease 89, un-kind 89, sub-sidy
83, Wednes-day 83, ab-sent, vice-roy, fine-ness.

MODE (3), UNACCENTED U (yw); populate 77, specitlate,
accumulate, calculate, rivulet, popular, particular, angular,
emulous, amputate 77, occupy 77, sextuple, voluble 77, luxury
91, augury, penury, argument 87, education, consecutive, edu-
cate, tabulate, accurate, suppurate, supreme, superior, soluble,
picturesque, usury, bureau, impudent, statute, diminutive,
manufactory, volume (cp. vellum), furore.

XXIV. SHORT VOWELS FOLLOWING LONG VOWET 3, 77 (2).

UNACCENTED SHORT VOWELS: fi-MooE; scion, science,
ion, iron, acquired, quiet, fired, riot, proprietor, pious, pioneer,
diary; violate, violin, violent, hyaline, denial, pliant, renewal,
brewery, theory, aerate, dial, dual, royal, coward, nowadays,
Lewis, Joachim, aeon, paean, European, Zion.

Y-MODE; society, piety, anxiety, variety, proprietor, gaiety;
deity, vehicle, vehement ; coexist, heroic, heroine, poesy,
poetry; annuity, continuity, gratuitous, suet, ruin, vowel,
towel, fuel, jewel, Jewess, voyage, deify, neozoic, Owen, soloist,
theist, highest, nihilist, knoweth, doeth, sayeth.

FINAL SHORT VOWELS: DOWNWARD Y; showy, shadowy,
doughy, bowie, boughy, dewy, boyish, cowish, shrewish, yellow-
ish.

UPWARD Y ; clayey, wheyish, skyish, Jewish, rawish.



120 Progressive Writing Exercises.

Q ; sower, boa, lower, Iowa ; gayer, sayer, layer ; ire, fire,
desire, quire, Shire, Messiah, liar, lyre, esquire, Isaiah, Noah;
drawer, sawer ; lawyer, sawyer, bowyer.

ACCENTED SHORT VOWELS: Aeolic, aerial, zootomy, biology,
chads, poetic, tuition, duenna, diagonal, minuet, triennial,
priority, theodolite, de-6xidize, fiasco, neography.

HIATUS AFTER ft VOWELS IMPLYING E. (N.B. Strictly speak-
ing, in all these cases, the character fl ery should be written
because the r is pronounced: its omission must be regarded
merely as a convenient abbreviation, but is always to be
recommended in the case of derivative words when the r is
not sounded in the primitive.)

MODE (1), TERMINATIONS; labourer, nearer, utterer 91,
hearer, sharer, scorer, poorer, sorer, murderer. (Also abbrevi-
ation for termination -nee, see below.)

MODE (2) (implying ro); parent 91, coherent, occurrent,
different; electoral, scriptural, floral, choral, Europe (yoo);
(character / s disjoined) dangerous 89, murderous, coniferous,
one?-ows, odorows, venturous, rapturous, cho?-us, porous, sono-
rous, serous; (character / joined) serum, Sarum, forum,
quorum, decorum; utterance 91 (full form), difference, inter-
ference, coherence, endurance, occurrence (abbreviation for
termn. -nee, character / s, mode (1), see 100) ; honorary,
horary; considerable, sufferable, transfe?-able, answerable,
colourable, honourable 100, measu?'able, adorable, cu?'able (the
termn. -able is generally added by a dot; 100). Similarly in
derivatives of words ending in -ire, such as desirous, desirable,
desireth, desiring, if the o is retained the r should not be
written.

MODE (3) (implying ry); series, heiress, peeress, tutoress,
murderess; nearest, fearest, queerest, fiorisi, purist, purest,
aorist; poureth, careth, heareth; purity, maturity, security;
(character i ) bearish, boorish, currish, moorish, feverish,
gibberish.

COMPOUNDS ; herein, thereon, whereas, thereabouts, thereat,
thereof (v), whereupon, whereunto, where'er.

BEFORE A VOWEL, Y-Moos : laborious, glorious, gloria,
curious, Laureate, historian; superior, inferior, exterior, serious,
period, experience, criterion, imperial, material ; various,
variable, agrarian, area, Aryan, barium; seignorial, centurion.

XXV. HIATUS BETWEEN Two CONSONANTS IN CASES WHERE
A VOWEL is NECESSARILY IMPLIED, 77 (1) :



Mode of Hiatus. 121



NIY; knee, neat, knead, kneel, needle, neophyte, niece,
beneath, unique, nominee, magnesium.

RIY; re, read, ream, real, reason, re-assert, re-export, region,
reaper; three, scree, free, freedom, freeze, degrees, agreed,
breeze ; increase 89, appreciate 78, creature, screecher, wreath,
trio, Grecian, pre-arrange.

Luw; loom, leeward, halleluia 77, relume 86, illume,
luminous, lose, loose; flew, flue, flume, fluor, fluid, fluent,
-fluous, -fluity, -fluence ; blew, blue, bluer, bluey, bluish, bluely,
blueness, bloom, ablution; clue 86, -elude, -elusion; glue 86,
glued, gloom 77.

ALPHABETIC WORDS; pea, P's, peas (2), peace (3), piece,
peat, peep, pique, peak; B's, bees, beat, bead, beak, beef,
beach, beast, bean, how-be-it; keys, keyhole, keystone, key-
board, keyed, gives, given, giver; joys, joyful, joyous, rejoiced,
enjoyed, join, joint, joined; form, perform, reform, forward,
forfeit, formality (the mode should not be used in fore, forth,
forge, ford, fort, fawn); whose, whoever, whom, whosoe'er.

Two LONG VOWELS IN SUCCESSION ( 63) -.hiatus, oasis,
throughout, coercion, Aeolian, Iota, aorta, Phaeacia, liowe'er
soe'er 108, we are, you are, they are 104, they all, he ought 106,
hyena, inchoate, Croatian, theorbo, lona, Iowa, coordinate,
coheir, coeval, co-aid, Leo, de-odorize, lago, noyau, payee,
Noachian, tea-urn, Lehigh, Ohio, heigho, ha-ha, Yahoo.

XXVI. VOWEL DOTS. The following words should be
dotted to distinguish them from those in brackets :

Wander o (wonder A), anterior (interior), apologue (epilogue),
aliment (element), immigration (emigration), irruption (erup-
tion), position (possession), latter (letter), accept (except).

The following cases would, as a rule, be sufficiently distin-
guished by the context, but should be dotted in careful writing.

Shot (shut), hock (hook), itch (etch), will (testament, cp.
well), whack (wick), wag (wig), bog (bug), tongs (tongues),
dock (duck), don (dun), cock, cook, folly (fully), sot soot, lock
(luck), rot (rut), knot (nut), pack pick, pig (peg), .bill (bell), pin
pan (pen), band (bend), kit (cat), fan (fen), vista (vesta), lad
(led), lass (less), writ (rat), rad (red), wrist (rest), knit (net),
sat sit (set), sinned (send), sang (sing), rig rag, rang (ring), tap
tip, lap lip, rap rip, nap nip, tack tick, stack stick, taxed (text),
chick (check), till (tell), than (then), wad (wood), laughed (if
pronounced laft, cp. left).

The dots should never be omitted in rare words, and
unfamiliar proper names.



122 Progressive Writing Exercises.

XXVII. INITIALS ( 94). Write out the alphabet of initials
several times, distinguishing particularly U. and Z., C. and Q.,
M. and N.

A.B.A., B.A., M.A., D.D., D.C.L., F.E.S., F.G.S., F.E.A.S.,
F.Sh.S., H.R.H., T.B.H., U.S.A., H.I.M., Q.C., J.P., M.P.,
E.G., K.C.B., K.C.S.I., V.C., H.M.S., B.A., E.N., E.E.,
R.H.A., S.P.G., C.E.T.S., S.P.Q.E., S.P.C.K., N.W., S.E.,
E.G., W.C., Y.M.C.A., M.C.C.

J.W.L., G.V.H., S. A. H., F.B.R., D.A. H. A., W.V.W.,
W.E. B.E., T. G. E., SiJ.P. A., E.F.F.J., H.J.J., P.P.H.,
CH. G. J., N. L. B., E. H. W., A. W. G., F. C. J., W. C. H.,
M. T. J., M. I. E., B. B. A., F. K. J., G. F. A., S. J. J., T. G. H.,
D. C. LL., D. F. S., C. J. A., P. A. N., W. H. H. T.

XXVIII. ABBREVIATIONS. Abbreviate the following words
as indicated by the italics.

Abbreviate, absolute, acknowledge, administrator, adminis-
tratrix, advantage, advance, advertisement, altogether, antago-
nistic, archiep/scopaZ, appropriate, Bankruptcy, baptis?, benig-
nant, benevolent, benefice?it, beneficiaZ, Captain, catholic, cha-
racter (-istic), Christianity, consideration, constitution, con-
struction, correspondence, council, counsel, Difference, difficulty,
defendant, defence, destitution, destruction, distinguis/i, dis-
charge, dynamo, Ecclesiastical, enoratous, episcopaZian, esquire,
establish, evidence, examination, executor, executrix, expensive,
extraordinary, extravagant, extingiw's/i, FamiZiar, feminine,
February, financial, General (-ization), generation, government,
Ignorance, immediate, imperturbabZe, impracticaoZe, impreg-
nable, incognito, indefatigable, indignant, individual, inemcie?^,
influence, in/Zuential, in/ormation, institution, instruction, in-
telli</ioZe, Jurisprudence, Knowledge, Language, learned, Ma-
gazine, magni/icence, manufacture, mathe?aticaZ, microscope,
member, mortgage, Natural (tc), notwithstanding, Object, objec-
tion, observation, obstruction, opinion, opportunity, original,
Parliamentary, particular, pecuZiar, perhaps, perpendicular,
philanthropic, phonetic, plenipotentiary, plaintiff, positive
(poz), possibZe (pos), practical, preservation, principal (-le),
probabZe, pubZication, Question, Eecognize, religion, relinauis/t,
resignation, represent, respective, responsiZnZity, Satisfactory,
seZfevident, several, signify, significance, speak, speech, strength,
subject, subjection, subordinate, substitution, substructure,
suspect, Transcribe, Yesterday.

XXIX. OMISSION OP FINAL CONSONANTS AFTER LONG VOWELS
(see 65, 100) : faiZ, avaiZ, raUway, royal, loyal, soil, oil,
smaZZ, at-aW, aZmost, aZways, aZso, darZing, deaZ (in phrases),



A bbreviations. 123



feel, tool, rule, smiZe, beguile, juvenile, volatile, tertile, puerile,
fragile, mercantile (omit I generally in termination -He) ; time,
came, fame, James, terms, PsaZm, home, at-home ; north, south,
forth, Vforth, both, further, father, rather, brother ; vary, glory
107; scope, life, chief, belie/, believe, relief, relieve, deceive,
deceit, strive, contrive, derive, arrive, deprive, observe, preserve,
reserve, deserve, gave ; most, post, least ; please, Jesws, mean,
deed, succeed, recede, precede, proceed (AW), concede, exceed;
lar^re, church ; guard, regard ; poi?it, appoi?it.

XXX. TERMINATIONS FUL, ABLE. Final 1 may be omitted
in these terminations ; as in, able, enable, unable, disable, table,
stable, noble ; affable, capable, conceivable, corruptible, forcible,
moveable, peaceable, possible, practicable, probable, syllable,
tolerable, visible; Beautiful, gleeful, joyful, merciful, sinful.

Unless the character b or f joins easily and clearly, the dot
should be used, especially if the mode of hiatus would be re-
quired in any case; as in, accounta&Ze, actionabZe, admirafcZe,
agreea&Ze, censurable, claimaMe, combusti&Ze, comforta&Ze,
habitable, honoura&Ze, lauda&Ze, legible, memorable, miserable,
modifiabZe, observaWe, obtainable, paya&Ze, pitia&Ze, profita&Ze,
punishafiZe, questionable, sociable, tamea&Ze, teachable, un-
speakable, -variable (mode 3), valua&Ze (mode 1); aw/uZ, change-
ful, delightful, handful, hopeful, mindful, peaceful, powerful,
spiteful, successful, thankful, thoughtful, trustful.

XXXI. SMALL CIRCLE, SUBSTANTIVAL TERMINATIONS. This
should be restricted to compound terminations ending in -ness,
which are common in Old English; such as, variableness,
(mode 3), reasonabZeness, unanswerabZeness, nobleness, forgive-
ness, expressiveness, thank/wZness, skil/wZness, vfilfulness, fanci-
fulness, bashfulness, hopefulness, sinfulness, fretfulness, artfiil-
ness, joyfulness, thought/uiness, manfulness, carefulness, righte-
ousness (3), consciows/iess, bounteoiisness (3), riotowsriess, virtu-
ousness (1), foolishness, boyishness, boorishness.

In abbreviating substantives ending in -ty such as peculi-
arity, probability, legibility, the -ty is written over.

The compound U st may be used in writing the unaccented
termination -si ty ; as in, adverstty, atrocity, audacity, capacity,
curiosity, electricity, monstrosity, necessity, velocity.

XXXII. TERMINATION -NCE ( 100).

Dijference, advance, vengeance, affiance, clearance, appear-
ance, utterance, perseverance, endurance, defence, acceptance,
acquaintance, contrivance, observance, allowance, licence,
science, conscience, evidence, pronounce, expense. Similarly,
di/ferent (t), evident, ancient, sufficient, advanced (st), acquain-
tances (ses), infancy (sy), sufficiency, buoyancy, decency, fluency.



124 Phrases.

XXXIII. A AND The PHRASES. The articles a and the
should generally be joined after prepositions, conjunctions and
auxiliaries ;

The is joined as an upward tick after: above, across,
all, among, and, are, as, be, been, before, between, by, can,
does, during, even, for, has, have, if, in, is (sy), on, o'er (ooy),
shall, since, than, till, up, upon, was (ASY), when, within.

The is joined as a downward tick after the words : about,
after, against, at, behind, beneath, beyond, but, called, could,
except, from, had, hath, how, into, not, of, out (of), round,
should, so, that, think, though, thought, through, throughout,
to, toward, under, unto, what, with, without, would.

A may be joined after any of the above words, except o'er,
after, under, which end in o.

XXXIV. AUXILIARY PHRASES. The words have and be
should be joined after can, could, may, might, must, ought-to,
sJia(H), sltould, will, would. The words had, been and become,
should be joined after has, have, hath, had. The words do and
think should be joined after shall, should, will, ought-to.

In all cases words involving similar joinings may be attached
in phrases of this kind ; thus, believe, become, be able to,
present the same joining as be ; take joins like think and do.

The following words join well after be; this (that etc.),
thought, done, proud, pleased, proposed, probafc/e, felt, feared,
foreseen, found, afraid, vain, called, considered ; words begin-
ning with p, b, f or v, also join well after have.

XXXV. NEGATIVE PHRASES. The word not may be joined
after be, can, do, have, m(ay), should, shall, will. The phrases,
does not, has not, mus(t) not, was not, are written on the analogy
of it is not. The negative may be expressed by a cross-stroke
after will, shall, had, should, would, could, might, ought to.

INTERSECTION. Before be, been, have, do, mean, say, think,
and similar words, the negative is generally expressed by inter-
section, especially after the auxiliaries, can, could, may, might,
will, would, sliall, should, ought, must, had, have, do. In phrases,
such as should not be, ought not to be, where intersection is
awkward, the second word is written close below the first ; the
negative itself should be written if great precision is required.



CAMBRIDGE : PRINTED BY C. J. CLAY, M.A. & SONS, AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS.



UC SOUTHERN REGIONAL LIBRARY FACILITY



A 000099613 2






BY THE SAME AUTHOR



Price Sixpence.



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ADAPTED TO ENGLISH.



ILonfcon: c. J. CLAY AND SONS,

CAMBKIDGE UNIVERSITY PEESS WAREHOUSE,
AVE MARIA LANE.





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