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This list is not intended to be exhaustive but contains most
of the common variations.



The Common Orthography. 47

(4) Words of different meaning, pronounced differently, are
often spelled alike; such words are distinguibhed in phonetic
spelling. On the other hand words spelled differently are often
pronounced alike ; such words are not distinguished in phonetic
spelling.

bow, bow (also bough) and bAW.

live, liv (verb), lAyv (adj.), as in live-stock.

use, yuws (subst.), yuwz (verb) (also ewes, yews).

lead, led and liyd. tear, tyeo and tao.

(5) A letter is sometimes sounded in pronunciation which
is not indicated in the common spelling. The commonest ex-
ample of this is the 'parasitic y' before the vowel u (you), as
in the words beauty, few, cure, suit, mute, union, human; y is
also commonly heard in words like here, fear, pier, peer.

(6) The common spelling is generally misleading as to the
vowel sounds. The best way to find the phonetic or shorthand
equivalent for any given vowel, is to think of the key words, and
try with which of them the given vowel rhymes. See 48.

The letter r in the common spelling when immediately fol-
lowed by a consonant, indicates one of the o vowels. It is not
trilled and should not be written by the phonetic r (re), or its
equivalent, the shorthand loop character, because the first
principle of phonetic spelling is to omit mute letters. The
corresponding o vowel completely expresses the exact sound
without the addition of the r: to write the r (trill), when it is
not pronounced, is simply to write the word wrongly, and
might often cause it to be confused with some different word.

CUESIVE SHORTHAND.

46. In setting to work to learn the shorthand, the beginner
should start with 47, 48, 49, on the Alphabetic Words and
Mnemonic Aids, and should then read the General Directions,
52, and try to make out the example on p. 88, with the aid
of the Alphabetic Table, so as to gain a general idea of the
system before attempting to master its details

42



48



SHORTHAND ALPHABET.



46.



Sound.


Character. Eauivalpnts


Sound.


Character.


Examples.


CONSONANTS.


SHORT VOWELS.


Pf *b


o ^


fc.


a ]




{pat




f u vjr 1




ely


s \


petty


t, d


-s j-


t, d










I 3 J )




iJ




pit


k,g


c C


( c chk, g
\ hard


1




{pot








A>0


_


butter


f , V


n> r~t-


/> r


(






3(j tf


{ SZ }

\ a) a/ )


(A


J




put








LONG VOWELS.


tc, dj


6 C


c, J 9
soft










ao


^_ ^^ air


8, Z


/ <^j


s (c soft), z














eo




her


C, j


4 </


sh, zh














00


^


or


el.ly


/ ^


I


AO


r


are


ry, ery


/


r














ow


_y


how


em, my


J /


m


AW


/


owe


en, ny


/ /


n


UW


j ^


you


iq, Iqo


f J V


ng














ey


^~


if ay


hoo, hey


O **^


Jioar, hay


ty


^ v


ire


woo,wey


^ K


wore, way


oy


S


bay


yoo, yey


v-^


yore, yea


Ay


^^


I


SPECIAL COMPOUND CHARACTERS.


O pt, $ kt, Ust, n sp, f. nt, fj nd, O kon-, -con (-tion).



Shorthand Alphabet.



49



47. NOTES ON ALPHABETIC TABLE. The student should
not attempt to learn this table as it stands ; it is only given
for reference, and as exhibiting a general view of the alphabet.

The consonants / s, f J z, f _} iq (ing), are written
downwards.

The vowels ' y, f AO, J uw, /^ oo, ^ ow are written
upwards.

The first characters <- , w; ^ , ^s, are generally used for
t, d; 3[, t[ (th), respectively.

The sighs, w and y, are expressed, initially by hooks and
ticks ; medially, by ' mode ' as explained in 56 58.

The short vowels a, e, and i ; o, A, and u, are distinguished
when necessary, by dots or 'mode' [ 77, (3); 79].

The upward tick ^ is used for a, e, i, and y, except when
disjoined, and in the cases denned on p. 68, in which the
downward tick gives a clearer outline.

48. ALPHABETIC WOEDS. Most of the characters, when
standing alone (when not associated with other characters to
form what are technically termed 'outlines'), are used to repre-
sent certain common words called the 'Alphabetic Words'.
Each word is chosen to suggest, when possible, the usage as
well as the sound of the corresponding character. They are
very useful as key words, and should be thoroughly learnt.

For exercises thereon, see pp. 88, 108.
VOWELS.



\ and

x of

- a, an

i the



V. air
^Ay!

j how



\ way
^ owe

year r are

/ one j you

The straight ticks \ / I when standing alone are arbitrarily
used for the words and, of, the, respectively.

The unaccented short sound of the word a, in phrases like
'such a man', is identical with the neutral vowel o (er).

The character _ o is also used for an.



50



Shorthand Alphabet.



<^ pea


ra for


Ov be


f~*> have


^ to


^ think


w do


\s them


> at


3 hath


) had


^) with


c key


which


C 8 ive


C Joy



The curved characters v_ I, "> we, r are, J you should be
made slightly longer than the straight ticks. They are written
sloping, and are not so deeply curved as p, t, k.

The downstroke / standing alone is the figure 1, and is
used for the word one. The tick / s is not used standing
alone; it would clash with the vertical tick i the.

CONSONANTS.

P will ) as, has

loo f is, his

$ from o who, self

very & selves

'/ him U 1st

/ me (j into

/in U hand

/ no o circumstance.

These will be found very useful in learning the alphabet ;
they are not merely convenient abbreviations.

Some of them contain or imply preceding or following
vowels. The forms / me and / in are obtained by simply
joining the vowel ' y (ee) after m and before n. The character

// em is only used when a short vowel precedes m. The character
it ny, used for the word no, always implies a following vowel,

but not generally 5 : at the end of an outline the vowel implied
is y, as in many.

Both the characters for r require following vowels. The
character A (re) is used when a vowel does not precede, in
forming combinations like fr, as in from: the character
(ery) implies a preceding vowel, as in the word very. The
character Q (loo), requires a following vowel: if no vowel is
written the sound oo uw is implied in certain cases, see 77 (1).

The z characters for is, as, being written downwards, cannot
be confused with are, you, when joined to other characters.
When standing alone, they should be made longer and steeper,



Shorthand Alphabet. 51

more like the q (ing) characters J f , which are not used for
alphabetic words. The words his, has, are distinguished, if
necessary, from is, as, by prefixing a circle; thus, phis, 3 has.

The characters i, c, sh, and d j, zh, consist of small
circles, turned in opposite directions at the end of an s tick.
The s tick is generally omitted and the circles are directly
attached to vowel stems ( 84). The character J, when standing
alone, is used as an abbreviation for the word such.

The small h circle, standing alone, is used for the word
who, huw; as a suffix, for the word self; as in A^O itself.

The double circle is used to add s to circle characters (see

83) ; and for the word selves, as in \f yourselves.

The compound characters pt, kt, st, sp, nt, nd, are only
used when no vowel intervenes between the components in
each case. It would be a bad mistake to write u Bt for city,
or S kt for cat. There are a few other compound consonants
of less importance, formed in a similar way by combining their
components. ( 8089.)

By enlarging the circle of c, J to add the syllable on, we
obtain useful forms for the common terminations -t ion, -sion : as
/CQ ind-keycon, indication; "^- okeyjon, occasion. ( 85.)

Initially the large circle is used for the prefix kon, con, as
in CM- kontro, contra; ay konsistent, consistent. ( 82.)

When disjoined it is used for the prefix circum; and when
standing alone, for the word circumstance.

49. MNEMONIC AIDS. The characters of the alphabet are
best learnt by actual practice in reading and writing, by the
constant use of the alphabetic words, and especially by noting
the relations between the characters and the sounds they re-
present ( 50, 51). But the beginner unacquainted with
phonetics will probably find the following mnemonic associ-
ations most useful at the outset.

The character c for k (hard c, as in cat) is simply the
letter c without the dot.



52 Shorthand Alphabet.

The character r\ for p, and the related characters for
b, , T, curve vp : p, up.

The character v_y for d, and the related characters for
t, n, it, curve down : d, down. -

The characters / for m, n, are portions of the letters
M, N. f

The character JL Iqa (inger) for the 'back -nasal', is the
character y n, written backwards, with the o-tick (_) added.

The loop characters * r for 1 and r, may be associated

" D
with the longhand script forms xC f.

The character <j th, is formed from the character u t by
adding a small circle at the end, just as in the ordinary
spelling the letter h is added to t giving the digraph th.
Similarly the other circle characters may be associated with
the ordinary spelling, in which their sounds are often re-
presented by the digraphs ph, ch, sh, etc., if we regard the
modifying circle as corresponding to the letter h. Thus :

ph, a, f; eh, C , tc; $h, 4 , c; nth, ^, ruj; sth, (3 , s*.

RELATIONS BETWEEN SOUND AND SIGN.

50. The forms of the characters are chosen so that similar
sounds may be represented by similar signs.

DISTINCTIOSS OF SIZE. The first sixteen consonants are
arranged in natural pairs; pi), td. kg, fv. 30;, tcdj. s z,
c J. The members of each pair are very closely related in
sound. In technical language the first member is said to be
'breathed', and the second 'voiced'. The corresponding dif-
ference in the characters (except s z, c j) is one of size.

The small size characters ^ p, -' ' t, c k, "> , w a j,
6 tc, belonging to the ' breathed ' or ' whispered ' articulations,
are made a little less than half the size of the corresponding
full', or 'voiced', sounds /~\b,w) d, (_ g, (~t v, v-^O n,
C dj. In the case of s z, c j, it is more convenient to make
the distinction in other ways. The tick for a is straight, for z



Relations between Sound and Sign.



53



curved; and the circles for c and j are turned respectively,
6 O c backwards, and d O j forwards (clock-wise). ( 55.)

The breathed varieties of 1, r, m, n, w, y, are practically
non-occurrent in English, and of little importance.

The short vowels are expressed by ticks ; the long vowels,
by curves and strokes.

51. DISTINCTIONS op DIRECTION. Each consonant character
involves a down-stroke or a back-stroke which can be thickened :

each vowel character an up-stroke , - '' or a cross-stroke \

with a motion of traverse along the line.

The sloping vowels should not be written steeply, but at an
angle of 30 to the line: thus, .^T 30. The vowel curves
should be slightly curved and sloping ; for instance, oo should
be written /- NOT s~^~ which would be confused with To.

The directions assigned to the characters depend on the
organs by which they are produced.

The general relations are exhibited in the annexed table*:



Organ*


Names


Directions


Characters


Lips


Labial


Upwards


n p, n> f, / m


Teeth and
Gums


Front or
Dental


Downwards


o D t, I/ n, / s


Back i Back or
palate '. Guttural


Backwards


c k, ( g, C q



Similar relations hold of the vowel characters.

Labial, or w-vowels, upwards; ^ AW, s ow, _^. uw.

Front, or y- vowels, downwards ; \ ey, ~"N Ay, ~v" iy.
Neutral, or o-vowels, end horizontally; eo, /^~oo, V_ ao.



This classification is necessarily rough.



54 General Directions for Writing.



GENEEAL DIEECTIONS FOE WEITING.

52. WRITING MATEKIALS. The prettiest and most accurate
results are obtained with pen and ink on ruled paper ; but for
all practical purposes Cursive Shorthand may be equally well
written on plain paper with a pencil or stylograph.

IN LEABNING TO WKITE, it is important as far as pos-
sible to avoid writing words incorrectly; at first therefore
the student should never hurry, but should draw every
character carefully and deliberately, so as to avoid forming
bad habits. Speed will come by practice. In taking notes the
student should on all possible occasions use those words,
especially 'alphabetic words,' with the correct outlines of which
he is already familiar : important and unfamiliar words should
at first be always written in longhand; if written hurriedly,
before a good style has been acquired, they will probably be
written incorrectly, and may be difficult to read afterwards.

IN LEAKNING TO EEAD, the student should particularly avoid
spelling words out by the ordinary names of the longhand
letters, which are often no guide to the sound. Ultimately
a habit is acquired of recognizing words by their outlines
without spelling them out, or even pronouncing them ; in the
meantime, if a word must be spelt out, it is best to write down
the equivalent of the shorthand outline in phonetic notation,
and then try to pronounce it, putting in the vowel e in place of
'indicated' vowels. ( 67.)

53. In writing, the characters representing the sounds of a
word are all joined together in their proper order, forming
a continuous whole, technically called an ' outline '. The pen
is not lifted from the paper except as required by the ' Mode of
Hiatus' (see 74).

The relative sizes of large and small characters must be
carefully maintained, just as in longhand. The actual size of
the characters may be varied according to circumstances, such



General Directions for Writing. 55

as the goodness of the light and the writing materials. The
minuteness of any kind of writing is limited by the size of the
smallest characters. Since in Cursive Shorthand the small
size may be made as small as you like, and the small circle
may be reduced to a dot, the writing may be made very compact
indeed. This is often convenient in marginal notes and like
cases ( 107) . The beginner should not attempt this at first. The
best general rule is to make the small characters < ^ c J -
as small as they can conveniently be made say from ^ th to
^V h of an inch long, as in ordinary longhand writing and
the large size /^ w J at least twice as big. The tick
/ s should be kept as short as possible, not more than one-third
of the length of / n.

The way in which the characters are joined, in almost every
conceivable combination, is very fully illustrated in the suc-
ceeding pages. The student is advised to write down every
illustration as he comes to it, and to compare the phonetic
key with the outline, and with his own pronunciation, in each
case, so as to learn to distinguish accurately the sound belong-
ing to each character.

Wherever alternative characters are given for any sound, it
is not optional to use either in any given combination. Which
of two alternative characters is to be used, is determined either
by rules of vowel indication or by considerations of clearness
and facility.

The simplicity and phonetic strictness of Cursive Shorthand
alone render it possible to provide a complete set of rules to
meet all cases. This not only saves the student the trouble
and perplexity of choosing for himself which of two characters
is preferable, but also secures uniformity of style among writers
of the system.

Great pains have been taken in illustrating the rules to
choose the most suggestive examples. In addition to this
a series of progressive exercises has been appended, which are
arranged in such a way as to show what characters are to
be used in each case.



56 General Directions for Writiny.

54. ANGLES OF JOINING. In joining two characters, if the
second begins in the same direction as the first ends, the
joining is not marked by an angle or break but is said to be
'continuous'; as in c keo, cur, from c k and eo.
Similarly (^^ kAWt, coat; <^ Tiow, cow; r*j p-t; <; -kt.

In many cases, where a very blunt angle (greater than 135)
would naturally occur, if the exact geometrical forms of the
characters were followed, no angle need be made in actual
writing, provided that the component characters are clearly

distinguishable, as in .W, gr-t, great, from C,

This does not apply to blunt angles between straight strokes
as in the case of coercion and oasis ( 63).

The angle need not be marked in the combinations
\^,eyd, aid; ^~\bey, bay; ^^> eyt, eight; r \ pey, pay ;
but should be marked after ^ and w and before n and ^
as in \j^ tAW, toe; ^^ Awf, oaf; ^\j^ potato.

Blunt angles of 120 or less should generally be marked,
but may be slurred or rounded off, as in the annexed cuts.

^^^ dowt, doubt; v,kao, care; ^^"^ oodo, order.

Angles less than a right angle are generally sharpened :

x -V, diyp, deep; NOT ^-^v; tf suwn, soon; NOT u .

Sharp angle joinings are the clearest. The alternative cha-
racters are used so as to secure sharp angle joinings wherever
possible. Continuous joinings are speedy but not always clear.
Outlines such as ^_^N^ d-beyt, debate, involving continuous
joinings, are wanting in sharpness, and if written fast are
difficult to write neatly. They occur very rarely in Cursive
Shorthand.

When a character ending in a circle is joined to a following
character, the circle is described by a continuous movement of
the pen, ending in the direction in which the second character
begins so that there is no break or angle ; compare the words :
vji qey, they; v ~\ dey, day: <^~ foo, fore,; <V poo, pore;
f> tcao, chair; c kao, care: \ju q-t, that; \~s~> d-t, dot.



General Directions for Writing.



In a few cases, those in which the circle ends in the oppo-
site direction to the beginning of the next character, a sharp
angle is made after the circle, as in

j^ gr-f-k, graphic; V senco, censure.

INITIAL H, C (SH), W, Y.

55. H, c. The small circle used for initial h, is turned

forwards \jf ) m tne same direction as that in which the
hands of a clock move. The small circle used for initial c (sh),
is always turned backwards \J<, counter-clockwise, in the
same direction as the longhand letter c or o. The sound j (zh)
does not occur initially in English (see 84).

~^ head, <\f hell, crv hut, <*\ he, ctf hen,

o*-^ shed, vr shell, Q-u shut, s she, <y] shin,

o\ hare, a u hurt, <$" hoar, 6t hark,

^ share, Q u shirt, & shore, cxT shark,

0-^" hoe, o-^ hoot, \ hay, ^\ high,
o - ' shoio, o^ sJwot, ^ shay, ^. shy.

The vowels are omitted in the words of shall, Q_/ should.

In practice, the word she may be written straight ; thus, 3. .
It need not be curved unless joined to following characters.

Initial h is omitted in the words how, house ; and the circle
is turned backwards in the word his (p. 51).

Medial h is rare ; the forward circle generally joins badly
between two characters. The h circle may never be joined
after consonants; and may never be turned backwards. It
may be joined after vowels if it falls naturally outside an
angle ; as in
-p~s ahead, -^ ahoy; compare -Cr ashore, \/ as hame.

56. w. A forward hook is used for initial w, before
forward curves; as in w~b weave, <r"C wook, walk: and in the
following common words, from which the vowels are omitted;

9 what, ) would, when, 9 went, n whence.



58 Initial ff, C (SH), IF, Y.

An upward or up-backward tick is used for initial w in
other cases ; as in

<u wet, -*\_s wood, ri won, 4 win, v woe, wash;

fjf well, ^r wool, \. why, \^ were, 'X, way,
v^ word, e>> ^^ wiyod, weird, <-"" woe, < / ^-' u-oo'd.
The wmaygenerally beomitted, or expressed by ' mode ' ( 58),
in the words, T was, /^_9- whether; also in were , way, icon't.

57. Y. The downward tick \ is used for initial y ; as in
\^ yet, V yes, Jr yell, y yap, ^ yot, yacht;

\ year, \f^^ yard, V young, **l yawn, 'St/ yeast.

It is joined by an upward tick before a downward vowel;
as in the words v\ yea, ^\^ yare.

Initial y is omitted before the vowel j uw, oo, as in
^/ yuws, use (subst.) ; j yuwz, use (verb) ; initial ob, without
the y, occurs only in the word ooze, which is written as in 62.

If great precision is required, the y tick is used, followed by

the y-mode; thus, V 9 yuw%, youth; \ff? yuwl, yule.

The y in year may be omitted, or expressed by 'mode ' ( 58).

Vowels following h, w, and y, are always written like initial
vowels ( 69, Exercise V.), except that the short vowels a, e, i,
are written / upwards after \ y. After w and h, they are
written \ downwards before upstrokes and backstrokes, or if
not joined to a following character.

The ticks are used for initial w and y, only before vowel
characters.

58. MEDIALLY w and y are expressed by ' MODE OF HIATUS',
that is to say, by lifting the pen, leaving a small interval or
'hiatus', and starting afresh, above for w, below for y.

Thus in the outline C\ kwey, qua; the w is expressed
by beginning the \ ey a little above the end of the c k.

Similarly in J hyuw, hue; /^^ adhyeo, adhere; the y

is expressed by beginning the vowel below the h circle.



Initial H, C (SH), W, Y. 59

The sound hw, wh, the ' breathed ' w, is similarly expressed
by using the w-mode after the b circle ; thus,

=>V_ fcwao, where ; oN s hwey, whey.

But the distinction between w and w/t is not generally main-
tained in English speech ; it is therefore sufficient, except when
it is desired to imitate a peculiarity of pronunciation, to write
w in all cases for wh.

The y-mode is most commonly required before the vowel
ft yuw (you), as in the words

s~^i^ byuwty, beauty; r\J pya.w,pew; i/syvLW,sue.

The w-mode is chiefly required after k, t to express the
combinations kw (qu), tw, thus:

Cv kwio, queer; ~vtS iykw-1, equal; ^M akwyes, acquiesce.
wS tWAyn, twine; \^r dwel, dwell; /^~~ swao, swear.

It may be observed that, in the w and y modes, the charac-
ters are written in position as though the ticks were inserted:
thus, -\ owcy, away ; - oyeo, a year.

They should be made to overlap each other slightly, when
possible, to show their connection more clearly.

The ticks are good initial characters, but if used medially
would often present awkward joinings: in rapid writing the
modes generally give clearer outlines.

Initial hooks can only be used safely in the special case
selected, namely the forward hook before forward curves.
Other hooks, such as <^, <\, c^/, though they can be easily
distinguished in a cut from (^ co, f \ pay, <^/ cow, would
cause serious clashing in actual practice.



LONG VOWELS.

59. By the terms 'Long vowels' and ' Short vowels' are to
be understood the sounds given hi the Alphabetic Table under
those headings.

Long vowels are expressed in almost all cases by writing
then- characters in their proper sequence.



60 Long Vowels.

The vowels r AO, eo, ^ AW, ^x ey, /^ oo, ^' ow, ^ oy

generally present good joinings, and require no alternative
characters. (See Exercises II., III., p. 108.)

The characters V. ao, *- ~\ Ay, ~N ~v iy, ./-*. uw are
likely to give the student most trouble at first. They involve
curves on the awkward slope \ , which sometimes present bad
joinings, and therefore require alternatives. (Exercise IV.)

60. The character \- ao joins well after upstrokes, -/^
and back-circle characters :

/'^_ nao, ne'er; ^\ pao, pair; J(^_ lao, lair.

After the downstrokes, s, m, sp, and after forward circles,
such as f, h, the character ~V is used, as in

fl. spao, spare; I mao,mare; \ fas, fair.

61. AY. The character v_ I is generally used for the
sound Ay, as in the following words :

>^ r-lAy, rely; ^v. &-UA.J, deny ; Q like; ^-^ dine.

/-\ bAy, by; ^ Ays, ice; V. Ayz, eyes; ^- Ayiq, eyeing.
It is straightened to \ after a downstroke, or forward-circle.
/ SA.yn,sign; /. mAy, my; ^ f*.J,fie. ( 73, end.)

The character v is lengthened to V, , and s to "^ before
an upstroke.

^~,ty.P e ; uy^ripe; Vs-Z're; ^/) mile.

After *- \ Ay, and V. ao, the consonants t, d, 21, TI. are
written 3 ) s ^) respectively (Exercise IX.) ; after all other
vowels the characters v \^ <& ^_y are used. ( 81.)

jLAynp, either; ^ WAyt, white; }I'd; aod, air'd.



The character ~~N is used after circle h, but is shortened to
\ before a consonant downstroke ; thus,

^ high, / Hine, ^ height, ) hide.



Long Vowels. 61

62. uw, IY. The full forms -v- , _>^_ are written before
backstrokes c k, C S> r %, f QL-

vc wiyk, week; -\r iyz, ease; '-v? siyiq, seeing.

-A yuwko, Euchre; -^ uwz, ooze; ^ hyuwdj, huge.


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