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The second stroke of ->- uw is always omitted in other cases.
^/^ suwp, soup; v^_/-> dyuwp, dupe; (_^ kuwl, coot.
w j[ruw, through ; _^Jl\ yuwt-1-ty, utility ; <^/ fyuw, few.

The second stroke of ~v~ iy is reduced to the tick / before
downstrokes, and is omitted before upstrokes.

i^, siyt, seat; ^y siyn, seen; L, siyst, ceased.
C^ Myp, keep; G^ tciyf, chief.

The vowels, uw after -r , and iy after A Q t , are not
written, but expressed by 'Mode of Hiatus'. ( 77.)

The sounds -J~ uo, ^v_ io, as in ^>oor, peer, are better re-
placed, except in words like wooer, seer [ 77 (2)], by the ap-
proximate sounds ^~~ oo, yeo, which are more easily
written and give clearer outlines : as <T> fyeo, fear.

The word your, in particular, should be written \^~ yoo, not
-s- yuwo (ewer), to distinguish it safely from _^~ owo, our.

63. Two LONG VOWELS IN SUCCESSION. Two long vowels
rarely follow one another without an intervening consonant.
The following are a few examples (see also Exercise XXV.):


V hAyeytos, hiatus; -^"^ Aweysys, Oasis.

ju O

v^/-^ 3[ruwowt, throughout; r/ kAweocon, coercion.

\^T-. lyAwlyon, Aeolian; ^/*s~ AyAWto, Iota.

For cases where one or both of two vowels in succession
are short, see 75, 77, Mode of Hiatus.

64. The characters + are not used for 1 and r respect-
ively, after vowel characters. ( 86.)

c. 5

62 Long Vowels.

The upstroke of the character t em represents a short
vowel ( 87). It is omitted after long vowel characters. The
downstroke / is not joined, but is written in position as
though the upstroke had been described. Compare the words :

home, r^^ poem; ^-w time, \/ lam;

/y meum, y seem; if suum, x// assume.

especially when accented, are the most audible of sounds,
and are the most important in distinguishing words .in
speech. In shorthand, long vowels may only be omitted in
very common words and terminations, such as are sufficiently
distinguished by their consonants, and cannot clash with the
full outlines of other words and phrases, so that the gain of
brevity is attended with little loss of legibility.

In abbreviating words, it is generally better to omit one or
two final consonants, and to keep the accented long vowels.
The latter remain audible in speech long after the consonants,
so that, if we retain them, the habits of interpretation which
have been already acquired in listening to spoken discourse, will
then avail us in reading abbreviated shorthand.

The vowel ey may be much more frequently omitted than
any of the other long vowels. The gain thus secured in
sharpness and compactness of outline, by the omission of the
awkward slope, is often great; and the loss of legibility is
relatively small, because ey is a very common vowel and
closely related in sound to e ( 73).

The common termination -ate is generally long in verbs;
but is so common that the vowel may always be omitted in
words of more than two syllables, provided that its place is
indicated and that a clearer outline is secured by its omission ;
as in the words,
b( __ *j accommodate, Q^ agitate, mt^- 1 fascinate, _o<_/ operate.

The outlines of all the common words from which vowels
may be omitted are given in the list on pp. 106, 107 ; and are
collected for reference in Exercise XX.

Short Vowels. 63


66. It is a marked peculiarity of the English accent that
some syllables are strongly emphasized or accented, and others
slurred or pronounced with very little force. The sounds of
the accented syllables are most clearly given in pronunciation,
and are most important in distinguishing words. A short
vowel in an unaccented syllable tends to lose its distinctive
features, and to pass into a neutral voice murmur.

More than half the vowels in English are short and un-
accented. The function of such a vowel is chiefly to mark
the arrangement of the consonants. In speech words are dis-
tinguished not by the sounds, but rather by the places of their
unaccented short vowels. If therefore the place of such a vowel
among the consonants be indicated, it is fully and adequately
expressed, and need not be written by character.

This method of treating the unaccented vowels, enables us
to mark the way in which a word is accented, and is one of
the chief features of the present system. The beginner will
perhaps fail at first to appreciate its full importance. He may
find some difficulty in the distinction between accented and
unaccented vowels, because, although it is one of the most
essential distinctions in speech, it is not recognized in the
common spelling. For a fuller explanation of the difference,
he is referred to the pamphlet on Phonetic Spelling before-
mentioned (p. 20), in which the subject of the expression of
accent is discussed and illustrated in considerable detail.

67. VOWEL INDICATION. A short vowel is indicated at the
junction of each pair of consonants, unless its absence is
specially implied by one of the methods given below. ( 71.)

At the beginning or end of an outline no vowel is implied
(unless written), except in the special cases mentioned below
( 69, 70). Initial and final vowels are generally written.

A vowel indicated in a shorthand outline is denoted by
a hyphen in the corresponding Phonetic Key.


64 Short Vowels.

68. ACCENTED SHORT VOWELS. Short vowels when ac-
cented are often of importance in distinguishing words by
their sounds. The words pat, pet, pit, pot, put, for instance,
are distinguished solely by the sounds of their short vowels.

The accented short vowels are divided into two groups:
(1) the y () group, a, e, i ; (2) the o (er) group, o, A, u.

The vowels a, e, i, are all three represented by either of the
2-ticks, s or " ; the vowels o, A, u, by the er-tick, - o.

The upward -tick is to be used except in cases where the
contrary is expressly stated. (See p. 68, end.)

The distinction between a, e, and i, and likewise that
between o, A, and u, is made by 'mode' of writing in a way
which will be explained later. For the present a and i will be
written (and should be pronounced in reading) as e, which is
intermediate in sound between them: and similarly o and u
will be written, and should be read, as A. The legibility thus
secured is found to be amply sufficient for all ordinary pur-
poses, and the further distinction is readily added if precision
is required. ( 79.)

69. INITIAL SHOKT VOWELS. The tick is used for o, A,
or u ; \ or s for a, e, or i: the -tick is written x downwards
before upstrokes and backstrokes, ^ upwards before down-
strokes and c s/i. (See Exercise V.)

< W happy; "7 us; f AZ, was; f->it; vs if.

-^j- Ato, utter; J on; Q egg; ~h- Ezra; vr ell.

The sound o is implied by a hook before the characters
r> P, r\ t>, ra f> r~t> v. The character - should be written if
the vowel is accented, o, A, or u. (See 80.) Initial a, when
unaccented, as in the words appear, above, about, is generally
pronounced o, but is best written as a, with the e-tick and not
with the hook ; and similarly in the prefix ad- .
oj upon, <* off, cd offence, -O oven, v^ apyeo, appear.

The character Q ery implies a preceding vowel ; if no vowel
is written the sound o is implied. Compare the words,
j*9 r-ndj, range; /li or-ndj, arrange; 779 AT-ndj, orange.

Short Vowels. 65

The nasal compounds cannot be pronounced without a pre-
ceding vowel: if no vowel is written the sound y is implied.
^ ynt, (J ynd, < yqko, ( yqgo. ( 89.)

The upward 8 is not joined before / m, we use the form
J em. The word among is written /y emAq, not 4. enAq.

70. FINAL SHORT VOWELS in English are always un-
accented. We distinguish only two varieties, which are
denoted by the ticks - o (Zr) and x s y (ee): final in
common spelling always stands for the sound o.

Examples of final o (see also Exercise VI.) :
-o- ofo, offer; compare ^_/a A-tes, defer (long accented).
CL k-mo, comer; <J iqko, inker (compare incur). ( 89.)
Final y is written \ down after upstrokes and backstrokes,

/ up after downstrokes. c6 footy, forty; V A 7 s y. icy-
Downwards after backward circles, upwards after forward

circles; as in X acy, ashy; ^ tAtcy, touchy; vs' efy, Effie.
Upward y is written as a hook after c k, (_ g; as in,

v_yx dAky, duckie; (y get; (, buggy.
Final y is implied, and need not be written, after the
characters S? ly, >. ry, ^ ery, ,, ny ; o is written.

*' eny, any; /nr 1-vly, lovely; fa BAry, Surrey.

71. MEDIAL SHORT VOWELS. A short vowel in the middle
of an outline is indicated at the junction of each pair of con-
sonants, unless its absence is specially implied by one of
the following methods.

(1) By the use of the compound characters.

Compare 6V stAy, sty; t*-\ sety, city. / into; u-j not.

(2) By certain of the alternative consonant characters.
Compare r^j inveos, inverse; [f*~ n-vo, never.

flAW, flow ; rj^ felAW, fellow ; ^ felt.

trAy, try; <sW hest-ry, history; j^ toory, Tory.

66 Short Vowels.

The usage of the alternative consonant characters is very
fully illustrated in 8089.

(3) By the ' MODE OF HIATUS '.

The joining of two consonant characters generally implies
an intervening short vowel ; if they are not joined but written
side by side, leaving a small interval or hiatus, the absence of
a vowel is implied. (See 77.)

Since all the common compounds are specially provided for,
this mode is only required in exceptional cases; particularly in the
case of compound words where the consonants belong to separate

syllables: e.g. r^w fitf-1, fitful; ^ ^^ text bAk, textbook.

hand-maid, uStf first-class, ___ /^^~-^ out-do.
f/y short-hand; compare Cy; shortened (p. 107).

Compare ^-jly d-zm-1, dismal; ^^/^ d-s-m-1, decimal.

This use of the mode of hiatus is exactly analogous to
word-division. A compound word is divided where vowel in-
dication requires it, but the parts are written close together to
show their connection. (Exercise XXIII.)


This is the fundamental rule of vowel insertion and
omission, and includes all the others. (Exercise XVII.)

In some cases the consonant characters cannot be clearly
joined without a vowel tick : an intervening vowel cannot then
be indicated, but must be written. (Exercise XVIII.)

The tick / s on account of its shortness cannot be joined
continuously to downward characters : when s is followed by a
downward character the intervening vowel, if any, is always

Mf~ sister, (NOT / into) ; 4H assesses; L^, sot.

When a vowel does not intervene the mode of hiatus is
used, unless a special form is provided for the compound.

v Elsie, VV_ snare, ir~^ small, compare M stare.
The insertion of a vowel tick after characters like y ndj,

Short Vowels. 67

ery, is required to give a good joining before C k, / s ; and
generally before and after backward strokes.

^V wishers; dsff- historic; syf 1 Paris; IjTJ injury.

In many other cases, especially between downstrokes, as
L^_; mud, and after circle characters, as rf fat, the insertion
of a vowel tick, though not essential to clearness, makes the
outline easier to write fast.

Medially the distinction between the unaccented vowels o
and y is generally unimportant: it is therefore sufficient to
indicate such a vowel, or if it cannot be indicated either
character may be used; for instance, in the word r ^-~M person,

the sound o in the termination son may be written / y, be-
cause the -tick joins more clearly and easily.


The insertion of accented short vowels serves two purposes ;
(1) to distinguish words, (2) to mark the accent.

(1) When the characters o and y represent accented vowels,
the difference of character is often useful in distinguishing
words. The distinction is most important in the case of
monosyllables and rare words. (Exercise VII.)

In the case of common words such as readily suggest them-
selves, especially connecting particles, and words which are
commonly slurred or unaccented in speech, indicated vowels
are generally omitted. This not only possesses the advantage
of brevity, but also serves to distinguish them from rarer
words, which are fully written. (See Exercise XXI.)

Thus we write s~^> but (NOT s~^_,), u~> not, ^-/ this.

Compare r^-* bet, y net, ^-7 t hus.

In short words and in cases where the accent does not
require marking, the -tick, for a, e, or i, may sometimes be
omitted. To distinguish such words from words containing
o, A, or u, it is sufficient always to insert the latter ; and if an
accented vowel has been omitted, it should be pronounced as e
in reading.

The upward e-tick should never be omitted between down-
strokes, in words like pet, set, let, met, when it gives a clearer

68 Short Vowels.

outline. It may nearly always be omitted after t, d, 3[, q, tc, dj,
when followed by downstrokes, especially n, az, or aq. (See
Exercise XIX.) In some other syllables such as pell, fell, rell,
nell, ness, where it joins continuously, its insertion or omission
is generally immaterial and makes little difference to the

(2) In words of more than one or two syllables, the sounds
of the short vowels are seldom the only means of distinction.
But in this case the insertion of accented vowels is useful in a
different way, namely in marking the accent. This often
makes a word much easier to read, especially if it is a rare
word, or if it is accented in an unusual way.
-V finesse, w'-^- Thibet, ^ll open'd, ^-^fj depend.

VCN-^V yesterday, ~\ui understand, ^/~bA. advertise.

vjxj effort, rj^ permit, '/f^' property, -4^~^>, liberty.
'M. attic, A-^ attack, ^-G^ etiquette, V^NJ abbot, v~^, abut.

The insertion of a vowel tick gives no information about
the accent in cases, such as those of 72, where its insertion is
required on other grounds. The insertion of an unaccented
vowel, when not required, is misleading; it is in all cases better
simply to indicate a short vowel than to insert it wrongly.

DOWNWARD E-TICK. The cases in which the downward
2-tick is used medially for a, e, or i, are as follows :

It is always used before p, to, f, v, except after p, to, y.

Before other characters which require it initially (namely,
backstrokes and el, 70), it is only used after characters which
require it finally (namely, back-circles and t, d, 68), and after
k, g. (Exercise VII.) Thus,

i~ sap, ^ kick, ^P kill, ^ thick, ^ chill, ^Jp tell.
It may be noticed that the downward tick is never used after
the characters ^ /~\ \ , or before the characters w w <j> v^
under any circumstances; and that the cases in which it
represents one of the short vowels a, e, and i, can never clash
with those in which it is used for the long vowel Ay ( 62).

Mode of Hiatus. 69


74. The Mode of Hiatus consists in lifting the pen and
leaving a small interval between two characters instead of
joining them together. It is chiefly used in the expression of
the rarer and more difficult combinations of sounds.

There are two sizes of interval : the small interval, or hiatus,
which is made as small as possible; and the large interval, or
word-space, which must be kept sufficiently large to be easily
distinguished from the former.

There are three modes. In the first or w-mode (1), the
second character is commenced above the end of the first ; in
the second or o-mode (2), on the same level; in the third or
y-mode (3), below.

75. BEFORE A VOWEL CHAEACTEE, or an implied vowel,
modes (1) and (3) indicate w and y respectively. (Ex. XXH.)

In phrases and compound words, w and y are generally
expressed by mode. Mode (2) is used before the h circle.

f^/^> not yet; \s\Iwould; v_y/ d'yoti; ^towards.
/ "^9/ b-h-nd, behind; '"yj b-yond; ^N^ b-weyl, bewail.

The unaccented short vowels y and w (oo), when immediately
followed by another vowel, become truly consonantal, and are
expressed by mode, especially in terminations: for convenience
the w-mode is extended to the representation of all such
terminations as -ual, -uum, -uous, etc., where the u is un-
accented, and represents the compound sound yw.

1/7 Indian; i^^-Jfi sodium; $^O kryeycon, creation,
jf* -usual; o-i ^3 continuation ; / ^- g r^> valuable ; ^~w vacuum.

o-mode after a tick, the next character is begun nearer the
middle than the end of the tick; in the w-mode, above the
upper end ; in the y-mode, below the lower end ; and similarly
before a tick.

#<v> mishap; /y-' synw-t, suet; 7W swiyt, sweet.

70 Mode of Hiatus.

The end of the character // n is for these modes considered

to be its tipper end, whether the second stroke is inserted or
not. The same rule applies to q, and the n compounds, us, nt.
Similarly the beginning of an m is considered to he its lower
end, whether the upstroke is written or not. [ 77 (3).]

" rly, re; 4^^ riyd, read; J riym, ream.

c,\ Conway, H sincere, /-v-/-, poignant, I? minutiae.

/ h 'I 1^


(1) BETWEEN TWO CONSONANTS, mode (2) implies the
absence of a vowel. ( 71.) Mode (1) is used for terminations,
see pp. 85, 92 ; mode (3) for unaccented ii, yw, as in the words,

r *X, jwpulate, "_ occupy, "\^ amputate, r~fr^j( voluble.

After the characters ft ry, ft ery, t ny, which necessitate
a following vowel, mode (2) is used to express the vowel iy.
If no character follows, a dot is used.

/' niy, knee; ** nlyl, kneel; *^ niyd, need.

j" rly, re; J^' rlyd, read; *

Similarly uw is expressed by mode (2) after -r el, V ly
(as suggested by the alphabetic word loo) (see 86) :

(vl gluwm, gloom; ./S luwod, leeicard; JtK_ hal-luwyo.

In monosyllables (except knee, re) the dot may be omitted,
because the vowel is necessarily long.

flK fluw, flew; Jj 3[riy, three.

In other cases a dot at the end of a word is used as
a general mark of abbreviation (see 94) ; and the use of the
second mode between two consonants in cases where, owing
to the exigencies of pronunciation, a vowel must intervene,
implies the vowel of the alphabetic word, generally the alpha-
betic word itself in a compound (see 91) ; thus,

n>l form, C join, ^, peace, <- r keys, /'-y bees.

Mode of Hiatus. 71

But except in initial syllables, and in the case of iy after
the characters ry and ny, and of uw after ly, it is generally
better to write the vowel character. (Exercise XXV.)

(2) AFTEB A LONG VOWEL CHAEACTEB. The mode of hiatus
after a long vowel and before a consonant, except m, implies a
short vowel. Modes (1), (2), and (3), are used to distinguish
the unaccented vowels w, o, y ; but the distinction is generally
of little importance, and need not be very carefully observed :
the sound w does not occur in this way in English. (Ex. XXIV.)

</ sAyon, scion ; v_ ^^ akWAyod, acquired; iJ ruwyn, ruin.

I 01

/Or^vowyl, vowel; <~*^ pAwysy, poesy ; i^\^ society.

When no consonant follows, the o or y tick is simply
joined : as in o/^ showy, Q f~ shower, -J~ wooer, \_ seer.

If the vowels do not join clearly the mode of hiatus is used ;
the w-mode after an w (oo) vowel ; the y-mode after an y (ee)
vowel ; as in i^ sower ; <. sayer ; ^-_ Ayo, ire ; ^ Chaos.

When an o-vowel is immediately followed by another vowel,
r is usually sounded, but the character ^ ery need not usually
be written, unless great precision is required, because the r trill
is sufficiently implied by the use of the o vowel; exceptions,
such as lawyer, are so extremely rare as never to give trouble.

J^v^7 1-booryos, laborious ; *!___ s-pyeoryo, superior.

I /

/ U nearest, -, serious, L f series, = X-X period.

The distinction between the sounds awer and aw, as in
drawers and draws, cores and cause, is not commonly made in
conversation ; but may be marked in shorthand by adding o ;

^-4 ~ drawer; cp. r~ lawyer, Jr^ Laureate, <rv Laura.
An accented short vowel, following a long vowel, is written,
if required to mark the accent ;

Y' Ae6llc, Ns yt/ 7 aerial, .^ zootomy, '~\fl biology.

72 Mode of Hiatus.

(3) AFTER A SHORT VOWEL CHARACTER and before a con-
sonant, the three modes are used to distinguish between the
accented short vowels. (Except before m (Exercise XV.), and in
very special cases, this method is never used in practice, see 79.)

a, e, and i, are distinguished by modes (1), (2), and (3), after
the -tick: o, A, and u, similarly, after the er-tick; thus,
r? pat (1), r/^pet (2), ^ pit (3); r^ pot (I), ^ put (3).

/V swim; N ' swam; _/ swAm, swum; / / swon, swan;

q/ sham, ^/ Shem, <\' Ham, \ L Hymer, ^/ Shyman.
Of princess, ^4 princes; o^ present, O*y present.

The character to be used for a, e, and i, whether s or / ,
is determined by the same rule as for final vowels ( 70).

An accented short vowel is always immediately followed by
a consonant so that this method cannot clash with the ex-
pression of w and y.

Mode (1), above, is used for and o, the vowels in above.

78. In actual practice the Mode of Hiatus may often be
dispensed with. This is generally the ease with the distinction
between a, e, and i; 0, A, and u. The hiatus need never be
made after e and A, mode (2), unless it is desired to mark the
accent very particularly ; and it is usually sufficient to write e
for a and i, and A for o and u.

In long and common words the refinements of vowel indica-
tion, involving the mode of hiatus, may be often neglected
without much danger to legibility.

For instance the outline ^3-? represents apriyceyt, which is
an intelligible, though not a perfect pronunciation of appreciate.
The full form ^6 apriycyeyt involves hiatus twice. ( 84.)


Similarly r^7 p-t-k-lo, c ^\ op-t-n-ty, iff n-tr-1,

/^~x ed-keycon, ^">t^ br-k-f-st, e, k-lk-l-t,

are sufficiently suggestive of particular, opportunity, natural,
education, breakfast, calculate, though not strictly correct.

Mode of Hiatus. 73

It is not intended to recommend the writing of words
incorrectly, but simply to illustrate the fact that the system is
so constructed that the neglect of such refinements of accuracy,
does not make the writing illegible.

After common prefixes, like ad, ob, ab, which are rarely
followed by a vowel the mode of hiatus need not be used,
A~^~b 7 adverse, \^/~b ^ diverse, sr~\_X^ abdicate.

Similarly before common terminations and inflections,
especially -s, -'d, the mode of hiatus may often be dispensed
with, if great precision is not required. Cases like the follow-
ing are exceedingly rare, and would be almost invariably dis-
tinguished by the context : %, hatch'd and hatchet;
M ridg'd and rigid; ^ prints and prentice.

The first word in each case should, strictly speaking, be
written with hiatus.

79. When two characters have been joined together by
mistake, in a case where the mode of hiatus should have been
used, the following correction marks are employed. Mode (1) is
indicated by a dot placed above the character which should
have been separated ; mode (3) by a dot below. The omission
of medial h is marked by a small circle; the simple hiatus,
mode (2), by a vertical tick. These marks are sometimes
useful for purposes of revision, when accuracy is required.
r^> pit, rf- 1 pat, "^i apprehend, /^~^ - Lj it'did'not.

The consonants w and y are generally important for the
recognition of a word, and should always be expressed by mode
where they occur; they should not be habitually omitted in
writing and dotted in afterwards. On the other hand, the
distinction between the short vowels is seldom essential; it
may therefore be generally neglected in writing, and may be
made afterwards by dot if necessary.

These dots are very seldom required except in rare words,
or in unfamiliar proper names, or in passages, like that on
p. 92, where the context happens to be of no use in indicating
the right word. They need not be placed with any greater
accuracy than the i dots in longhand. (Exercise XXVI.)

74 Consotiants.


80. ' p, r\ B, "> f, /"& v. In joining these characters
after vowels, except J uw, ^ ow, ' y, the angle should be
marked. A hook may be introduced to sharpen the angle, as in

<5 hAWpt, hop'd; ^^~ over.

This hook is used to imply the vowel o, not only initially,
but also in syllables. After the downstrokes s, m, 1, the hook
becomes a loop; and the character A need not be inserted
unless the accent requires marking. (Exercise VIII.)

V^~N tub, cr\ cup, <i^~~b shove, <A sup, fa muff, ^-j> love.

Except after p, to, y, the downward \ -tick is always used

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