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Hugh Longbourne Callendar.

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for a, e, i, before the characters p, b, f, v.

On cap, (-, map, **\ lap, >vs Tap, >-N~, tap, rV pap.
Compare the outlines of ripe, type ( 61).

The compound /"? sp, as in ^ lispt, 'no suspicion, is dis-
tinguished from A s-p by deepening the curve of the p.

Similarly in the compounds mp, mf, mb; p, f, and b, might
be written n , Q , /? , respectively ; but the distinction is of
little importance, because cases like map and imp are sufficiently
distinguished by the vowel preceding the m : the characters
may therefore be simply joined, as in the following examples ;

(TTXi ember, y//^ import, AH emphatic, OS camp, d~) camped.

81. w T, **~s D, <j> H, \-9 a. These characters are used
for t, d, 3[, n, except in the special cases mentioned below.
They generally present the best joinings, and they do not leave
the line of writing.

The characters 3 at, ) had, s> hath, o) with, are chiefly
used for the corresponding alphabetic words, and in phrases
and compounds containing them ; such as,

within, 5 without, d<f^ withhold, __^) herewith.



They are also used after the long vowels Ay, ao. ( 61.)



Consonants. 75



The character ^ or v Ay may be omitted, except initially
and in the syllables S kite, ^ fight, being implied by using
the special characters ; thus, f> sight, c > quite,

s~\. bite, \ guide, 7T~^ provide, ^. tied, h night,

4

mighty, J, lighten, ft\ pride, \. ^ defied, y\ neither.

After other vowels these characters are not used.
<s earth, NOT 3 ; f f ^ J ought, NOT f~> ; ^ out, NOT ^>,

The characters 5 s are used in forming the compounds
pt, kt, ft. pj[, ta[, fii.
Vz> active, **> rack'd, ^ apt, *$ oft, -^^ depth, ^f-f^, fifth.

After these characters and aq ( 89), final y is written
downwards, the inflections -eth, -ed are added thus, s> ~) ,
and -ing by the cross stroke ( 91).

/h writeth, tj writing, \ acted, (~^ invited.

The character y d is also used in forming the auxiliaries
{ could, } would; and for the terminations -hood, -ward;

the w being expressed by 'mode'.

\) wayward, r6\foncard, ^~^ hardihood.
The compound U st is formed by joining / s and w t ; the
upstroke of the t is brought up to the level of the top of the s
for the sake of lineality, and the combination is made straighter
and narrower to avoid confusion with k; if st were written
6 st, simply joining the characters, confusion would probably
occur. The compound / / nd is similarly formed from / n and
\-s d, and / nt from / n and w t.

82. c K, o, 6 TC, (o DJ. The tops of these characters
should be well curled over in writing, like the top of a long-
hand c, to distinguish them from straight characters like

tfst, / nt. Compare d k-m, J st-m.



76 Consonants.



All vowels join very easily both before and after these cha-
racters : the insertion of a vowel tick is sometimes required to
make the joining easier ( 72) ;

'-T took, ^~\^ book, * look, L^ suck, t^ sack.

In joining c k after / s in the compound sk, a hook may
be introduced to sharpen the angle ; C Esk, cL skit, (*, sky.

The common compound x is simply written ^ ks= if a,
vowel intervenes, it is inserted, as in </ kiss, < n cusp.

In the prefix ex, the initial vowel is omitted if unaccented ;
as in, 9x expect; compare \, 'extant, ^ extent, ~t exercise.

The prefix kon is for convenience written before down-
strokes, such as / s, c k; instead of writing C k-n, and
using the mode of hiatus.

ou constant, OC. concur, (> condition, ct\^r consider.

The n character is added to the circle before upstrokes and
vowels; as in, 7a confer, at connect. (Exercise X.)

The special forms g (^ are given to the compounds tc, dj,
which are very common in English. The true guttural
sibilants only occur in foreign words, such as Loch, Ich.

The backward characters are otherwise appropriate to tc,
dj, because these sounds are often etymologically descended from
corrupted gutturals; compare the English 'church' with the
Scotch 'kirk', or the Italian c, pronounced as ch, tc, with the
Latin c, pronounced as k.

83. / s, c* J z. The alternative characters for z are
required to facilitate joinings. The general rule is to use f
when disjoined, and after vowel characters except uw, ow, oy,
and upward y. (Cp. q, 89, and see Exercise XI.)

The distinction between s and z is most important at the
beginning or end of a word : compare, V^ seal, ^T zeal ;
pressures, T precos, precious; ^~f this, ^$ q-z, these.



Consonants. 77



Medially the distinction is neither so important nor so easy
to preserve : the straight tick, as in ~\P easy, may generally be
used for the z sound, just as the letter s is used in the common
spelling ; but if great precision is required, the tick can always
be curved for z, especially in words which are spelt with a z,
such as, 1^^, wizard, u> stanzas, ^> frenzy.

s, z INFLECTIONS. The sounds s and z occur so frequently
as terminal inflections that special provision is made for this
case. The inflective s is expressed by a hook after p, to, t, d, q.

\o apes, r*~? adds, $ acts, </ wings.
After circles and Q ery, the hook forms a double loop ; thus,

Jr~& lives, p> ashes, (Q ages, ff actions, <vj hurries,
\~B> themselves, ^a> thinks, ] thanks, O circumstances.

After c k, ( g, u st, f z, ^ nt, fj nd, f 1, the s or z
character is simply joined.

/^>_ books, Ju lists, C eggs, /J hands, j ells, < assizes.
After m, sp, the mode of hiatus is used, as / stems, <?>! wisps.
Special forms are given to the common terminations
M ns, nee ; / nz, ns. Compare the words,
^ fens, nil fence, ml fenced,, nd fancy, <T# fancies,
if fancied, <Try funny, ^J finesse, ^tt happinesses.

fr ^ III

The character w 'd is joined continuously after /^ ez,
for the -ed inflection, as in M^Cy supposed, v\j analyzed.

These special forms should be restricted to terminations;
in other cases the combinations are rare, and the mode of
hiatus should be used.



il^^ instead, 7 v ~ >N s Wenzdey, Wednesday; '
h~ \/^/\ subsidy, 4<* eqzAyyty, anxiety; NOT ^^ eqz ety.
c. 6



78 Consonants.



84. c, J. The circle of c (sh) is always turned backwards,
in the same direction as the longhand letter c ; that of j (zh)
(and of h) forwards, in the same direction as he loop of the
longhand letter j. (See 55.) (Exercise XII.)

The character & is used for c, after k, g, and when disjoined;
6 _ cyer, sheer; M riyc, riche (Fr.) ; \ _ kecyeo, cashier.

Otherwise the s tick is omitted, and the small circle, turned
backwards, is directly attached to vowel stems ; thus,

6 harsher, [ft- masher, *V machine, >- Q - Russia, & lash.



spacious, \ *odish, r^o push, n? pish.

Short vowels before and after c are written like initial and
final vowels. Initially, the -tick is written upwards before c.

The circle c is for convenience turned the other way in the
common phrases, <s^ shall be, 5~b shall have; in the word
c/ such; and in the termination <r> -ship, as in v-ff\ worship,
j( kinship. The circle c is also used in forming the convenient
abbreviations, 6 m-c, much, x> ec, each.

The consonants s, t, etc., when followed by y, are often
corrupted to c, tc, etc., in conversation; in cases where both
pronunciations are equally common, that should be chosen
which gives the clearest and most suggestive outline.

4j issue; /-~b ^ virtue; <5""C. hosier; ( ^^ exposure.
^-L future; ^picture; fa scripture ; (Jb-. indenture.



j temperature; /&_ n-tco, nature; O - ""*/^-^ procedure.
Compare rf> fortune ; refactions; ?- pressure.



When c is combined with a consonant, no vowel inter-
vening, the mode of hiatus is used, except after 1 and n, and
before t, to which the circle may be directly joined;

^7 eqcos, anxious; ^0^ up-shot; 0,0^ off -shoot.

f-n-nc-1, financial ; A Welsh; <f wisht ; jnf astonish'd.



Consonants. 79



The form / is used for the compound ntc, as in inch,
r^j pinch, ^M bencher; compare L eyncont, ancient.
The form /9 is used for the compound ndj ; as in the words,
ctfo.^ hinged, [Jr angel, 4<M engine, fa changes.

The sound j is very rare in English, except in the com-
pounds dj, ndj. It occurs chiefly in the terminations -sion -jon
(see 85), and -sure -jo, as in pleasure, treasure, leisure ; the

latter is written thus ; V- ejo, azure; / mejo, measure.

85. CON, JON (-TION, -SION). (Exercise XIII.) The large
circle is turned 'backwards' for con (except after k, aq, oo),
'forwards' (clockwise) for jon. After long vowels (except iy)
the circle is turned on the stem of the character ; thus,

(/SO station, n^ emotion, O exertion, u_Q solution,

asion, (/^caution, C \O collation, Q^Q collusion.
After short vowels and iy, the con circle is written as an
independent loop, like the longhand letter o, and is not turned
on the stem of the vowel ; thus, K) (NOT P ) session.

The downward -tick is omitted before the circle, as in
petition, below. Compare the con and jon circles ;
CC-. concussion, r^Q petition, C^%Q coalition, v -'"*vo depletion,

QO concision, ^~i> vision, CfQ) collision, /y5) lesion.

After a consonant, if no vowel intervenes, the circle is
turned directly on the stem of the character; it is turned
' forwards' after k and aq ; thus,

o exception, c<7 question, 4^ emulsion, K) exemption,
V tension, > action, ^U distinction, ^- function.

The large circle is most convenient as a prefix or termina-
tion ; it does not always join well in the middle of an outline.

In adding inflections and terminations vowels should be
inserted where they facilitate joinings ; cp. rvtf^ passionate,

*v<N-^ impassioned, LP intentional, C.*^ questionist ; but the

62



80 Consonants.



mode of hiatus should be used if the joining does not happen
to be clear and easy. The -ing termination is added with the
cross-stroke ( 91), and the -s inflection by a small circle or
hook ( 83) ; the character ) is used for the -ed inflection after
the forward circle, as in cautioned or occasioned.

This circle should only be used for the sounds con, jon, when
they represent the substantival termination.

Adjectives, such as ri P Persian, hh sufficient, are written
alphabetically.

86. L, E. The loops 1, r, can be written either forwards,
> ry, ly, in the direction of the hands of a clock ; or back-
wards, fl el, /} ery, 'counter-clockwise'. The difference of
appearance produced is sufficient for the purpose of vowel
indication. Forward 1 and forward r indicate the absence of
preceding vowels, and are used in forming the compounds pi,
fl, si, etc., pr, tr, kr, etc. (See Exercise XIV.)

rQ plate, 5 slight, cry, a pry, \ actress, ^L Henry,
R shrine. Compare ,-vo pellet, $ silt, rtf perry, ^2, aspirate.
Special forms are given to the compounds kl, gl ; thus,
(D clay, (H^_j glad; compare <Jr cull, (_/ gull.

Backward JP el, is written like the longhand I, but with
a more open loop. It is written half-size to indicate the absence
of a vowel after it, as in the combinations Ip, If, Ik, Is, etc.

A$ wealth, fi> self, & help, <-$ pelt, ^*~^ old, K milk.
Compare the words, / realm, /' relume. [ 77, (1).]



The mute r, which occurs before a consonant in common
spelling, as in art, short, indicates one of the o vowels, and is
not written with the loop character. The loop characters re-
present the trilled r, followed by a vowel, as in red, herring.

Backward r, /; ery, is used after vowels ; as in the words,

^ curry, <-Jff tomorrow, ^~, airy, "\ weary.



Consonants. 81



Forward r, fi ry, may be used if the preceding vowel is
' clipped ' in conversation, as in the words,

Jr* p'raps, <^v, separate, ^~^f different, ^hr emp'ror.

Some dialects trill the r in words like art, short, before a
consonant. This peculiarity of pronunciation may be indicated,
if desired, by inserting the character Q , written half size
to indicate the absence of a following vowel, as in /tv art.

87. M. The character / em is used to indicate a pre-
ceding short vowel ; in all other cases the downstroke / m is
not joined, but is written so as to end near the end of the
preceding character. (Exercise XV.)

n s-m, some; of k-m, come; J, m-m-ry, memory; flr^amid.

^-1 SAom, psalm; ^\/ time; (Q_/ germ; c / came; //^ smoke.

In rare words the particular short vowel should be specified,
as in, LI mummery, \jj Tarn, rvl Pym. [See 77 (3).]

The word man, and the unaccented termination m-n, are
written / , without a vowel tick between the m and n ; thus,

a// human, W woman, A/ wim-n, H men, Cj / German.

When a vowel does not intervene between m and t or d, the

characters are joined, giving the forms L emt, /t/emd, which are
analogous to / nt, / / nd, but are written above the line,

like // em: the upstroke is omitted, unless a short vowel

precedes. The form fj emt is most commonly used as an
abbreviation for the termination -ment, which is usually written

wit in longhand. ^ empty, HAJ sentiment, //, intimate,
dimm'd, At/ seem'd, lln momentous, Jvu impkments.
argumentative, ^if> parliamentary, ^ amusement.



82 Consonants.



88. N. The downstroke of n differs from that of m in
beginning on the line instead of ending on it, and in being
directly joined to preceding characters. Compare

p new, If mew ; i _ near, / _ mere ; U none, fl mem.
The character /' ny is used when n is followed by a vowel ;

as in, i/ know, y nor, y-^ now, A\ nay, A^J>- another.

The angle in the combination v~ no is rounded off ; but
before final o the upstroke is omitted ; compare,

IT numb; L^J nut; I m-no, manner ; 4 inner; ~i ono, honour.
The compound -mn- is written // , as in ff-1 omniscient,

w chimney : m is joined after n thus, J" animal, Jf enemy.

The upstroke of n is omitted if no vowel follows. The
prefixes in, un, are joined before upstrokes.

rV^I unborn, r~b 7 inverse, cp.^Ts 7 universe, W initial.

89. Q (ing). The character ^" , called Aq (ung), is used
after vowels, except upward ' y, -^ uw, ^ ow, ^ oy, in
which cases the other curve J aq is used. (Exercise XVI.)

^\ sowing, ^^ saying, ^~^~ dying, r( sawing,



vowing, J~J toying.
y tAq, tongue; ^ sung, ^V bung, / lung, /ft rung, Jr thong.

The opposite curve J , called aq (ang), is used after upward
y, and after most consonants, especially r z, r, p, fl i } ^ nt.

y sang, ^~y bang, X\ rang, C/l gingham.
sizing, o/ 7 shilling, "J. hunting, A supping, ^ watching.

/-> living, g^j halting, "j 1 thing, "M ding, & washing.



Conso'tiants. 83



By omitting the first and third strokes of / iqo, we obtain
the back upward flourish ~N iq (ing). This character is only
used for the participial termination -ing after certain con-
sonants, especially u t, // nd, A Q r, and back circles.

P* herring, V) ending, a hurting, M) resting, ay singeing.

The character iq is used after p, b (instead of aq, which
joins continuously), when a continuous joining precedes: and
similarly aq instead of iq after t, d.

^ (NOT </") ) hooping, \. (NOT KJ ) waiting.

When the uninflected word ends in one of the characters
B, r, m, n, q, y, o, :> t, ) d, the termination -ing is expressed
by the cross-stroke (see 91). After an o vowel the use of
the cross-stroke implies r ; when no r is heard, as in sawing,
the character Aq should be used.
_33_ hurrying, <-v4\pitying, ^ innings, P longingly, A\riding.

C/ cursing, Nj\ aiming, ^J. offering, ^-^ dyooriq, during.

The characters iq, aq, Aq, are very suitable as terminal
flourishes, but do not join well to following signs.
Short terminal inflections may be joined as follows ;

h singer, u\ stringy, V stingeth, J winged, $ longish.

In the middle of a word, the mode of hiatus is used;
as in G\*_J kingdom, Hf- singsong, P longhand.

But the common compounds qk, qg, qt, qd, qjj, are written
with the D* iqo character ; the o-tick is omitted, and the following
character is directly joined after the upstroke of the q; thus,

9^ yqko, inker; Q_ yqgo, anger; f yqt, ink'd;

y* yq^, as in length; tf-^ yqd, as in d, wing'd.

(W England, J? language, \f angry, D longer.
U \i ^o \*L.

quinquangular, 0y wrinkle, cp. "pf? functional.



&4 Foreign Sounds.

The compound /? ndj (soft ny), as in ^f d-ndjo, daityer,
must not be confused with q or qg, as in hanger, anger.

The prefixes in, un, before k, g, are often assimilated in
sound to iq, Aq, but are preferably written by mode of hiatus :
fCU inconstant, ~l ( j, unkind, jc f increase.

90. FOREIGN SOUNDS often occur in short quotations and
isolated words. Such words should be underlined, or italicized
( 92), to distinguish them from English words; and should be
expressed by as close an imitation as possible in English
sounds: thus, r\ peur, J-je, s~~*>\i Wien, ^~*y Vienne.

A few special foreign sounds have no satisfactory equiva-
lents in English. The French u, or German ii, is written ~\ iy,
followed by the w-mode, or the w dot. Compare the \vords,

s~~tfvous, s~b)Vie, s~t&vue, ~^/une, ^^ deux, ^ trwAO, trois.

1 ff

The French nasalized vowels are expressed by making the
next character (q if final) intersect the vowel ; thus,

rj-pain, /^Y bon (cp. s~^-j bonne), cL comment, long, tt lonyue.

The character j is used for j in French words, such as,
*j ruwj, rouge; d*" jw&o,joie; <*jte9n,jeiine.

German ch is written with the li circle, followed, before

a vowel, by the y-mode, as in r^f Bach, / madchen.

^ >A

The ' breathed ' 1, heard in Welsh words, like llan, may be
distinguished by prefixing the h circle ; thus, Jf Man, llan.

91. INFLECTIONS. In adding inflections the outline of the
original word should be altered as little as possible.

With abbreviated words the mode of hiatus should be used.

// once, if one's, i a oneself, C whose, o/ whom, o~~ who* 1 ".
Vy gives, { given, r\f -^ <.C P's and Q's, ty joys, l(o enjoy.



Inflections. 85

In adding inflections to words ending in -pie, -ble, -fle, etc.,
the character el should not be changed for ly, although the
syllabic 1 becomes consonantal ; compare the words,



Ccy couples, CcJ? coupling, w ample, A-JL ampler, Ad/ amply.

Similarly after an o vowel, the character ery need not be
added before a termination, such as -er, beginning with a
vowel [see 77, (2)]. The mode of hiatus is used, or the
termination is written above ; thus, / nearer,

labourer, -u-/ utterance, -^ utter er, c \^/ parent.



A. word may always be divided in the middle and the termi-
nation written above, mode (1), provided that it does not inter-
fere with the expression of w before vowels ( 75). This is
especially convenient in the case of terminations which tend to
go too far below the line ;

thus, A luxury, IL vf logogram, /K- M_ recognize.

The common participial termination -ing is added by a cross-
stroke through the last character of the word ; the adverbial
termination -ly, similarly, by a cross- tick. These marks should
always be used in the case of alphabetic or abbreviated words :
a tick is added for the plural.

/^N being, ^L> doings, <k thinking, A^ having, ji_ airing,
idly, C gent(leman)ly, Jf^*- prettily, "^ only, & verily.

This method should not be used for the sounds -ing, -ly,
except when they represent inflections.

Thus: s~~v# (NOT ^ ) Bingley, <j (NOT -^_) kingly.

In adding the s and d inflections to words ending in the
downward y, the character \ y is omitted; in similar cases
upward y, and o, are retained. Compare the words

r*J^s pitied, G-A^/ copied, -v^> tittered, ~^f- littering.
rM pities, (cvt copies, -^7- utters, -vr* utterly.



86 Punctuation, etc.



PUNCTUATION, ETC.

92. STOPS may all be written in the usual way; but in
rapid writing, punctuation is best effected by leaving spaces.

A HYPHEN between two words is indicated by drawing a
line over them ; thus, C ' ji hard-earned.

EMPHASIS. The clearest way to emphasize a word is to
write it in longhand ; if the word is written in shorthand, draw
a line round it, or underline it.

Italics are indicated by singly underlining ; SMALL CAPITALS
by two lines; LAEGE CAPITALS by three. Foreign words
and quotations, and names of books and periodicals, are
generally italicized.

To ERASE A WORD, draw two parallel lines through it.

93. FIGURES. The Arabic figures should be made large and
distinct; they generally give no trouble unless badly written.

In writing round numbers, the abbreviations, ^_J j[ow for
thousand, If mil for million, will be found convenient : but it
is clearer and quicker to add two noughts to a number than to
abbreviate the word hundred.

94. INITIALS are marked as in longhand by placing a dot
after them. The following signs are used :

A. \. F. nt. K. \. 0. ^' S. I. W. /

B. ^. G. C. L. J? P. o. T. vj. X. f ;

C. c. H. o. M. /. Q. c- U. J- Y. V

E. -v J. C

Some, as r r, represent the sound of the name of the
longhand letter; others, as c c, the sound with which the
word usually begins.

AN INITIAL CAPITAL is marked by a short tick \ struck
through the first character or written close below it ; thus,

Jones, y Sykes, \<l/ West.



The exact spelling of a proper name, whether Smythe or
Smith, Browne or Brown, is often important. Unfamiliar
proper names should in this case be written in longhand.



Practice. 87

PEACTICE.

95. The art of shorthand writing is in the main a
mechanical art; to attain thorough excellence in it practice
alone is necessary, but practice is essential. Shorthand is of
little practical use until it can be written and read without
conscious effort and hesitation. The time required to attain
this degree of proficiency will depend partly on the simplicity
of the system and on the intelligence of the learner ; but no
amount of intelligence is of any avail without diligent practice.
At least an hour a day should be devoted to the mechanical act
of writing, till it becomes no longer an effort but a pleasure.

A good method of practice is the following : Take a printed
specimen, read it through carefully, referring to the key if
necessary ; then try to write it from the key without referring
to the copy. Compare the result with the copy, and rewrite
several times words incorrectly written.

When sufficient accuracy and facility have been attained by
copying practice, in order to acquire speed the student should
take every opportunity of practising from dictation. Copying
practice is of little use in acquiring speed.

Practice in reading shorthand is just as essential as practice
in writing. The student should make a point of reading every-
thing he writes, not immediately, but after an interval of a
week or two ; and should not be satisfied till he can read his
writing quite as easily as longhand at any distance of time.

The best kind of reading practice is afforded by correctly
printed specimens of unfamiliar matter. This tends to improve
the style of writing, and prevents the possibility of guessing
words from a reminiscence of the subject.

With the object of providing copious reading and writing
practice of this kind, it is intended to publish shortly books of
exercises and illustrations, as well as standard works printed
in the ' Cursive ' character. Meanwhile the preceding examples
and instructions, with the progressive exercises p. 108, will
enable the student to attain such certainty and ease in reading
and writing as to make shorthand, not merely a pleasant re-
creation or an idle accomplishment, but a time-saving expedient
of real practical value.



88 Specimens of Writing.

96. SPECIMENS OF WRITING.

At the outset of his practice, say after reading 38 52,
and before proceeding to learn the rules for writing, the
student is recommended to analyse the following easy example
with the aid of the alphabetic table. He must expect to meet
with a few points which he cannot as yet fully appreciate, but
he will find that the majority of the outlines present no
difficulties. By way of writing practice he should take a para-
graph from a book or newspaper, picking out all the alphabetic
words and writing down the characters that represent them.
He should not attempt to write unfamiliar words, till he has
worked carefully through the whole of the exercises on 53 91,
and has acquired a fair knowledge of writing by sound and of
the usage of the various characters.

THE LORD'S PRAYER.

The Lord's Prayer is very commonly given as an illustration
in systems of Shorthand. The following version, written in
the fullest style of 'Cursive', may be compared with similar
versions in other systems.



7. OL Af^-s s_y y w , J t*> f

. C -7 ^f



r t



KEY. (Line for line.) THE LORD'S PRAYER.


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