There are three ways in which the conditions or character-
istics of the time may be said to affect us. They modify
belief, they modify society, and they modify the private personal
life of every one of us. The preacher who stands forth at the
present time as the ambassador of Christ, cannot, I think, use
the same confident language he would have used some fifty
years ago. I do not mean that he ought to do less, or would
do less, for the cause of Christ's religion, but, if I may put the
case as it appears to my own mind, it is that if he be honest
with himself and the congregation to which he speaks, he will
not venture to say, "This is true: there is no sort of doubt
about it ; it is what I believe, and what you are - all bound to
believe". But let him rather say at least it is what I would
rather say to you my belief is inexpressibly dear to my own
soul : it is the one thing which arms me against temptation,
and illumines my path, and makes life for me worth living.
And as that is my intimate experience, is it not right and
naturally inevitable that I should deeply and dearly desire it to
be yours ?
Marginal Notes. 105
107. MARGINAL NOTES. Cursive can be written in a small
space much more clearly than longhand. The following is
a facsimile (natural size) of a marginal note written with fine
glass stylograph. The text is that of the discussion on
shorthand systems in The Bazaar*, 1882 83.
FAIR FIDDLERS. ^^^-^
"Starting from the premises that centuries of irfsr^j, '
subordination have left the gentler sex too gentle >-/V n fyfy.i / fy
to compete on equal terms with man, a musical nCf***-^/ ~!*f
casuist might possibly argue that woman, having i"^:"^/ ^- */
played second fiddle from the Creation, can never
make a first-class violinist. Such reasoning, at
all events, would be quite as logical as much of
that which has been put forward in opposition to *->< ~ ^-) jnto*,
violin teaching to girls; and although, of late, ^jw-cp * f^
there has been something of a turn in the tide of , g v, 4, r ^.*~,
The above specimen is written in the ordinary unabbreviated
style; there would be no difficulty in writing it much more
briefly and minutely if desired. The process by which the
block was produced has perhaps hardly done justice to the
original. Some of the outlines are a little spoilt; though not
enough to render any of the words uncertain.
The student should not endeavour to write too briefly or
minutely at the outset. To abbreviate clearly requires consider-
able experience. He should be content, for some time, to
practise a full and unabbreviated style, dividing nearly all the
words. From the first he should use all the special outlines for
common words contained in the list on the next page, but should
at first confine himself strictly to that list, writing all other
words in full. In his early practice of phraseography he should
observe the rules of vowel indication very carefully. As he
progresses and acquires greater facility and precision in the
application of the rules, he may gradually adopt all the abbre-
viations and phrases contained in the illustrations and exercises,
and may proceed to form others on analogous principles ; but
it is essential that he should be able to write any word correctly
in full without hesitation, before he attempts to make abbrevi-
ations for himself.
* A book of selections from this controversy, with illustrative cuts,
edited by T. Anderson, under the title of Shorthand Systems, is pub-
lished by L. Upcott Gill, 170, Strand, W.C.
106 Alphabetic List of Common Words.
108. ALPHABETIC LIST OF COMMON WOKDS. The following
outlines illustrate chiefly the indication of vowels in common
words, 65, 73. The sounds omitted in each word are itali-
cized. The beginner should pay special attention to the ten
words marked with an asterisk (*), because their forms, though
easily remembered, are more or less arbitrary, and may other-
wise give him trouble in reading, the first time he meets them.
The Alphabetic Words are not included in this list.
The numbers after each word refer to the sections explain-
ing the points which it illustrates.
V-N^ about 65. 70
5 can't 65
L gentleman 100
V^~b above 70. 73
c cause 65
Of glory 86. 100
fa change 65. 84
( gone 73
^ after 65. 81
e charge 65
G again 65. 70
dis child 65. 86
C great 54. 65
G against 65. 70
gA combine 65
62, haf 55. 65
< his * 48. 55
/ among 70. 87
a come 73. 87
AJ amount 65. 87
C. could* 73. 81
c-^ high 55. 61
~^ however 102
(l anger 79. 89
x_^/did 48. 73
W does 48. 73
if*-/ indeed 65. 70
sly arrange 65. 70
Q ink 70. 8'J
^i done 48. 73
s-~\ because 65
y- ink'd 70. 80
x> each* 84
^~) been 48. 65
r enough 73
C J oin 77 (!)
s~\<1 /behind 65. 75
v~t> every 70. 100
C judge 73
s-^L between* 65
r except 73. 81
C jury 65.86
X-N^ body 73
^>i find 65
^-N, but 73
d form 64. 77(1)
^ just 73
(ft call 65
C general 73
<j, kind 65
Alphabetic List of Common Words. 107
/Ox lady 65
tr not 73
If state 65
P land 73
w nothing 73
if still 73
/C late 65
\_9- other 73
d such* 73. 84
Jr^_ laughter 65
rrJr people 65
xJ, than 73. 79
P length 73. 89
~$ perfect 54. 65
^~f> then 73
/ long 73. 89
f^-j pu;-pose 65
a- ^feasure * 84
(jfM thanking 89
J(_^ lord 65
o<6 proof 65
VJL/ that 73
~ put 73
^jz> themseZye*- 48
/ man 73. 87
Q quite 81
S^ these 65. 83
' / manner 73. 88
/ many 48. 73
S~ Tc&ther 100
>v_/ read 77 (1)
.b right 81
^_/> this 73. 83
V thing 73. 89
va^ thought 48. 65
/ mmd 65
Jf shaU 55. 73
Jf till 73
/ month 49. 73
P shan't 55. 65
7" w;as 56
f moreover 100
<*. she * 55
n went 56
/">> move 65
a/ short 65
/7 whence 56
I much* 73.84
1.^ should 55. 73
/^_?- zc/jether 56
// same 65
//^"~*> native 65
4) somewhat 73
,e wUt 48. 86
& nature 65. 84
n^~ sometij/tt's 100
^ withowt* 81
K\ neither 81
//, something 87
) would* 56. 81
ts~*- never 73
n^ spirit 73. 86
> young 57. 73
w none 73. 88
</ stage 65
*f your 57. 62
108 Progressive Writing Exercises.
PKOGEESSIVE WEITING EXEECISES.
The Outlines of words printed in italics are to be found in
the previous pages. The numbers refer to the sections.
I. ALPHABETIC WORDS IN ALPHABETIC ORDER (see 48).
' A, air, an, and, are, as, at, Ay, be, circumstance, do, first,
for, from, give, had, hand, has, hath, have, him, his, how, I, in,
into, is, joy, key, loo, me, no, of, one, or, owe, pea, self, selves,
such, the, them, think, to, very, way, we, which, who, will,
with, year, you.
n. JOINED CHARACTERS; LONG VOWELS AND CONSONANTS (54).
Sharp Angle Joinings: eo, irk, sir, spur, search, urge, oo,
pore, bore, lore, more, sore, pork. AO, ark, arch, pa, mar, bar,
lark, Sark. ow, out 81, (h)ouse. AW, oak, own, owing, low,
so, soak, mow. ey, ache (k), age, aitch. oy, boy, loin, point.
Angles sharpened: ow, bough, sow, mouth. AW, oath, ode,
oat, Po, beau, ey, ape, ace, day 54, say. oo, core, gore, corn,
gaunt, gorse, course. AO, car, gar, aunt. (See also Exercise
Angles slurred: eo, learn, earth 81, earn, stir, oo, order 54,
ought 81. AO, art. ow, owl, down, loud, now 88. AW, toe 54,
dough, know 88. ey, nay 88, ail, lay, ray, may, main, oy, oil.
Continuous Joinings: eo, cur 54, girl 97, earl, oo, all,
nor 88, tore, door, roar. AO, tar. ow, cow 54, gown, row.
AW, coat 54, go, old, goal, ey, pay, bay, eight, aid 54, paid,
bade, kay, gay, gate, oy, toy.
Circle Joinings: eo, fur. oo, fore 54, four, jaw. AO, far,
jar. ow, found, thou, vow. AW, foe, Jo, though, ey, fay,
jay, they 54.
III. INITIAL H, SH, W, Y, BEFORE LONG VOWELS ( 55 57).
eo, hurt, heard, herself; shirt, shirk, sherd; word, work,
worst ; year, yearn.
oo, hoar, hall, horn, horse ; shore, shawl, shorn ; walk,
wall, worn; yawn, yawl.
AO, Jiark, heart, hard; shark; yard, yarn.
ow, hound 98 ; shout.
AW, hoe, hone, host; show, shown, shoal; woe, woke; yoke.
ey, hay, halo, haste ; sJiay, shake, shape ; wake, waste.
IV. LONG VOWELS HAVING ALTERNATIVE CHARACTERS ( GO 63).
ao, V_ , share 55, yare 57, ne'er, pair, lair 60, stare 72, bear,
tear, dare, care 54, their, there, chair 54, rare.
Short Vowds. 109
\ , spare, mare, fair 60, sair, hair, luire 55.
Ay, *- , shy 55, sty 71, rely, den$, like, dine, by, ice, eyes,
eyeing 61, shine, wise, wind, pie, tie, die, guy, thy, thigh, lie,
\ , sign, my, fie, Hine 61, exercise 82, assizes 83, vie, mine,
sigh, size, vice, mice, spies, spice.
^j type, ripe, I've 61, while, wife, wipe, rile, life, isle.
~N, high 55, mile 61, hive, hypo-, cypher, file, viper.
uw, -* , soon 54, soup, cool, through 62, woo 56, shoot 55,
shoe, pooh, too, coo, coot, jute, rue, root, moot, coop.
yaw 58, beauty, peic, hue, sue 58, dupe, few, utility 62, suit,
hew, youth, yule, use 57, new, mew 88, cue, lieu, due, stew.
-*-, Euchre, ooze, huge 62, duke, -fuge, -buke, puke, fugue.
iy, ^\ , deep 54, weave 56, keep, chief 62, eve, sheep, heap,
weep, tea, sea, fee, lea, leap, cheap.
"v , seat, seen, ceased 62, yeast 57, weed, eat, east, heath,
feed, seen, lean, meat.
~v~, ease, seeing, week 62, seize, eke, siege, seek, leech, meek,
league, liege, leak.
uo = oo, /^, your 62, poor, sure, door, floor;
(y mode) pure, cure, lure, mure.
io=yeo, fear 62, mere, near 88, peer, pier, beer, tear, dear,
gear, fear, veer, cheer, jeer, leer, rear, real, idea, cohere.
iyo, queer 58, weird 56, seer, panacea, Dea, Lear, career.
irwo, ewer 62, hewer, sewer, shoer, wooer, fewer, newer.
owo, our 62, (h)our, power, bower, tower, dower, cower,
shower, sour, lour, vower.
Ayo, higher, hire.
V. INITIAL SHORT VOWELS ( 69).
EE-TICK : ahead, alunj, asJiare, ashame 55; odd, occasion
48, occur, on, MS 69, unto, undo 104 ; was 69, wash, wood, wool,
won 56, want; hollow, hut 56, hutch, hunt, hung, hug, hull,
hush ; shut 56, shun, shock ; yacht 57, yon.
UPWARD E-TiCK : add, adhere 58, ado, ash 83, ass, atone,
atune; essay, issue 84, in 48, it 69; hat, head, hen 55, hang
89 ; shadow, shed, shin 55 ; wet, win 56, wind, wing 83, wish
84, wisp 83, west; yap, yell 57, yellow, yes, yet 57, y ester 73.
110 Progressive Writing Exercises.
DOWNWARD E-TicK : about, above 108, abode, account,
affair, afore, ago, appear 69, appoint, averse, avow, avoid, ally,
alike, along, alloy, aver; ebb, echo, edge, egg, ell 69, etch,
Ezra 69; hack, hallow 96, hatch, hedge, heifer, hell 55; i/69;
shallow, shell 55, ship; web, wedge, well 56, whip, whiz, wick,'
VI. FINAL SHORT VOWELS ( 70).
ER-TICK: utter 69, under, shutter, metre, water, waiter,
voter, theatre (iiyeoto), odour, Sparta, parlour, purser, whisper,
labour, mica, contra 48, wisher 72, weaver, ever, author, savour,
sofa, measure, Russia 84.
UPWARD Y : happy 69, Effie, duckie, buggy, icy 70, racy,
juicy, fancy 83, mercy, saucy, hussy; army, enemy 88; abbey,
shabby, heavy, ivy; shaky, hockey, turkey; alley, holy, woolly.
DOWNWARD Y: ; forty 70, city 71, pity, heady, gouty,
hasty, hearty, party, shady, witty, woody, weighty, ready,
eddy, (ha)ndy, empty 87; ashy, touchy 70, washy, marshy,
fishy; worthy, earthy, clergy, orgie.
VII. MEDIAL ACCENTED SHORT VOWELS ( 73).
0, A, U : pot, pod, bud, pug, book 82, buggy 70, butcher,
budge; totter, took 82, touch, toss, tush, ton, tun, tongue 89,
duck, dog, dutch, dodge, dull, dun, dong ; cut, cud, cog, cock,
cusp 82, cull 86, gut, gush, gull 86, gun; fuss, foot, fudge,
fun, full ; thus 73, thong 89, thorough, Thug; just (adj.), sot 72,
sud, suck 82, sully, sun, sung 89; lot, luck 82, lug, loss, lodge,
lung 89; ruck, rut, rug, rust, run, rung 89; mutter, mother,
mothy, muck, mug, must, mull, among C9 ; knot, knock, notch,
knoll, nun; stuck, stung.
UPWARD E : After p, b, y ; pap 80, bab, yap 57, bevy,
pet, bet 73, bed, peck, beg, peg, pithy, pitchy, pill, bell, yell 57,
perry, berry, yarrow, pen, ben, bang 89, pest, best, bent, bend.
Before t, d, si, 11, s, n ; debt, dead, death, cat, cad, kiss 82,
kist, ken, cash 84, get 70, giddy, gan, gas, gash, fat 72, ted, fen
83, vesta, vent, let, led, less, lend, rat, red, rest, rent, net 73,
Ned, nest, set, said, saith, says, centre, send.
Other cases; fact, fag, fetch, fell, villa, fish, ferry, fang;
lack, lag, latch, lily, lash, ling ; sack 82, sedgy, sell, sing 89 ;
rack 81, rag, ridge, rally, rash, ring 89; knack, nag, niche,
DOWNWARD E : Before p, b, f, v ; tap 80, tabby, deaf, cap
80, cabby, gap, fib, chap, jabber, sap 73, sieve, ship, lap, rap,
map 80, nap.
Consonants, P Z. Ill
Other cases; kick 73, keg, kill 73, gill, carry, catch; tick,
tag, tell 73, dell, ditch, dig, attack 73, Dick, tarry, stitch,
stick, text 71 ; thick 73, thatch, thill, Jack, Jill, check, chill 73,
cherry, attach, attack, stick.
VIII. HOOK BEFORE p, B, F, v ( 80) : hop'd, over 80,
opened 73, arbour, harpy, harpist, sharp, sharper; upon, off',
offence, oven 69, offer 70, obey, obtain, obtuse, 6ffice, opportu-
nity 78, oppose, oppress, hobby, hop, shop, sliove 80 ; tub, cup
80, cuff, pup, top, fop, chop, rub, dove, cover, duffer, rough,
knob; sup, muff, love 80, suffer, sub, mop, mob, luff, lob, lop.
SP : lispt, suspicion 80, wisp 83, cusp 82, asp, wasp, hasp,
spat, speck, spell, spend, spark, spirt, spear, sphere, spoke.
IX. SECOND CHARACTER FOR T, D, H, a ( 81).
COMPOUNDS PT, KT : apt, oft, depth, fifth, after, optic,
hop'd, adapt, adopt ; act, fact, active, rack'd, doctor, attack'd,
lock'd, aspect ; left, safety, naphtha.
AFTER AY, AD : either, white, I'd, height, hide 61, kite,
fight, mighty, sight, quite, bite, guide, provide, tied, night,
light, pride, defied, neither 81, slight 86, writer, spider, decide,
divide, wide, tight, chide, writing, title, tidy, Fido, abide, tithe,
air'd 61, dared, cared, laird, shared, spared, fared.
TERMINATIONS : writeth, acted, invited Rl, singeth 89,
cautioned, occasioned 85, hardihood 81, priesthood, sisterhood,
widowhood; forward, wayward 81, homeward, towards 75.
X. SK, EX, KON ( 82) : skit, skin, husky, whiskey;
sceptic, skill, skip, sketch; Esk, escape, sky, scout, scope,
skew, rescue, scholar, Scot : ask, askt, cask, mask, mask'd,
desk, dusk, husk, tusk, musk, mosque, eschew, squaw, skied.
Expect, extant, extent, exercise 82, exemption, exertion 85,
excite, exalt, excess, excise, excuse, exert, expend, expert,
exposure 84, expression, extension; wax, axe, access, accept,
accent, books 83, tusks, masks, next, fixt, sixth, vexed, mixed.
Constant, concur, condition, consider, confer, connect 82,
concussion, concision 85, contra, consistent 48, inconstant 89,
reconcile, concern, converse, conspire, continue, convey.
XI. DISTINCTION BETWEEN s AND z ( 83): seal, zeal; this,
these; precious, pressures 83; (7ms 73, others 108; ice, eyes 61;
price, prize ; dice, dies ; mace, maze ; villous, villas.
Wizard, stanzas, frenzy 83, buzz, nozzle, puzzle, hazard,
hazy, mazy, Lizzie. Cp. Easy, busy, daisy, noisy.
112 Progressive Writing Exercises.
INFLECTIONS: HOOK; apes, adds, acts, wings 83, sings, its,
things, orbs, sides, sights, loads, aids, shades, hopes, gifts, sobs,
adopts, lungs, songs, meetings, weights, facts.
CIBCLE; lives, ashes, ages, actions, hurries, circumstances,
themselves, thinks, tJianks 83, ourselves, yourselves, sphinx,
lynx, occasions, stations, wishes, riches, injuries.
CHARACTER; books, lists, eggs,- hands, ells, assizes, stem*,
wisps 83, prints, friends, looks, mists, bugs, dogs, tells, wells,
sizes, exercises, prizes, ends, comes, lists, mems.
COMPOUNDS NS, NZ; fens, fence, fenced, fancy, funny, fan-
cies, fancied, finesse, happinesses 83, finessed, finest, fewness,
fatness, fineness, finis, fines, fauna, fenny, funny, fences.
ZD; supposed, analyzed 83, pleased, used, sized, dazed.
XII. c, j ( 84). CHARACTER 4 ; cash, casher, cashier,
gash, bookish, sheer, Neish, riche.
CHARACTER J ; (French words) rouge, joie, jeune 90, Je,
J'ai, J'irai, bijou.
BACK-CIRCLE. Ash, hash, wish, wisher, fisher, masher,
rasher, pressure, fresher, pish, uppish, sheepish, fishy, lash,
relish, apish, abash, militia.
Precious 83, vicious, pernicious, ambitious; leash, specie,
species, specious, sufficient 85, efficient, physician.
Dish, wettish, judicious, seditious, politician, commercial,
Persian 85, tertian, luscious, spacious, gracious, capacious, cre-
taceous, Croatian, ocean ; Asia, minutiae 76, Scotia, harsher,
cautious, martial, social, judicial, official, special, nasturtium.
Hush, wash 56, washy, blush, bushy, push, Russia, usher,
Wished, astonished, finished, varnished, relished, dished;
Welsh; financial, essential, potential, sententious, penitentiary;
ancient 84, censure 54.
Ship, worship, heir ship, fellowship, scholarship, ladyship,
kinship, sonship, membership, partnership.
ntc. Inch, hunch, haunch, pinch, punch, lunch, wrench,
quench, tench, branch, bunchy, bencJier, venture, century.
ndj. Hinged, angel, lounge, spongy, stingy, dingy, engine,
dungeon, avenger, orange, arrange, range 69, stranger, danger
89, changes 84, injure.
ejo. Azure,, measure, leisure, pleasure, treasure, embrasure
(y-mode in derivatives, such as glazier, brazier, hosier, seizure,
Consonants, *S', C, J, L, A'. 113
XIII. TERMINATIONS CON, JON ( 85). Station, collation 85,
indication 48, creation 75, relation, nation, oration, citation,
vacation; emotion, devotion, potion; exertion, version, asser-
tion, emersion; caution, portion, torsion; depletion, (com)ple-
tion, lesion; solution, revolution, constitution; collusion, illu-
sion, fusion; occasion, invasion, persuasion, abrasion; corro-
Concussion, concession, mission, passion, fashion, position,
coalition, volition; pet(i)tion, cond(i)tion 82, add(i)tion, sed(i)-
tion: concision, collision, vision, derision, division, decision.
Exc(e)ption, conception, description ; question, sugges-
tion, (com)bustion; emulsion, revulsion, expulsion; exemption,
ass(u)mption, redemption; t(e)nsion, att(e)ntion, dist(e)nsion,
ext(e)nsion, pension, mention; action, auction, faction, -j(c)c-
tion, d(i)ction, concoction, suction; distinction, ext(i)nction,
sanction, function, junction. (See Ex. XIX.)
XIV. L AND E. FORWARD fl R : try 71, cry, pry, actress,
Henry, shrine 86, bray, dray, fray, gray, stray, spray, scrape,
screw, shrew, entry, already, cavalry, enrich, enrage.
P'raps, sep'rate 86, operate 65, different, emp'ror 86, corp'ral,
fav'rite, neighboring p. 91, temperature 84, av'rage, ev'ry, correct,
gen'rous, dext'rous, wondrous, wondring, fact'ry.
BACKWARD Q R: airy, weary 86, Tory 71, gory, starry,
hero, era; vary, Mary; dreary, furore; Sarah, Laura, Dora,
Aurora; zero (yeo), Nero; Cairo, Irish, spiral, desirous, desireth,
curry, morrow 86, Surrey 70, hurry, worry, perry 86, merry,
yarrow, arrows, error, horror, orator, origin, orange 69 ;
thorough, Harry, hurrah; historic, Paris 72, parish; injury
72, fishery, missionary.
history 71, votary, parliamentary 87, aspirate 86, spirit 108,
emery, misery p. 101, necessary, surround, resurrect, nursery,
celery, butchery, plethora, marine ; contrary, temp(o)rary.
arrange 69, array, arrear, around p. 91, arrive, aright, arose,
arrest, arouse, awry, oration.
FORWARD Q L: plate, slight 86, slay, slow, splay, splice,
blow, blur, flay, flow 71, lovely, wifely, comely, assembly.
BACKWARD fi L: COMPOUNDS KL, GL; clay, glad 86, clear,
cloud, glow, glory, close, glare.
Amply, ampler, coupling 91, simply, singly, ugly, affably,
fully, early, surly, really, mentally, verbally, graphically,
finally, formally, holy, belly, coolie, woolly.
114 Progressive Writing Exercises.
CBOSS-TICK -LY: idly, gent(leman)ly , prettily, only, verily,
utterly, kingly 91, longingly 89, happily, bitterly, beggarly,
fairly, fairily, freely, merely, surely, lawlessly, piteously 75,
neatly 77(1), outwardly 81, oddly, deadly, kindly, lately 108,
gaily, duly, solely, firstly, coolly, wholly, formerly.
HALF-SIZE L; wealth, self, help, pelt, old, milk, silt, realm 86,
healthy, shelf, bulb, felt, held, told, silk, elm, illume, sailed,
furled, world, field, yield, seal'd, mild, cult, fault, salt, elbow.
XV. M, N ( 87, 88). CHAEACTER / M : me 48, may,
my 61, make, mew 88, more 108, mere 88, murmur, mare 60,
mile 61, moke, maul : smoke 87, small 72, Psalm, time, came,
germ 87, Iwme, seem, assume 64, tomb, doom, ream 77 (1),
dream, foam, palm, calm, storm.
AFTEE SHORT VOWELS DISTINGUISHED BY MODE, 77(3);
swim, swam, swum, sham, Shem, Ham 77, hem, hymn, mum-
mery, Tarn, Pym 87, Pam, hum, humble, hemper, hamper,
thumb, numb 88, cam (cp. come), Sam, sum (cp. some), comma
(cp. comer), lamb, dam, jam, gem, gum, crumb, cram, cream
77(1), slam, slim, ram, rim, rurn, glum, glim, gloom, bomb.
CHARACTER / KM: am, among 69, amid 87, amiss, amuse,
ammonia 75, amount 108, amend, ample 91, amble, am-
bition; emery, emerge, emetic, eminent, emotion 85, empty 87,
embrace, embody, employ, emperor; ember, emphatic 80,
imagine, immerse, immortal, immure, imbue, impend, impa-
tient, implant, important 80, imply, imprint, nymph, lymph.
Poem, I am, suum, meum 64, deum, Hyam, geometric, dia-
mond, triumph, Siam, diem, museum, vehement.
Memory, some 87, -gram, camp, camp'd 80, drachm, come
87, combat, committee, compact, compound, nominal.
COMPOUNDS MT, MD: empty 87, exempt, tempt, warmth,
something, sometimes 108; seem'd, dimm'd 87, limb'd, deem'd,
assumed, timed, form'd 77.
Sentiment, momentous, implements, argumentative, parlia-
mentary, amusement 87, elementary, augment, experimental,
instrumentality. (In words, such as augment, lament, cement,
in which the termination -ment is accented, it should be written
MN: m(a)n 87 (cp. men), m(a)nner, m(a)ny 108, human,
woman, icomen, German 87, sermon, Shyman 77(3), yeoman,
footman, chairman, madman, seaman, common, comment,
lemon, salmon, demon, ermine.
omniscient 88, omnivorous, omnibus, chimney 88, gymnasium,
calumny, indemnity, amnesty, condemnation.
Consonants, M, N, Q. 115
TERMINATIONS NY, NEE: journey, attorney, cony, pony, tiny,
horny, downy, puny, stony, shiny; any 70, penny, fenny,
whinny; honey, funny 83, money; Germany, harmony, colony,
agony ; guinea.
Minor, China, honour 88, donna, inner 88, dinner, sinner,
Hannah, Lena, lamina.
The combinations xj xma-, \^ mAW, must be distin-
guished from the characters ,/ em, /, ny, respectively. The
angle in the combination ./^ nAW, may be straightened out
in practice ; thus, /^> in the words know, knows, known,
knowing, noble, note, notice, etc.
XVI. ING ( 89). CHAKACTER f AQ : sowing, saying,
dying, sawing, going, knowing, drawing, pawing, seeing 62,
sighing, maying ;
tongue, sung, bung, lung, rung, thong, among, gong, dong,
stung, Hong-Kong, clung, flung.
CHAEACTEB J AQ : sang, bang, rang, gingham, wing, th(i)ng,
d(i)ng, king, fang, t(i)ng, fling, cling, sting, harangue, me-
ringue; sizing, losing, parsing, shilling, hunting, supping, watch-
ing, washing, living, edging, halting, waiting ; hoping, keeping,
sobbing, loving, offing, holding, pushing ; vowing, suing, hewing,
toying ; coupling 91, ailing, darling; aiming, coming, seeming,
foaming (or cross-stroke after m if clearer).
CHARACTER ~^ IQ : ending, hurting, herring, resting, singe-
ing, hooping 89, thanking 108, reading, sitting, meeting, st(a)nd-
iug, stooping, cooping; fishing, wishing, changing; cursing,
nursing, racing, loosing (or cross-stroke after s if clearer).
CROSS-STROKE : being, doings, thinking, having, giving, en-
joying, innings, handing ; hurrying, pitying, longingly, riding,
writing, cursing, blessing, using, opening, aiming, carrying,
whinnying, inviting, lightening, adapting, acting, mentioning ;
suffering, airing, hearing, soaring, during, wearing, daring,
glaring, measuring, wondering, neighbouring, uttering, hiring,
showering, scouring; fancying, fencing.
CHARACTER ^ IQD ; COMPOUNDS QK, QO, QT, QD, QH : ink,
shrink, wink, sink, zinc, inker, anchor, hanker, conquer,
England, language, anguish, unguent, angry, hungry, longer,
ingot, wrinkle, ankle, uncle, inkling, tinkle, angle, dangled;
ink'd 108, distinct, instinct, link'd, defunct, adjunct, unctuous,