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I






S. H. ELBERT.



SKETCH-BOOK



POPULAR GEOLOGY.



SKETCH-BOOK



OF



POPULAR GEOLOGY



BY HUGH MILLER,

AUTHOR OF 'the OLD RED SANDSTONE,' ETC. ETC.



FOURTH EDITION.



EDINBURGH:

WILLIAM P. NIMMO.

1869.



EDINBURGH : T. CONSTABLE,
PRINTER TO THE QUEEN, AND TO THE UNIVERSITV.



LIBRAHY
UISIVERSITY OF CALlFOKM
SANTA BAKRAKA



TO THE REV. W. S. SYMONDS,

RECTOR OF PENDOCK, HEREFORDSHIRE.



Dear Sir,

Am I presuming too much on my position, as merely
the editor of the following Lectures, when I ask leave to dedicate
them to you? It is unquestionably a liberty with the production of
another which only very peculiar circumstances can at all excuse. Yet,
in the present case, I venture to think that those peculiar circumstances
do exist ; and I feel assured he would readily pardon me, whose work
this is, and whose memory you so much revere. Without your co-
operation, I believe that neither the Cruise of the Betsey nor these pages
could by this time have seen the light. When my own over-laden
brain refused to do its duty, you gave me to hope, by offers of well-
timed assistance, that the task befoi'e me might still be accomplished.
Your friendly voice, often heard in tones of sympathizing inquiry when
I was unable to endure your own or any other human presence,— even
that of my dear child, — was for a time the only sound that brought to
my heart any promise or cheer for the future. It was then, while un-
able to read the very characters in which they were written, that I put
into your hands the papers containing The Cruise and Ten Thousand
Miles over the Fossiliferous Deposits of Scotland. You undertook the
editorial duties connected with them co7i amove, and performed your
task in a manner that left nothing to be desired.

During the preparation of the present volume for the press, you have
given me all the advantage of your ready stores of information, both in
carefully scrutinizing the text to see where any addition was required in
the form of notes, and in referring me to the best authorities on every

b



vi DEDICATION.

point regarding which I consulted you. And while so doing, you have
confirmed my own judgment, — perhaps too liable to be swayed by
partiality, — by expressing your conviction that this work is calculated
to advance the reputation of its author.

Long may you be spared to be, as now, the life and soul of those
scientific pursuits so successfully carried on in your own district!
Many a happy field-day may you enjoy in connexion with that Society
of which you are the honoured president. Would that all associa-
tions throughout our country were as harmless in their methods of find-
ing recreation, as invigorating to body and mind, and as beneficial in
their results to the cause of science ! In exploring the beautiful fields,
and woods, and sunny slopes of Worcestershire and Herefordshire, in
earnest and healthful communings with nature, and, I trust, with
nature's God, — the perennial springs of whose bounty are seldom
quaffed in this manner as they ought to be, — I trust that much, much
happiness is in store for you and for the other gentlemen of the Malvern
Club,^ to whom, as well as to yourself, I owe a debt of grateful
remembrance.

And for the still higher and nobler work which God has given you to
do, may He grant you no stinted measuie of His abundant grace, to
enable you to perform it aright.

Ever believe me, dear Sir,

Yours most faithfully,

LYDIA MILLER.



1 The Malvern Club devotes stated periods, — monthly, I think, — to rambles over
twenty or thirty miles of country, when the naturalists of whom it is composed, —
botanists, geologists, etc., — carry on the researches of their various departments
separately, or in little groups of two or three, as they may desire. They all dine
afterwards together at an inn or farmhouse, as the case may be, where they relate
the adventures of the day, discuss their favourite topics, and compare their newly-
found treasures. As a consequence of this, the Malvern Museum is a perfect model
of what a local museum ought to be. There is no town or district of country where
a few young men, possessing the advantage of an occasional holiday, might not thus
associate themselves with the utmost advantage both to themselves and others.



CONTENTS.



LECTURE FIRST.

/unction of Geologic and Human History — Scottish History of Modern Date
— The Two Periods previous to the Roman Invasion : the Stone Age
and the Bronze Age — Geological Deposits of these Prehistoric Periods —
The Aboriginal Woods of Scotland — Scotch Mosses consequences of the
Roman Invasion — How formed — Deposits, Natural and Artificial, found
under them — The Sand Dunes of Scotland — Human Remains and Works
of Art found in them — An Old Church disinterred in 1835 on the Coast
of Cornwall — Controversy regarding it — Ancient Scotch Barony under-
lying the Sand — The Old and New Coast Lines in Scotland— Where
chiefly to be observed — Geology the Science of Landscape— Scenery of
the Old and New Coast Lines — Date of the Change of Level from the
Old to the New Coast Line uncertain — Beyond the Historic, but within
the Human Period — Evidence? of the fact in remains of Primitive Wea-
pons and Ancient Boats — Changes of Level not rare events to the
Geologist — Some of these enumerated — The Boulder-Clay — Its preva-
lence in the Lowlands of Scotland — Indicated in the Scenery of the
Country — The Scratchings on the Boulders accounted for — Produced by
the Grating of Icebergs when Scotland was submerged — Direction in
which Icebergs floated, from West to East — ' Crag and Tail,' the effect of
it — Probable Cause of the Westerly Direction of the Current, .



LECTURE SECOND.

Problem first propounded to the Author in a Quarry — The Quarry's Two
Deposits, Old Red Sandstone and Boulder Clay — The Boulder-Clay
formed while the Land was subsiding — The Groovings and Polishings of
the Rocks in the Lower Parts of the Country evidences of the fact — Sir
Charles Lyell's Observations on the Canadian Lake District — Close of
the Boulder-Clay Record in Scotland — Its Continuance in England into
the Pliocene Ages — The Trees and Animals of the Pre-Glacial Periods —
Elephants' Tusks found in Scotland and England regarded as the Re-
mains of Giants — Legends concerning them— Marine Deposits beneath



i CONTENTS.

the Pre-Glacial Forests of England— Objections of Theologians to the
Geological Theory of the Antiquity of the Earth and of the Human
Race considered — Extent of the Glacial Period in Scotland — Evidences of
Glacial Action in Glencoe, Gareloch, and the Highlands of Sutherland —
Scenery of Scotland owes its Characteristics to Glacial Action — The
Period of Elevation which succeeded the Period of Subsidence — Its
Indications in Raised Beaches and Subsoils — How the Subsoils and Brick
Clays were formed — Their Economic Importance— Boulder-Stones inter-
esting Features in the Landscape — Their prevalence in Scotland— The
more remarkable Ice-travelled Boulders described — Anecdotes of the
'Travelled Stone of Petty' and .the Standing-Stone of Torboll— Eleva-
tion of the Land during the Post-Tertiary Period which succeeded the
Period of the Boulder-Clay — The Alpine Plants of Scotland the Vege-
table Aborigines of the Country — Panoramic View of the Pleistocene
and Post-Tertiary Periods — Modern Science not adverse to the Develop-
ment of the Imaginative Faculty, . .



LECTURE THIRD.

The Poet Delta (Dr. Moir)— His Definition of Poetry— His Death— His
Burial-place at Inveresk — Vision, Geological and Historical, of the Sur-
rounding Country — What it is that imparts to Nature its Poetry — The
Tertiary Formation in Scotland — In Geologic History all Ages contem-
porary — Amber the Resin of the Finns succini/er — A Vegetable Produc-
tion of the Middle Tertiary Ages — Its Properties and Uses — The Masses
of Insects enclosed in it — The Structural Geology of Scotland — Its Trap
Rock — The Scenery usually associated with the Trap Rock — How formed
— The Cretaceous Period in Scotland — Its Productions — The Chalk De-
posits — Death of Species dependent on Laws different from those which
determine the Death of Individuals— The Two great Infinites, . . 81-120



LECTURE FOURTH.

The Continuity of Existences twice broken in Geological History — The three
great Geological Divisions representative of three independent Orders of
Existences — Origin of the Wealden in England — Its great Depth and
high Antiquity — The question whether the Weald Formation belongs to
the Cretaceous or the Oolitic System determined in favour of the latter
by Its Position in Scotland — Its Organisms, consisting of both Salt and
Fresh-Water Animals, indicative of its Fluviatile Origin, but in proximity
to the Ocean — The Outliers of the Weald in Morayshire— Their Organisms
— The Sabbath-Stone of the Northumberland Coal Pits — Origin of its
Name — The Framework of Scotland — The Conditions under which it may
have been formed — The Lias and the Oolite produced by the last great
Upheaval of its Northern Mountains — The Line of Elevation of the Low-
land Counties — Localities of the Oolitic Deposits of Scotland — Its Flora
and Fauna— History of one of its Pine Trees — Its Animal Organisms —
A Walk into the Wilds of the Oolite Hills of Sutherland, . . . 121-152



CONTENTS. ix



LECTURE FIFTH.



PACK



The Lias of the Hill of Eathie - The Beauty of its Shores— Its Deposits,
how formed — Their Animal Organisms indicative of successive Platforms
of Existences — Laws of Generation and of Death — The Triassic System
— Its Economic and Geographic Importance — Animal Footprints, but no
Fossil Organisms, found in it — The Science oi Icknolcgy originated in this
fact — Illustrated by the appearance of the Compensation Pond, near Edin-
burgh, in i8



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