I. M. E. (Isabella Margaret Elizabeth) Blandin.

History of higher education of women in the South prior to 1860. online

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history specimens, including fossils, shells, and algae.

The Institute does not own a library, but the Pres-
ident owns a library of 1,500 volumes, and the Les-


bian Society has a large library, both of which are
accessible to the students.

Prof. William Duncan was the first president; for
many years Rev. Walter Hillman has been president.

At the commencement of 1891 the name was
changed to Hillman College, as a slight recognition of
the many and valuable services rendered to the Col-
lege by Mr. Hillman.



Schools in Missouri
Mary Institute, St. Louis, Missouri, 1859-1908

THE Mary Institute was founded under the pro-
visions of the charter of Washington University, in
1859, and was thus established as a branch of Wash-
ington University. The design of its founders was
to establish a school of so high a grade that the people
of St. Louis could educate their daughters without
sending them away from home; and so far as school
requirements go, this standard has always been main-
tained. But although the Institute makes a specialty
of fitting girls for the higher institutions of learning,
it does not do work that is beyond the most advanced
high-school grades.

The Institute was organized in a building erected
on Lucas Place, at a cost of $25,000; but it gradually
outgrew these accommodations, and in 1878 a more
spacious and convenient structure was built on the
corner of Locust and Beaumont streets, at an expense
of $70,000. This building, which easily accommodates
400 pupils, is heated with hot air, well ventilated and
lighted. It has served a useful purpose, but since it
was erected the residence portion of the city has ex-
tended westward, and in order to meet the new condi-
tions that have thus arisen a still more commodious
structure has been erected on Lake avenue, near Forest
Park. The new building is completed in all its ap-
pointments, and is expected to provide the school an
adequate and permanent home.

The Institute is well provided with works of refer-
ence, maps, charts, and apparatus. The instruction


in natural science is accompanied with laboratory work
with the most modern apparatus. The department
of botany has special advantages through being incor-
porated as part of the Shaw School of Botany.

The equipment of the Institute includes also a
kitchen, fitted with the appliances used in the best
cooking schools, in which instruction in cooking and
domestic science is given to the senior class by a trained
and competent teacher. The domestic science depart-
ment also has entire control of the lunch-room, which
has been established by the Institute in order that
pupils and teachers may be able to obtain a wholesome
and palatable meal at midday without leaving the
school building.

The school is divided into primary, preparatory, and
academic departments. Each of these three departments
is entirely distinct and separate from the other two,
having its own study and recitation rooms, its own
methods of work, and its own teachers.

The primary department is open to children of five,
who have had no previous instruction. This course
is completed in three years, and includes singing, draw-
ing, and calisthenics, in addition to the regular branches
in the course of study.

The preparatory department has four classes, which
follow a course very similar to that prescribed for
the fourth, fifth, sixth, and seventh grades of the pub-
lic schools. Oral training in French is begun in the
primary department and continued through two years
of the preparatory department. German is begun in
the third year of the preparatory department, thus giv-
ing a seven-year course.

The academic department gives substantially the
same training that is provided in the best high schools.

All students receive instruction in drawing, singing,
and calisthenics.

The certificate of the Institute admits to Smith, Vas-
sar, Wellesley and Wells ; also to Washington Univer-
sity and the University of Missouri.


The following communication will explain in part
why the Institute was called " Mary Institute."

" To the Board of Directors of Washington Univer-
sity :

" The undersigned have placed in the hands of Geo.
Partridge, Esq., four thousand dollars, to aid in the
completion of the building and purchasing the equip-
ment for the Female Seminary in Lucas Place on
condition that the same seminary be called ' Mary In-
stitute,' and its founding bears the date May n, 1859.
Signed, Wayman Crow, R. P. McCrury, James
Smith, George Partridge.'*

It happened that the name " Mary " was borne by
some of the members of the families of these gentle-
men and they thought it the most beautiful and most
honored name among women.

(The writer is indebted for much of the material
for this sketch to Miss Sarah G. Hayes, who kindly
copied it from the records of Washington University.
The remainder was taken from catalogues. )

Christian College, Columbia, Missouri, 1851-1908

This college was chartered by an Act of the General
Assembly of the State of Missouri, January 18. 1851.
(Laws of Missouri, 1:51, pp. 310-312.) According
to the terms of this charter, James Shannon, T. B. B.
Smith, Thomas M. Allen, D. P. Henderson, William
McClure, W. W. Hudson, Robert S. Barr, Thomas
D. Grant, Levi T. Smith, Flavel Vivian, John Jami-
son, W. F. Birch, J. J. Allen, J. C. Fox, Lewis Bryan,
Elijah Patterson, John S. Phelps, Wayman Grow,
S. S. Church, and Moses Land were to constitute a
corporate body with perpetual succession. (Sec. I,

P- 3 11 -)

Also, " said College shall be located at such a place


within the State as shall be designated by a majority
of the trustees herein named/' (Sec. 2.)

At the time of locating the College the trustees, or
a majority of them, shall determine the name. (Sec.
3.) After the College has been located and named
the trustees shall have absolute control of the property
belonging to the College. (Sec. 3.) Trustees shall
have power to make all by-laws for the governing of
the College (Sec. 4.), and to fill all vacancies which
may occur in their body, and reduce their number to
nine. As soon as the funds permit a building shall be
erected. (Sec. 8.) Trustees have power to appoint
all necessary officers to conduct and manage the insti-
tution, and to remove them from office, and fix their
compensation. Also power to grant such literary
honors as are usually granted by colleges or univer-
sities in the United States. (Sees. 8-9.) Diplomas
of this College shall " entitle the possessor to all the
immunities which by law or usage is allowed to pos-
sessor of similar diplomas granted by any college or
university in the United States." (Sec. n.)
Trustees shall have power to add other departments
to the College whenever they deem it necessary. ( Sec.
13.) Neither the number of departments nor the
course of study is indicated in the charter.

" As early as 1848 the idea of founding a female
college in the interests of the Christian Church began
to take shape in the minds of some of the leaders of
that body." Christian College owes its existence more,
perhaps, to D. P. Henderson (a minister of the Chris-
tian Church of Missouri) than to any one else.

In 1850 James Shannon, president of Bacon College
at Harrodsburg, Kentucky, was elected president of
Missouri State University. President Shannon, as-
sisted by D. P. Henderson, S. S. Church, and F. M.
Allen, obtained a charter for Christian College.
(Baccalaureate address before Christian College, May
31, 1888, pp. 40-53 of the thirty-seventh annual cata-
logue of Christian College.)


In November, 1849, Dr. Samuel Hatch and Prof.
Henry White of Bacon College, Harrodsburg, Ken-
tucky, came to Columbia with the view of inaugurat-
ing a " Female Collegiate Institute." They, in con-
nection with Dr. Henderson and President Shannon
of the -State University, successfully carried their plan
into execution, and on the recommendation of Dr.
Shannon, John Augustus Williams of Kentucky was
elected the first president of the newly founded institu-
tion. A small house in the town was at first used,
but so rapidly did the school grow a new building be-
came necessary. The incomplete residence and
twenty-nine acres of land, belonging to the estate of
Dr. J. H. Bennett, were purchased in 1851, and the
building was opened for the regular session in Sep-
tember of the same year.

In 1856 Mr. Williams was succeeded as president by
Mr. L. B. Wilkes. In 1858 J. K. Rogers was elected
president and held the office for twenty years. Sev-
eral times during the War between the States Northern
soldiers bivouacked near the building, but the College
was not closed.

The presidents since Mr. Rogers have been Prof.
O. S. Bryant of Independence, Missouri ; W. A. Old-
ham of Lexington, Kentucky ; Mr. F. P. St. Clair, who
was succeeded a few months later by his widow, Mrs.
Luella Wilcox St. Clair, the first woman president
of Christian College. Mrs. St. Clair resigned her
position four years later and was succeeded by Mrs.
W. T. Moore. Two years later Mrs. St. Clair be-
came co-principal with Mrs. Moore. They still hold
this position. The average attendance of boarding
pupils is now something over one hundred. There
are nearly as many day pupils. This college ranks as
a secondary school ; that is, its diploma admits a pupil
to the freshman class of the Missouri State University.
It has been in active service fifty-two years since char-
tered, and two years prior to the granting of the


(This sketch was taken from a brief sketch of Chris-
tian College by Mrs. W. T. Moore in the Columbia
(Missouri) Herald of December 20, 1901.)

Baptist College for Women, Lexington, Missouri

This college was incorporated by an Act of General
Assembly of December 12, 1855, under the name of the
Baptist Female College. The names of twenty men
are enrolled in the charter as trustees. These trustees
were to hold office for one year, then the stockholders
were to meet and elect from their number twenty
trustees, each stockholder having one vote for each
share of stock he held. The charter gives the trustees
full control of the property of the College, except that
they may not sell any of the property nor erect any
additional buildings unless a majority of the stock-
holders shall request the same to be done. The
trustees also have full control of the administrative
affairs of the College. (See Local Laws and Private
Acts of the State of Missouri, Adjourned Session of
the 1 8th General Assembly, 1855.)

The College has been in successful operation from
the time of its foundation until the present, with the
exception of the four years of the War between the
States. It is the oldest existing college for girls
under the control of the Baptist denomination in Mis-
souri. According to the catalogue for the session of
1875-76 (the oldest belonging to the State Historical
Association of Missouri), the College had then the
three departments, preparatory, academic, and col-
legiate, with the extra departments of music, orna-
mental and fancy work, and post-graduate. The num-
ber of pupils was 107. This number included some
day pupils, as the College could accommodate only 60
boarding pupils. Since then the departments of litera-
ture, art, elocution, physical culture, and business have
been added to the former departments. Also addi-
tional accommodations for boarders have been made,


and in 1900 there were 118 pupils. The music depart-
ment of the College increased so rapidly that it has
become necessary to reorganize it on a different basis.
A new building near the main building has been pur-
chased for the conservatory, and it is proposed to
charter this department as a separate organization
under the name of " Missouri Conservatory of Music."
(See catalogue for 1900.)

Stephens College, Columbia, Missouri, 1856

On March 15, 1856, a meeting was held for the
purpose of establishing a " Baptist Female College "
in Columbia. The plan of organization was to issue
stock to subscribers, each share being valued at $100
and entitling its holder to one vote in the election of

At a meeting held May 26, 1856, the curators were
elected, and it was decided to open the College in
September or October, 1856. In June of the same
year William Rothwell was elected the first president,
and it was decided to open the College in September.
The College was chartered January 26, 1857, under
the name of Columbia Baptist Female College.

By the provisions of the charter the curators have
full control of the property of the College, except
that they cannot mortgage or sell the real estate of the
College unless the stockholders owning a majority of
the shares request the same. All property of the Col-
lege is held free from taxation. The number of cura-
tors provided for in the charter is not less than seven
nor more than twelve. They have control of the ad-
ministration of the affairs of the College. (See Laws
of Missouri, 1856-57, pp. 227, 228.)

In 1869 the Missouri Baptist General Association
took decided steps toward the establishment of a State
female college, and a committee was appointed to de-
vise ways and means to carry out this purpose. The
following year, 1870, the General Association met in


St. Louis, and at this meeting the committee reported
" such an institution a necessity." The report was
adopted, and the Association invited all communities
to enter into competition for the location of the school.
The offer made by the trustees of the Baptist Female
College of Columbia being deemed the best, was ac-
cepted, and a committee was appointed to nominate a
board of curators. This committee in making its re-
port also presented a bond for $20,000 given by the
Hon. J. L. Stephens, as a beginning of a suitable en-
dowment for the College. The bond having been
accepted, the General Association instructed the cura-
tors to incorporate the new enterprise under the name
of Stephens College, in recognition of this generous
gift of Mr. Stephens. The College at present has real
estate and school equipment to the value of $125,000.
(From a sketch of Stephens College in the Columbia
(Missouri) Herald, December 20, 1901.)

When the College was organized there were three
departments, the preparatory, the collegiate and the or-
namental. The last included music, drawing and
painting. The course now includes primary and pre-
paratory departments, English, scientific, classical, and
post-graduate courses. Also schools of music, ora-
tory, physical culture, and arts; and a commercial de-
partment. This is a secondary school. Its graduates
are admitted into the freshman class of the State Uni-

(See catalogue for 1901.)

The Elizabeth Aull Seminary, Lexington, Missouri,

" The Elizabeth Aull Seminary was founded by the
lady whose name it bears, in the desire to provide for
the education of young women according to Christian
ideals. For this noble purpose Miss Aull gave build-
ing and grounds."

The Seminary is under the joint control of Lafayette


Presbytery of Missouri and the Presbyterian Church
of Lexington. The church is represented in the man-
agement by a board of trustees and the Presbytery by
a " committee of visitors."

Dr. Lewis G. Barbour, now and for many years an
honored member of the faculty of Central University
of Kentucky, was the first president of Elizabeth Aull
Seminary. He held the office from 1860 until 1865.
Dr. J. A. Quarles, now of Washington and Lee Uni-
versity, of Virginia, should be mentioned, because, in
as much as his term of service was twice as long as that
of any other president, his influence upon the character
of the school was probably more decided. (From the
Elisabeth Aull Student, June, 1896.)

Thirteen trustees are named in the charter. Their
successors were to be elected by the Presbyterian
Church at Lexington. Their term of office was three
years from and after the election which was to be
held each year on the first Monday in April. The
board was divided into three classes to be determined
by lot four in the first class, whose term of office
was to expire the first Monday in April, 1860; four in
the second class, whose term of office was to last until
April, 1 86 1, and five in the third class, whose term of
office was to last until April, 1862. The trustees were
given the powers usually conferred upon the trustees
of a College or Seminary.

The charter is found in the Laws of the State of
Missouri passed at the first session of the General
Assembly, 1859.

The first catalogue in the library of the Historical
Association of Missouri shows that there were 137
pupils during the years 1871-72, and the catalogue for
1898-99 shows only 58 enrolled. The College has
suspended, but was in continued existence from its
foundation until after the session of 1899. There is
a resolution passed by the board of trustees just before
the session of 1871-72 that deserves mention. " Re-
solved, That there shall, from this time forth, be no


public exhibitions, no cantatas, in fact nothing ap-
proaching a theatrical display in the exercise of this
Seminary." The reason for this resolution was " that
woman's sphere is the home circle; that she is neither
fitted nor designed by God for the public life of man " ;
believing this, " our purpose is to educate her for her
hallowed privacy. On this account we have entirely
discarded the custom of parading our girls before the
common crowd in annual exhibitions/' (Catalogue
for 1871, 1872.)

Howard-Payne College, Fayette, Missouri, 1828-1908

Mr. Green begins his great history of the English
people by a study of their condition in the forests
of Germany before the migration to Great Britain.
Similarly, the history of Howard-Payne College may
be begun with the establishment of Fayette Academy
by Mr. Archibald Patterson, in 1828. The Academy
building was a one-story brick building having two
rooms, one for the boys and one for the girls. Mr.
Patterson's great ambition was to establish a college
of high grade in Fayette, and he labored assiduously
to accomplish this purpose. Doubtless largely through
his influence a more imposing edifice than the little
red-brick schoolhouse was begun. The work pro-
gressed slowly, and before the building was com-
pleted Mr. Patterson moved the school into it. The
building caught fire from a stove in one of the rooms
of the lower floor and was destroyed February, 1838,
and the school returned to the little red-brick school-
house. Mr. Patterson continued the school success-
fully until the spring of 1844, when he accepted a
call to Marion College, Palmyra, Missouri.

Meanwhile, the location of the State University was
exciting much interest. The citizens, in anticipation
of this, circulated subscription papers, raised some
money, and commenced work on a large two-story
building with four imposing columns in front; but


failing to attain their ambition the work lagged and
the interior was not finished when the contractors
caused the building to be sold December 6, 1844. Mr.
William D. Swinney bought it, and in 1847 conveyed
it to a board of trustees to be held in trust for a public
institution of learning, to be under the control of the
Methodist Episcopal Church South.

In the summer of 1844 Dr. William T. Lucky and
his young wife, Mary Scarritt, became citizens of Fay-
ette, and in the fall of that year he opened a school in
the little red schoolhouse, commencing with seven
pupils. The school was so popular that in less than
two years the building was crowded, and the family
accommodations of the town were taxed to accommo-
date the pupils from abroad. Mr. Lucky taught his
classes by day, and in his leisure hours and often by
night assisted in the work on the college building. In
1845 Mr. Lucky, assisted by his brother-in-law, Mr.
Nathan Scarritt, organized Howard High School.
Two years later it was transferred to the control of
the board of trustees chosen by Mr. Swinney, and thus
became identified with Southern Methodism in Mis-
souri. The Annual Conference of M. E. C. South,
which met in Fayette, 1851, was so favorably im-
pressed with the school that Rev. J. S. Riggs was ap-
pointed financial agent to raise funds for a boarding-
house, which was much needed. In January, 1854,
the building with the furniture, library, apparatus and
books of 352 pupils were destroyed by fire. The of-
ficers of the different churches kindly tendered the use
of the churches, and such was the administrative
ability of Dr. Lucky that only one day was lost from
school work.

Previous to the fire the boys and girls had been
taught in different apartments of the same building;
henceforth they were to be taught in separate build-
ings. The boys' school became the foundation of
Central College, which was organized in 1857; while


the girls' department was chartered as Howard Female
College in 1859, by the Legislature of Missouri.

A heavy debt on the College necessitated its sale in
1869. It was purchased by Moses U. Payne and
deeded by him to the " board of curators," " to have
and hold for the use of the Methodist Episcopal
Church South, in the State of Missouri, subject to the
discipline, usages, rules, and regulations of the Mis-
souri Conference of said church, as from time to time
enacted and declared by said Conference; and that
said premises be used for female school purposes ex-

In consideration of the liberality of Rev. Moses U.
Payne, the board of curators, at its session in June,
1892, and by authority of the Missouri Conference
granted at its session in September, 1891, changed the
name of the institution to Howard-Payne College.
Thus this school has been in active operation since
1828; first as a department of an academy, then as a
department of a high school, and for forty-eight years
a school for girls exclusively.

The first graduating class received certificates in
1849. This was a bright era in the history of the
school. Gradually the usual departments of a first-
class seminary had been added and the standard of
scholarship had been much elevated. Its first class
was regarded as equal to any in the West.

During the first fourteen years of its existence more
than 2,000 pupils received instruction in Howard High
School; many of these became teachers. The in-
fluence of this school upon the standard of education,
particularly the education of girls, has been felt in
every part of Missouri.

The first and only principal of Howard High
School was Dr. Lucky. He was also the first presi-
dent of Howard College, which office he held two
years, resigning in 1861.

The present course of study is arranged as prepara-


tory and collegiate, each requiring four years for its
completion. The Bible has been arranged in a four-
year course, and all who take the full course are re-
quired to take this also. Ample provision has been
made for the departments of music, art, elocution, and
physical culture. A museum containing an excellent
collection of minerals, ores, etc., a library containing
1,200 volumes, and a reading-room furnished with
current literature afford good facilities for teaching.

The College grants diplomas conferring the degrees
of Mistress of Arts and Mistress of English Litera-
ture ; also diplomas or certificates of graduation in the
schools of instrumental music, vocal music, expression,
painting and drawing. Elective courses are offered to
those not desiring a regular college course, and a nor-
mal course is offered to those wishing to prepare to


Early Schools in North Carolina

DURING the period of Proprietary government
(1663-1729) only two or three schools are on record.
The first report of any schools in the Province was
made by Dr. John Blair, a missionary to the colony
in 1704. From his reports we find that the first
churches Episcopal churches had lay readers to
supply them with sermons, and these readers were
teachers in almost every case. Near every parish
church was a parish school.

Neither the population nor the churches nor the
schools increased rapidly. It was not until 1752,

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Online LibraryI. M. E. (Isabella Margaret Elizabeth) BlandinHistory of higher education of women in the South prior to 1860. → online text (page 15 of 24)