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PRESENT DAY

POLITICAL ORGANIZATION

OF CHINA



PKESENT DAY

POLITICAL ORGANIZATION

OF CHINA

HY

H. S. BkINNKKT AND V. Y. HAGELSTK031

STl I)i:xr-IXTER1'RETEKS OF 1 H K
niPElHAL lilSi^lAX LE(;ATI()X, I'EK1X(.

RKVISK[) IVY
N. Th. KOLKSSOFF

CIIINESK SE( liKTARY OF IIIF

i-Mi'EKiAL RissiAX ij:(;atj()X, rFKixc;
TKANSLATHI) Ki.'OM THE KISSIAN

WITH THK. AFTIIORS' SA.\< ' IfOX

A. belt(;hfnk()

ll.l.R.M. ( OXSIL AT FOOCHOW ; AXD

E. E. MOKAX. I'H. B. (vai.e)

OF THE (JIINESE IMFERIAL MARITIME (ISIO.MS SKRNUK
SHANGHAI :

KKLLV AND WALSH. LIMITED

iiox(rKox(; — siX(;Ai'oRio — Yokohama



-07



TRANSLATORS' NOTE.



Present Day Political Organization
of China.

Changes effected during tliis volume's journey
tlu-ougli the press and alterations made thereafter will
be issued in the form of a Supplement.

The Transldtnrs.
Mav, li)12.



283531



75(1503






TRANSLATORS' NOTE.



Since tlie issue of tlie original edition of tlie " Present Day
Political Organization of China," in May, 11)10, innnerous and \aried
changes have been effected in China's government system. ^lany
establishments and posts have been abolished, snch as the (iraiul
Secretariat and the Ministry of (Jivil Appointments ; othei's have been
re-organized, while some have been newly-instituted, for instance, the
Cabinet and the Privy Council.

These changes and modifications, thanlvs to the untiring energy of
Messrs. Brunnert and Hagelstrom, the joint-authors of the '* I'resent
J)ay Political Organization of China," have been incorporated in the
text of this translation or are separately treated in the Supplement.

The translators tender their heartiest thanks to Mr. H. S. Brunnert,
who Icindly checked the translation with the orighial text, and to
Mr. E. T. C. Werner, H. B. M. Consul at Foocliow, for his kindly
interest in re-reading the manuscript.

A. BELTCHENKO.



E. MORAN.



FoocHOW, iblh August, lijll.



283531



PREFACE



"The activity for irl'onii in Cliiiui lias of latn become so iiiteusc that
it has affected various l)raiiches of the Goveriiuieiit. and blic old
orgauization of the State — an inheritance of a^rey antiquity — is ua'adually
making way for another, based, for tlie most [)art, on principlis ln'oni^ht
to China from other countries.

" An Imperial Edict stated that it was necessary for (Miiiia to become
a Constitutional State and, conforming to this, there began a radical
demolition of existing institutions or their adjustment to a new govern-
ment organization. Tlie system of competitive examinations for literary
degrees, held periodically, existing long since, was a1)t)lished, and the
Government is nt)\v occupied in tJie organization of a net of schools,
where the younger generation may study sciences as in Hni'ope. America
and Japan.

" There is being gradually introduced the principle of separation of
judicial and administrative aathoritie-; and throughout the whole of
China new judicial establishments are making rheir app'ai-ance, organized
on the European model.

"The Police have been oi'guniztid on new lines and tl)e prisons
reformed.

" With theol)jectof strengthening the national power tiiere is being
carried out a scheme for the organization of an army, and measures are
being taken to re-create a navy.

" The l>amiermen, up to now a favoured class, are t)eing gradually
placed on an etjual footing with the mass of the population and are, bit
by l)it, losing the privileges obtained three centuries ago.

"In the various towns and \illages the (Tovernment is striving by
every means to inculcate the principles of local self-go vcrinnent.



" The population is acquainted with tlie principles of representative
government and an assembly of the people has been called, in the
beginning to be a deliberative organization, for the discussion of
government affairs.

" The -whole country watches with sti-ained attention the activity of
the Government in its efforts for the enlargement and improvement of
meaiLS of communication, the fostering of industry and commerce, the
reinforcement of the colonization on the borders, and, finally, its measures
looking towards the placing of the control of the finances of the Empire
in the hands of one responsible establishment — the Ministry of Finance.
" In connection with general reforms the Government is materializing
a practice of centralization of power and abolition of that abnormal
phenomenon, historically formed, by which the highest provincial official
was its full and irresponsible master and ruler, to the Central Govern-
ment appertaining a general supervision and the right of appointment of
provincial officials only. At the same time there is observed on the
part of the Chinese Government a policy of entire re-organization of the
go^■ernment of the dependencies, looking toAvards their gradual conver-
sion into actual provinces of China.

" Although all the proposed reforms are, so far, not completed,
nevertheless, the achievement in this direction has greatly altered the
political organization of the country. Many institutions have been
entirely abolished, others have been re-organized on new lines, while
some have just been called into existence.

"For everyone interested in the life of China, and following
attentively all the reforms in progress, it is, of course, very interesting
and important to know, at least in general, the internal organization of
the old, the reformed, and the newly-organized institutions.

" Until lately there was no dearth of works in European languages
furnishing copious information in this direction.

" Evei'y student of Chinese is acquainted, of course, with the well-
known work of AV. F. Mayers, " The Chinese Government," a work
enjoying a well-deserved reputation in the sinological world and, as a
(^lassie, unique in its genre, which, notwithstanding its small size, gives
in a \ery concise form a mass of information and acquaints the reader
with the government organization of China as it existed, with no
substantial changes, for a long period.



"A fjood sequel to the work of W. !•'. Mayers is " Alelan.ires sur
rAdmini.stration," by P. Hoanc^ (from series " Variet/s Sinologi(|ues/")
wliich, thousjh not a systematic exposition, skives much information
concernin Council of State - - - - - 41

Grand Secretariat or Imperial Chancery - - - 43'.

Committee of ]\Iinisters - - - - - 46

Committee for Drawing up Regulations for Constitutional

Grovernment : Statistical and Information Bureaux - 47

The National Assemljly and Provincial Assemblies - 52
Committee for Revising and Compiling Civil and Criminal

Codes - - - 59

General Staff of the Army - - - - 61

Commission for the Reorganization of the Na\'y and the

Naval Council - - - - - 64

Commission for the Revision of the Banner Orgatiizatiou - 68

The Anti-Opium Commission - - - - 68
Committee in charge of Construction of the InijK'rial

Mausoleum "Ch'ung Ling" - - - - 70'

Historiographical Commission - - - - 71

The National Academy - - - - - 7i

The Censoratc - - - 75

Supreme Court of Justice - - - - 79

Imperial Board of Astronomy - - - - 82

[ i ]



TABLE OF CONTENTS.



PART I :—ronHnve(l. page

The Imperial ^Medical Department - - - 85

Board of Customs Control - - - - 86

The Imperial Maritime Customs - - - - 88

PART II :— Ministries (Boards).

Ministries (Boards) in General - - - - 97

Ministry of Foreign Affairs - - - - 104

Ministry of Civil Appointments - - - - 114

Ministry of the Interior - - - - - 11 5

Ministry of Finance - - - - - 118

Ministry of Rites - - ■ - - - 124

Ministry of Education - - - - - 131

Ministry of War - - - - - 1 38

Ministry of .Justice - - - - - 147

Ministry of Agriculture, Industry and Commerce - - 152

Ministry of Posts and Communications - - - 157

Ministry of Dependencies - - - - 160

Police: - - - - - - 167

A. Metropolitan Police - - - - 167

B. Provincial Police - - - - 172

Police Schools - - - - - -173

Local Self-government - - - - - 174

General Census - - - - - - 185

Committee for the Reorganization of the Financial Affairs

of the Empire - - - - - 1 86
Branch Offices of the Committee for the Reorganization of

the Financial Affairs of the Empire - - - 188

Banks (Government and others) - - - - 189

Mints 103

Head Office for the Collection of Excise on Native Opium - 1 94
Office of the Customs and Octroi of Peking at the Ch'ung

Wen (i ate - - - - - - 195

Native (Land) Customs - - - 196

Government Granaries - - - - - 196

Financial College - - - - - 197

[ ii ]



TABLE OF CONTENTS.



TAUT \\ •.—cotitinued. pagk

Imperial Mausolea - - - - - lt)8

Metropolitan Temples. — Sacrifices. — Buddhism, Taoism

and Shamanism - - - - -202

Education - - - - - -211

Elementary and Primary Schools - - - - 213

Middle Schools - - - - - - 218

Higher Schools - - - - - - 220

Universities - - - - - -223

Professional Schools - - - - - 23:5

A. Agricultural Schools . - - - 23(i

B. Schools of Trades and Handicrafts - - 238
0. Commercial Schools - - - - 241
B. Mercantile Marine Schools _ - - 243
Normal Schools . - - - - 24(;
Special Schools - - - - - 253

Examinations and Literary Degrees - - - 2G6

Administration of Schools . . - - 273

^> Chinese Students Abroad - - - - 278

Public Libraries - - - 283

Military Forces of China - - - 285

A. Iju Chiin or Land Forces . _ - 285
Military Ranks - - - - - -289

Reviews of Troops - - - - - 301

Committees for DriUing Troops . _ - 303

Military Prisons - - - - - - 306

Military Police (Gendarmerie) - - - - 307

B. Reserve Forces (Hsiui Fang Tui)- - - 301)
Military Schools - - - - - -312

Banner Forces - - - - - - 323

The Old Chinese Array - - - - - 337

Military Post Stations - - - - - 341

Office of Government Droves . . - - 343
Naval Forces of Chuia - - - 344

Judicial Establishments and Prisons . _ - 34G

[ i^ ]



TABLE OF CONTENTS.



PART II :—miUnued. paok

A. Shell P'an T'ing or Judicial Establishments - 346

B. Cliien Ch'a T'ing or Prosecuting Attorneys' Offices 353
G. Prisons - - - - - 354

Agriculture, Industiy and Commerce - - - 357

Colonization - - - 365

Railways - - - 369

Telegraphs and Telephones - - - - 372

Bank of Communications - - - 373

PART III : — Metropolitan Prefecture and Manchuria, Pro\-incial
Administration and Dependencies of China.

Peking and the Metropolitan Prefecture - - - 377

Grovernment of Manchuria - - - - 384

Provincial Administration - - - - 395

A. Higher Administration - - - - 395

B. Local Administration (of Prefectures, Sub-
prefectures, Departments and Districts) - - 425

Administration of " Native " Districts - - - 438

Eastern Turkestan - - - 439

The Dependencies of the Empire - - - - 441

A. Mongolia - - - - - - 442

B. K'uk'unor (Kokonor) - - - - 463

C. Tibet and the Lamaist Hierarchy - - 465
PART IV :— Appendix.

Specially Deputed Officials . - - - 481

Establishments Abolished or Reorganized - - 484

Honorary Titles - - - - - 490

Hereditary Ranks and Titles of Honour ; Posthumous

Titles - - - 492

Distinctions for ilerit - - - 497

Decorations - - - - - - 499

The Government Service - - - 504

Supplement.

Alphabetical Index of Chinese Characters.

Sources of Information.



[ iv ]



PART I .

T H E E M P E R () R A N T) T H E
IMPERIAL COURT

METROPOLITAN GOVERNMENT

ESTABLISHMENTS

(ministkies excepted)



THE

EMPEROR AND THE IMPERIAL COURT.



&



1. ^ ^ Iliianir' Ti', The Emi)eror. Oidinniy designation. ;i^

Jt HuMug'' Shano-': J^ Sliang'. Title of respect, ^ ^ to



T'ien^ Tzii^, the Son of lleaveii. Popular appellation.
*^ ^ f^ H Tang^ Chin^ Fo^ Yelr, the Buddha of the ])resont
day. Also ^ ^ Chu^ Tzu^ the Master, Lord ; ^ ^ Sheng'
Chu^ the August iNIaster, or Lord, In addresses, ^ ^ ^
Wan^ Sni* Yeh^, Lord of Ten Thousand Years : P^ T Pi^
Hsia^ Your Majesty (literally, beneath the footstool). The
Emperor usually designates himself by the term J^ ('hrn''. L
We.

A syui})ol of the Em})ei-or"s dignity in China is a
mvthological animal, the Dragon. Therefore, everything a])pei-
taining to the Emperor is styled f| Lung^, Dragon ; for instaiK-e,
H ^ Lung' Tso*, the Emperor's (Dragon) Throne, etc.

Since 1644 the :^ jf i^] Ta^ Clring^ Ch'ao* or Manchu
dynasty has reigned in C'hina ; the present Emperor, the tenth of
this House, has reigned since the 22nd Janviary, 1909. He is
known from his reign as ^ fr^ Ilsiian' T'ung^ and is the nephew
of the late Emperor ^ ^ Kuang^ Hsii*. ITis real name, y!^ ^
P'u^ I-, ceased to exist foi- his subjects on the day he ascended
the throne.

lA. tbm&t:riik Tsai^ Vii' Ch'ing^ Kung' Hsing^
Tsou'. Performing duties at the Yii Ch"ing Palace (Palace of
the Heir Apparent ; see No. 10-1 a). This expression refers to
the instruction of the Emperor (^ l^ % Ig Shou"* Huang- Ti'

1 [ 1 ]



1a



PEESENT DAY POLITICAL ORGAXIZATION OF CHINA.



2 Tu-), for Avhioh duty it is customary to appoint the most worthy

tQ and most leaiMU'd ofhcials of the Empire. Thus, as tiitors of the

5 late Emperor jt If Kuang lisii there were appointed the late

Assistant Grand Secretary ^ |g] g| WOng^ T'ung2-ho= (deceased

in 1904), and the late Grand Secretary M^M ^""^ Chia^-nai*

(deceased in November, 1909).

The instruction of the reigning JMiiperor has been entrusted,
by Edict of the Empress Dowager, || l^ Limg^ Yii\ dated the
10th July, 1911. to the Ghancellor of the National Academy,
Grand Secretary ^ ^ j^ Lu^ JunMisiang", Vice-President (of
a Ministry ) El ^ gg Ch^en^ Pao^-ch'en\ and Deputy Lieutenant-
{^eneral ^ ^ iH P K^o^-t^anl The latter is s])ecially entrusted
with the mstmction of the Emperor hi the Manchu language and
literature (^ |g ^- ^ I'^i'O* ^'^^^ C'h'ing^ Wen^).

2. ^ In Huang' Hon-*, The Empress. Eiterary designa-
tion, f^ ^ Cluing^ KungS the Central Palace (from her place
of residence). Title of respect, gj ^ Kuo" Mn*, INIother of the
State.

When there are two Empresses they are distinguished
by their places of residence ; one is styled J^ ^ Tung' KimgS
and the other ^ g Hsi' Kmig^ (the Empress occupying the
East Palace and the Emi)ress occupying the West Palace).

■^- :;ife ± M ^ '^'=^''' !^li"''iig* Huang"'' Ti*, the Father of
the Emperor. Also :^ ± ^ T'ai^ Shang^ Huang". These
titles are used only when the Emperor's father is alive during
his sons reign.

^- ^ ;*C )p Huang- T-ai^ Hou^ the lhn})ress Dowager;
the l%in]tress of a deceased Emperor.

- The Empress Con^ort of the late Emperor :)t |f Kuang^
Hsii" is now known, from her title of resi)ect, as [J^ |>^ Lung*

^^ 5- :*c ^: :*: )p ''="' 1'":"'^' '^^'-^i' ^'^'"^ ^^^® ^^^-'^^

Empress Dowager. This titU> was bestowed after the death of

[ -^ ]



PRESENT DAY rOLITK AL OlUi AN IZ ATIOX OF CHINA.

the Emporor ^ ||[ Kuaii»-^ Hsu^ wliirli took place on the 14th 6

November, 1908, on the Fiinpress ^, jf,S T/u' Hsi^ in order that to

she mig-ht be distijiguislicd from the I-.mpress of the preceding jg
Emperor {see No. 4).

6- ^ ft iB IJ^"i"ii'^ l^"^'"' i'^^'''' li'ipcrinl Concubine of
the First K:udv -^ Ta*,
great, eldest, and by numerals). This title is applied to the sons
of an Emperor until such time as they receive princely rank, i.e.
^ ^ Ch'in^ Wang', literary designation, ^ ^ Wang^ Ti^ or

BBTi».

14. S- i Kung^ Chu^ Imperial Princess; Daughter of an
Emperor. Tliis is the general designation.

Princesses horn to an Empress are called I^O '^ S i K^i^
Lun'^ Kungi Chu^ (from the ]\Ianchu Avord Gurun, the equivalent
of the Chinese Kuo, meaning State); those born to Imperial
Concubines are called ^11 5g ^ ± Ho=^ She* Kungi Chu^ (from
the Manchu word Hoshe, meaning appanage). Imperial
Pi'incesses retain these titles after marriage.

15. ^ M E^ ¥n\ Husband of an Imperial Princess (in
former dynasties the designation was |f^ ^ Fu* Ma^).

Conforming to the rank of the Imperial Princesses, their
husbands are styled : —

1. @ 1^ ^. Iff Ku' Lun^ £* Eu%

2. mmM m Ho^ She^ E* Vn\

3. ^ H #, M To^ Lo2 E* FuS

4. © Ul H li'l' Ku^ Shan^ E* Fu*,

5. ir> ± M it ChunU^hu' E* FuS

6. !^ i $1 ,1ft Hsien* Chu^ E* Fu%

. 7. ^J g IS .Iff Chim^ Chiin' E* FuS

8. My^M lilt Hsien^ Chihi* t' Vn\ and
^- m^M Iff Hsiangi Chiin' E* Fu^
Ki. fp5g^3£ Ho^ She* Ch'in' ^Vang^ Prince of the
Blood of tlie first degree.

[ 4 ] ■



PRESENT DAY POLITICAL OKG A.VIZATION OF CHINA,



i'nis title, as well :is the eleven following, are conferred on 17
]\Iancluis and Mongols only, i.e. on kinsmen of the lm])erial House. ^q

17. .^ M Sl> I '''^'^ I^"' ^'^'""' Wang", Prince of the 27*
Blood of the second degree.

18. $^ M R^i '!'«' ^'^' ^'^•' ^^^'' l''''"ce of the Blood
of tlie third degiee.

19. EI tU M ^ ^'-•''' ^'^^^'»"' ^*ci^ "^^^'^^ Prince of the
Blood of the focirtii degree.

20- ^ M Ie ^ ^''^"8"* ^'^"' ^■'^"'"'' ^'^"'^^ Kinig\ Prince
of the Blood of the fifth degi-ee.

21. ^ B li iil S I^^eng^ ^'^"' l^^^i' Ki'"' I'^'ing', Prince
of the Blood of the sixth degree.

22. ;n A A ^ la H ^ 1'^^' '^^»' P^' ^^"' *'^'^''* ^"^^'^^
KungS Prince of tlie Blood of the seventh degree.

23. r^KA^mm^ i'"* -^"^ ^'^^^ i^^^-'^' l^^"' i^"«'

Kung^, Prince of the Blood of the eighth degree.

24. MM/^^ ^''»



Online LibraryI. S. (Ippolit Semenovich) BrunnertPresent day political organization of China → online text (page 1 of 48)