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LIBRARY ECONOf^-







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LIBRARY
ECONOMICS




LIBRACO LIMITED,

LONDON. — 1909.



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MARLBOROUGH PEWTRESS & Co
52, OLD BAILEY. E.G.



CONTENTS.



No.

1. Card charging and appliances

2. Binding of part music

3. Obliteration of betting news

4. Stock book

5. Ledger charging

6. Reference Library : plans and

arrangement

7. Book labelling

8. Show-cases for books (i.)

9. Book selection : local collections

10. Information boards for public libraries

11. Ladies' rooms

12. Children's rooms

13. Book exhibitions

14. Book selection : discarding

15. Display of magazines : closed method

16. Bookbinding : orders and checking

17. Show-cases for books (ii.)

18. Home binderies

19. Staff conferences

20. Stamping books

21. Subject hunting: reference department

22. How to cut the leaves of a book

23. Card charging and appliances

24. One hundred book collectors

25. Staff time sheets

26. Directories and time tables

27. Relations between the staff and readers

28. Card system for the registration of

borrowers

29. Delivery stations

30. Reserved books

31. Supplementary tickets and facilities

to students

32. Literary aids

33. Newsroom methods

34. Filing of periodicals

35. Committee work

36. Preparation of magazines for the tables

37. Terms and phrases used in library

work



F. C. Cole, Huddersfield

Arthur J. Haivkes, Bojirneinoiith ..
Thomas Green, Shareditch ...

P. E. Farroio, Lcwisham

G. F. Staley, Manchester

T. E. Turnbull, Neivcastle-on-Tyne

Miss Olive E. Clarke, Islington

George E. Denne, Richmond . . .

James Ross, York

John Ba7-r, Glasgow ...

Miss M. Gilbert, Fulham

P. E. Farroio, Leivisham

G. F. Staley, Manchester

James D. Young, Greenwich...

James B. Thompson, Aberdeen

Henry T. Coutts, Islington ...

Har-ry Peters, Leivisham

Henry T. Coutts, Islington ...

P. E. Far-row, Lewisham

Miss V. A. Aitken, Islington...

Arthur J. Haiokes, Bournemouth

MissL. Fairweather , Islington

F. C. Cole, Hiddersfield

Geo. A. Stephen, St. Pancras

Ernest S. Martin, Twickenham

J. S. Waldron, Plymouth

Ernest S. Martin, Twickenham

F. W. T. Lange, St. Bride's Founda-
tion Library, London

Harry Peters, Lexvisha,m

Miss W. E. Stevenson, Islington

Ernest S. Martin, Twickenham

A. H. Fudge, Lewisham

A. Webb, Brighton

Miss E. E. Glenister, Islington

E. W. Neeshavi, Erdington ...

Miss B. L. DiLmhiil, Hackney

Wm. McGill, Islington, and Wm. J.
Phillips, Glasgoiv



Page



15
18

19
25
26
29
32
34

39
45
46
50
51
52
56
57
63
80

83
84

S?
Sg
92

93
96

97

lOI

102
103

104



280057



INDEX.



Betting news, Obliteration of
Binding : home binderies...

orders and checking

Book exhibitions

Book selection : discarding

• literary aids ...

— — - local collections

Borrowers' registration : card system

Charging : card system and appliances

ledger system ...

Children's rooms ...

Collectors : chronological list of loo book collectors

Committee work

Cutting leaves of books

Delivery stations ...

Directories and time-tables, Accommodation for



Exhibitions of books

Information boards

Labelling, Book
Ladies' rooms

Magazines : display. Closed method .

methods of filing ...

preparation for the tables.

Music: binding of part music ...

Newsroom methods

Phrases used in library work

Reference department : plans and arrangement

subject hunting

Registration of borrowers : card system
Reserved books



Showcases for books
Staff conferences ...

; relations between staff and

time sheets ...

Stamping books

Stock book...

Students' supplementary tickets

Terms used in library work
Time sheets for staff



readers



Page.

7
46

39
32

34
96

19

87

I, 57
10
29

63
102

56



83

32

25

15
26

38

lOI

103
6

97
104

12

52

87
92

18, 45
30

84
80

51
8

93



104
So



LIBRARY ECONOMICS.



1. Card Charging and Appliances, [ist notice.]

Many varieties of card charging systems are in existence, the application
of which varies in different localities. Some libraries use an indicator
for fiction and cards for other classes, while others adopt card charging
for all classes.

The fundamental principle of the system is that each book or
work shall be represented by a movable card, kept either in numerical
sequence in trays, or in pockets in the books themselves, when the
books are not on loan. \Vhen the books are issued the book-cards are
withdrawn from their position and placed in separate trays behind date
and other guides, either by themselves or in conjunction with the
borrowers' cards according to the practice in vogue at the library.
Some libraries adopt the system of retaining the borrower's card when
he has a book in his possession, others allow him to keep his card at
all times.

The practice to be described is where the borrowers' cards are
retained. The difference in procedure where the opposite obtains will
be obvious.

The card charging system most in vogue in open access libraries
is what may be called the loose pocket principle. Each book (or set in
the case of fiction) is represented by a card, some 4" X 2" in size, usually
of the manilla card or other tough substance variety, ruled as follows : —



4216 B.



160



MILL, J. S.



System of



Logic.



5731



A1857 25/6



Fkokt.



Back.



At the left-hand side of the first line on the front of the card are
entered the charging number and class letter of the volume. The
accession number, if different, should also be entered, but less con-
spicuously, say following the title as shown. If considered necessary
the location number may also be entered on the right-hand side of the
top line ; the author's name and title of work on the lines following.
The columns ruled below are for the entry of borrowers' numbers and
dates of issue.

The borrowers' cards may be of the same material as the book
cards, and ruled in the same manner, but carrying borrower's number
and name and address on the top lines, and the numbers of the books
taken by the borrower and the dates of their issue entered in the
columns below. The borrowers' cards should be less in height than
the book cards, say 3I" X 2", so that when the cards are placed together
in the pockets the top portion of the book card carrying the book
number will project above the borrowers' card. This form of borrowers'
card, giving a double entry of the issue of a book, seems to be a rather
unnecessary refinement. In the case of a wrong book card being with-
drawn either when a book is issued or returned, the double entry will
not prove more efficacious as a means of tracing or rectifying the error
than will the use of the single entry on the book card alone.



A 1857.



SMITH, JOHN,

I, Jubilee Terrace,

Pretoria Road.



This card expires.



Change of address should be ivi-
mediately notified.

In a case of' infectious disease
notice should be immediately given
and the books returned, or handed
over to the medical officer.

Fines for overdues, id. per week
first fortnight overdue, 2d. per week
afterwards.



The simpler and more useful plan is to have borrowers' cards of
the cloth-covered variety, giving particulars of the borrowers' number,
name and address, showing when card expires, and giving in brief such
particulars as space will allow of the most generally useful rules and
regulations in force, such as fines and penalties, change of address
notification, etc. A specimen of such card is shown on page 2.

The loose pockets used for conjoining the book and borrowers
cards are of this form : —




The cards are kept in trays, of which various forms exist, and
diagrams of a very suitable and common variety will be found in
Brown's "Manual of Library Economy," 1907, p. 340.

The modus operandi is : where the book cards for works " in "
are kept in numerical sequence in trays, a borrower finding on the
shelves a book he wishes to borrow brings the same to the issue counter
and hands it, together with his card, to the assistant, who opens the
book at the front cover and ascertains its charging number from the
label pasted inside the front board (this label should also contain
extracts from the rules, giving the time allowed for reading and other
essential particulars of use to the borrower). He then withdraws the
book card from its place in the sequence, places it (together with the
borrower's card) in one of the loose pockets at hand, stamps the date of
issue on the date label, which is pasted by one edge to the end paper
facing the label on the front board, hands the book back to the
borrower and allows him to pass out. The conjoined cards in the
loose pocket appear on the following page.

The cards are then placed on one side either in a sorting tray, if
one is used, or in one of the ordinary trays placed for the purpose, and
the necessary entries are made on the book cards as convenience serves.






^ 4216 B.


160


1 Mill, J. S.




i A1S57.




i SMITH,


JOHN,




>>. 1 errace.


V





Portion of
Book Card
showing.



Portion of
.Borrower's
Card
showing.



!■ Pocket.



In each division should be placed the cards for the books issued
in the different classes, A, B, C, D, etc. The cards being so placed,
some little time will be saved when statistics of issues are being com-
piled. Cards for fiction will of necessity require to be frequently
removed and placed in an ordinary tray, as the issues of such works so
largely preponderate.

At the end of the day or first thing next morning the cards are
arranged in numerical order in the trays, date guides and guides
indicating the 100 or 1,000 divisions of the numbers projecting above
the cards being inserted in their places, and the trays placed at the return
end of the counter.

The guides, date and other, are made in various forms, and of
different materials, such as enamelled steel, xylonite, vulcanized fibre,
aluminium and cardboard, but generally speaking the fibre guides are
cheapest, lightest and best.

These guides are attached to the rods in the bottoms of the trays
by means of hooks at the bottom. Fines guides can be allowed to
rest on the rods instead of being engaged ; they will thus be thrown
up a little and show more prominently, and be the more easily seen.

On the return of a book the assistant ascertains its number from
the label inside the front board and the date of issue from the date
label facing it, and is thus directed to the exact position of the cards in
the trays. These cards are then withdrawn, the borrower's card
handed to him, and he is allowed to pass into the library if he requires
another book, or, if not, he walks out in possession of his card, which
he will have to produce on his next visit before he is permitted to enter
to choose a book



The book cards belonging to the returned volumes are replaced
in their sequence in the trays as quickly as possible, and the books,
saving such as require repairs or rebinding, are then available for le-issue.
It should be noted that overdues automatically declare themselves.

In connection with this system of keeping cards for books " in "
in trays one objection will arise, at least in a busy library. Some delay
must necessarily occur in the replacement of cards for returned books
in their sequence, particularly at a time when a rush is on. At such
times the insertion of the cards will require the whole attention of one
assistant, and a deft and careful one too at that.

Notes or slips may be made use of should books be re-issued
before their cards are replaced, but this will prove to be a prolific
source of error.

The better plan, to ensure as far as possible absolute accuracy in
charging, is to have the returned books, together with their cards,
handed over to the responsible assistant in batches, with the under-
standing that no book is to be issued until its card is in its place.

Though the practice of keeping the cards for books "in " in trays
may tend to some amount of delay in the re-issue of returned books as
indicated above, one great point can be urged in its favour, viz., that
the cards being kept together in sequence they act as an indicator,
showing which books are in and which out. This is of great advantage
where enquiry is made for a certain book which cannot be found
by looking in its location on the shelves. By looking up its number
in the sequence it can be definitely ascertained whether it is " in "
or "out."

Another method of working this system is to have the cards for
books " in " kept in pockets in the books themselves, such pockets
being pasted inside the front board below the label bearing charging
and location numbers. This plan undoubtedly makes the work of
issue very much simpler, easier, and quicker. All that is necessary is
to open the front board, stamp the date of issue on the date label,
withdraw the card from its pocket, place it (together with the borrower's
card) in one of the loose pockets, hand the book back to the borrower
and pass him out. In all other respects the system is the same as
described above.

This method, though faciliting the work of issue, is open to the
objection that the cards being distributed and not kept in sequence in
trays they cannot be used as an indicator to show what books are in.
To ascertain definitely whether a given work which is not in its place
on the shelves is "out " a search through the cards in the issue trays is
necessary. Such searches are tedious and devour time, though it is
doubtful whether the time so spent will equal the amount spent in the
finding and withdrawal of cards for books issued from their sequence
in the trays under the first method. One hundred books will be issued
where perhaps only one enquiry will be made, so the balance would
appear to be in favour of the card-in-book system.

F. C. Cole, Huddersfield,



2. The Binding of Part Music. The full musical scores

of the works of great composers are inconvenient for library circulation
by reason of their orchestral purpose, being published in parts for
divers instruments. To bind them together in one volume would,
obviously, be absurd, as then only one person would be able to make
use of it at a time, whilst the work may be intended for one, two, three,
four or more separate instruments. To bind them all separately in
ordinary library trappings would be equally undesirable, for in the
majority of instances individual parts rarely comprise more than a
dozen to fifteen pages. This would be a wanton waste of public money
considering the limited circulation such works must have. Limp cloth
binding for each part may be suggested; but every practical librarian is
aware that limp wrappers for any volume, and more especially for thin
folios, are unsuited for upright shelving. Where they are constantly
being handled and tumbled down, if merely by assistants, they may be
damaged and distorted beyond further use without having left the
building.

Realizing all these difficulties it has been the custom hitherto to
put orchestral music into circulation by slipping the parts, as issued by
the publisher, into folio cases. This answers the purpose fairly well in
institutions w^here there is little call for such matter ; but even here it
may be objected that the folios are unsightly and the borrowers do not
appreciate them, for it must be remembered that people who seek
diversion in classical music are persons of extreme artistic temperament.
I am convinced by observation that for this reason alone the possible
issue return is much minimized.

In libraries with a large musical clientele the cases are, however,
very unsatisfactory for practical reasons, and great advantage is gained
by adopting the method which I will now detail.

In most orchestral works there is a paramount instrument, the
score for which attains a moderate thickness, varying between fifteen
and sixty pages, sometimes even exceeding this. This part is capable
of satisfactory binding, and is accordingly stitched into leather boards.
A pocket is constructed on the inside back cover to contain the
remaining parts. These are bound in limp cloth wrappers with the
name of the part lettered on the front. It is essential to strong binding
that the original part is backed up with sufficient abortive or defoHated
binding to cover the space occupied by these in the pocket, otherwise,
by the absence of the support usually imparted by contact with the
after board, it is liable to become loose in the stitchhig.

A point to be remembered is that when the music supplies a real
want, as it certainly does in some libraries, the parts, even if initially
put in the case, will have to be bound sooner or later ; and music,
above all literature, is open to severe mutilation if not supported by
adequate wrappers, rendering subsequent binding of doubtful utility.

The chief points gained by immediate binding are as follows :
upright and neat shelving with consequent improvement in accessibility
to titles and individual volumes ; facilitation in the matter of inspecting
the music itself, tied cases being an unnecessary encumbrance to rapid



examination ; the ready detection of pilferings ; opening the wrong end
of the volume — by a mistake of course — gives the desired information
without ostentation (with folios secured by strings it savours of arrogant
effrontery to open the flap and count the enclosed parts, besides the
loss of time if one is busy) ; and, finally, one hardly needs to mention the
wearing value of leather covers compared with linen or buckram cases.

Arthur J. Hawkes, Bournemouth.

3. Obliteration of Betting News. One of the most

perplexing problems which has occupied library authorities of recent
years is the question of the obliteration of betting news land the best
way of doing it) from the daily papers, etc., brought about by the
nuisance caused by crowds of undesirables, who throng the newsrooms
daily and make it difficult for quiet and orderly readers to use these
places.

Several methods have been adopted and on the whole have led to
satisfactory results. Blacking-out by means of a roller and stencil ink
is performed in some libraries. This is not by any means the best way,
for the papers on the newspaper stands, covered with these black
patches tend to give the room a very unsightly appearance. During
the winter months the obliteration of the betting is very slight ; but in
the summer when the racing season is at its height, it is neces-
sary at times to cover whole pages. Again, the stencil ink takes time
to dry, and as it is imperative the papers should be placed on the
stands almost immediately they are received from the newsagent, the
consequence is, the reading matter on the pages opposite the obliterated
portions becomes smudged. A few libraries use a roller stamp covered
with the name of the institution, or the words " obliterated by order of
the council." The roller is inked on a self-inking pad, and then run up
and down the racing news until the printed matter is unreadable.
Other authorities obliterate the sporting information by means of
gummed paper cut into strips corresponding in width to the newspaper
columns. Papers such as the Times, Manchester Guardian and Daily
Telegraph, by virtue of their tougher quaUty, gummed on one side and
cut into strips are admirably suited for this purpose. An excellent
opaque gummed paper can be had from Messrs. Samuel Jones & Co.,
56, Carter Lane, E.C. Many qualities are to be obtained from this
firm ; but the one to be specially recommended is the " Silurian Extra
Fine" gummed paper, which costs los. per ream, demy. Experience has
proved the latter method by far the best in obliterating the betting
news. It is clean, expeditious, cheap, and does not affect in any way
the sale of the newspapers as wastepaper.

Aston Manor Public Library was about the first to black out
betting news, and a paper on this subject, by the librarian, appeared
some years ago in a volume of the Library.

In the Library Association Record iox January, 1907, is given 76
replies for and against the obliteration of betting news, together with
some fuller notes from librarians (which will be of special interest to



8

those studying the question) reprinted from a summary of returns
issued by Mr. Henry C. Folkard, Librarian, Wigan, in July, 1905.

The Library Assistant, for March, 1907, contains a very brief
account of a paper entitled " Blacking Out of Betting News " read at
a meeting of the Library Assistants' Association at Shoreditch on
February 13th, 1907, by Mr. H. C. Sawtell, of Wimbledon.

Thom.as Green, Shoreditch.

4. The Stock Book, in these days of the economy mania,
anything that tends to lower expenses in any way whatsoever, or to save
time, is considered good, and something in this respect may be effected
in connection with the library ledgers. Many of the statistical books
used in Public Libraries are quite unnecessary. We have accessions
routine books, accessions registers, stock books, shelfregisters, etc.,etc.,
and the author, title, and other details of a book are, in most cases, written
many times before it is put into circulation. Then, when books are
withdrawn from the shelves to be rebound, replaced, or for other
reasons, we have other books, and again we write the details of the
books several times. The waste of time and energy is deplorable.

Classification and indexing are very much in evidence at the
present time, and it is submitted that a stock book with an index,
supplemented by the shelf register and binding book, would give any
information concerning any book likely to be required. The ruling of
a stock book designed to contain these particulars is given below. An
alphabetical index could be bound in at the end, or made into a
separate volume.

Verso.



Stock

No.

(New)


Stock

No.

(Rep.)


Class 'n

No.


Vols.
Pur.
Vols.
Pres.


Title.


Author.


Date

of

Pub'n


Date
Rec.





















Recto.



Donor

or
Vendor.


Price.


Date
With-
drawn.


Date
Lost or

Des-
troyed.


Date
Re-
placed.


Discar-
ded or
"O.P."
Rep.

Page.


Bind-
ing.

Book
Page


Remarks.































_



























9

Separate stock books will be required for the lending and reference
departments, and when books are purchased separate invoices for each
department will be necessary. The stock book numbers must not be
printed, but written as required. These numbers will be also the
accession numbers, the charging numbers, and, if the books in
the library are arranged on the ancient system of numerical sequence
they become in addition the shelf numbers. I have, however,
allowed in the ruling for a classification number, in the hope that
it will be used.

When books are added, they will be entered in the stock book in
invoice order, the price of each book being written in the left-hand
cash column, and the net totals of the invoices in the right-hand
column. In the case of " subject " books, the deduction of discount
can be shown in the "remarks" column. When the books are
classified, the classification number will, of course, be written in the
proper column. This completes the work of entering additions.

With regard to donations, after the "undesirables" are sorted out,
the remainder will be entered in the stock book, the volumes being
marked in the " presentations " column, and the donor's name written
in the proper place. Under "D" in the index a list of donors will be
kept. Here will be entered the donor's name, his address, and the
numbers of the pages containing the details of the donation (see illus.).
If thought necessary to keep a record of the volumes rejected, a list can
be made on foolscap and filed. It will probably never be wanted.

Index.



Donor's
Name.


Address.


Page.


Donor's
Name.


Address.


D

Page.















Withdrawals can be dealt with by simply writing in the column
provided for the purpose the dates the books were taken out of
circulation. As they are withdrawn, the authors, titles, numbers,
publishers, and prices can be written on separate cards. These cards
can be kept in a tray, and orders issued at various intervals. When
the replacements are delivered, they should each be given the same
number as the copy withdrawn, and the date of delivery put in the
"replacement" column of the stock book.

A book discarded, or out of print, to be replaced by a different


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