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had heard nothing from them. I should have hastened there
immediately if there had been an opportunity of doing so; but I was
obliged to wait till the next day, as the steamer did not start till
then. I made arrangements to go by it, and then took a cicerone to
show me all the objects of interest in the town, more for diversion
than pleasure.

My fate had been very unfortunate; twelve days I had patiently
endured being shut up in the lazaretto at AEgina, in order to be
able to see the classic country, and now I was so anxious to leave
it that I had neither rest nor peace.

Athens, the capital of the former State of Attica, is said to have
been founded in the year 1300, fourteen hundred years before Christ,
by Cecrops, from whom it then took the name of Cecropia, which in
after-times was retained only by the castle: under Eriktonius the
town was named "Athens." The original town stood upon a rock in the
centre of a plain, which was afterwards covered with buildings; the
upper part was called the "Acropolis," the lower the "Katopolis;"
only a part of the fortress, the famous Acropolis, remains on the
mountain, where the principal works of art of Athens stand. The
principal feature was the temple of Minerva, or the Parthenon; even
its ruins excite the astonishment of the world. The building is
said to have been 215 feet long, ninety-seven feet broad, and
seventy feet high; here stood the statue of Minerva, by Phidias.
This masterly work was executed in gold and ivory; its height was
forty-six feet, and it is said to have weighed more than 2000
pounds. Fifty-five columns of the entrance to the temple still
remain, as well as parts of enormous blocks of marble which rest
upon them, and belonged to the arches and roof.

This temple was destroyed by the Persians, and was again restored
with greater beauty by Pericles, about 440 years after the birth of
Christ.

There are some fine remains of the temples of Minerva and Neptune,
and the extent of the amphitheatre can still be seen; there is but
little of the theatre of Bacchus remaining.

Outside the Acropolis stands the temple of Theseus and that of
Jupiter Olympus; the one on the north, the other on the south side.
The former is in the Doric style, and is surrounded by thirty-six
fine columns. On the metope are represented the deeds of Theseus in
beautiful reliefs. The interior of the temple is full of fine
sculptures, epitaphs, and other works in stone, most of which belong
to the other temples, but are collected here. Outside the temple
stand several marble seats which have been brought from the
neighbouring Areopagus, the former place of assembly for the
patricians. Of the Areopagus itself nothing more is to be seen than
a chamber cut out of the rock, to which similarly cut steps lead.

Of the temple of Jupiter Olympus so much of the foundation-walls
still remain as to show what its size was; there are also sixteen
beautiful columns, fifty-eight feet in height. This temple, which
was completed by Hadrian, is said to have exceeded in beauty and
magnificence all the buildings of Athens. The exterior was
decorated by one hundred and twenty fluted columns six feet in
diameter and fifty-nine in height. The gold and ivory statue of
Jupiter was, like that of Minerva, the production of the masterly
hand of Phidias. All the temples and buildings were of pure white
marble.

Not far from the Areopagus is the Pnyx, where the free people of
Athens met in council. Of this nothing more remains than the
rostrum, hewn in the rock, and the seat of the scribe. What
feelings agitate the mind when it is remembered what men have stood
there and spoke from that spot!

It was with sadness that I examined the cave near here where
Socrates was imprisoned and poisoned. Above this memorable grotto
stands a plain monument erected in memory of Philopapoe.

The Turks surrounded the Acropolis with a broad wall, in the
building of which they made use of many fragments of columns and
other remains of the most beautiful temples.

No remnants of antiquity are to be seen in the old town of Athens
except the Tower of the Winds, or, as others call it, Diogenes'
Lantern, a small temple in the form of an octagon, covered with fine
sculpture; also the monument of Lysicrates. This consists of a
pedestal, some columns, and a dome in the Corinthian style.

The chapel Maria Maggiore, is said to have been built by the
Venetians, 700 years after Christ. Its greatest peculiarity is that
it was the first Christian church in Athens.

The view of the whole country from the Acropolis is also very
interesting; there can be seen the Hymetos, the Pentelikon, towards
Eleusis, Marathon, Phylae, and Dekelea, the harbour, the sea, and
the course of the Ilissus.

Athens contains a considerable number of houses, most of which are,
however, small and unimportant; the beautiful country-houses, on the
contrary, surrounded by tasty gardens, have a very agreeable
appearance.

The small observatory was built by Baron Sina, the well-known banker
in Vienna, who is by birth a Greek.

The royal palace, which is of modern date, is built of brilliant
white marble, in the form of a large quadrangle. On two sides,
which occupy a large part of the breadth of the wings, under a
peristyle, is a kind of small porch which rests upon pillars. The
one approach is for the ministers, ambassadors, etc., the other for
the royal family. With the exception of these two peristyles, the
whole building is very tasteless, and has not the least ornament;
the windows are in the ordinary form; and the high large walls
appear so naked, bare, and flat, that even the dazzling white of the
beautiful marble produces no effect; and it is only on a close
approach that it can be seen what a costly material has been
employed in the building.

I regretted having seen this palace, especially opposite to the
Acropolis, on a spot which has made its works of art as classic as
its heroes.

The palace is surrounded by a rather pretty though recently-formed
garden. In the front stand a few palms, which have been brought
from Syria, but they bear no fruit. The country is otherwise barren
and naked.

The marble of which this palace is built, as well as the temples and
other buildings on the Acropolis, is obtained from the quarries of
the neighbouring mountain, Pentelikon, where the quantity of this
beautiful stone is so great that whole towns might be built of it.

It was Sunday, and the weather was very fine, {335} to which I was
indebted for seeing all the fashionable world of Athens, and even
the Court, in the open promenade. This place is a plain avenue, at
the end of which a wooden pavilion is erected. It is not decorated
by either lawns or flower-beds. The military bands play every
Sunday from five to six. The King rides or drives with his Queen to
this place to show himself to the people. This time he came in an
open carriage with four horses, and stopped to hear several pieces
of music. He was in Greek costume; the Queen wore an ordinary
French dress.

The Greek or rather Albanian costume is one of the handsomest there
is. The men wear full frocks, made of white perkal, which reach
from the hips to the knees, buskins from the knee to the feet, and
shoes generally of red leather. A close-fitting vest of coloured
silk without arms, over a silk shirt, and over this another close-
fitting spencer of fine red, blue, or brown cloth, which is fastened
only at the waist by a few buttons or a narrow band, and lays open
at the top. The sleeves of the spencer are slit up, and are either
left loose or slightly held together by some cords round the wrists;
the collar of the shirt is a little turned over. The vest and
spencer are tastily ornamented with cords, tassels, spangles and
buttons of gold, silver or silk, according to the means of the
wearer. The material, colour and ornament of the Zaruchi correspond
with those of the spencer and vest. A dagger is generally worn in
the girdle, together with a pair of pistols. The head-dress is a
red fez, with a blue tassel.

The Greek dress is, as far as I saw, less worn by the women, and
even then much of its originality is lost. The principal part of
the dress consists of a French garment, which is open at the breast,
over this a close spencer is drawn on, which is also open, and the
sleeves wide and rather shorter than those of the gown. The front
edges of the gown and spencer are trimmed with gold lace. The women
and girls wear on their head a very small fez, which is bound round
with rose or other coloured crape.

24th October. I left Athens by the small steamer Baron Kubeck,
seventy-horse power, and went as far as Calamachi (twenty-eight
miles). Here I had to leave the ship and cross the Isthmus, three
English miles broad. At Lutrachi we went on board another vessel.

During the passage to Calamachi, which lasts only a few hours, the
little town of Megara is seen upon a barren hill.

Nothing is more unpleasant in travelling than changing the
conveyance, especially when it is a good one, and you can only lose
by doing so. We were in this situation. Herr Leitenberg was one of
the best and most attentive of all captains that I had ever met with
in my travels, and we were all sorry to have to leave him and his
ship. Even in Calamachi, where we remained this day and the
following, as the ship which was to carry us on from Lutrachi did
not arrive, on account of contrary winds, until the 25th, he
attended to us with the greatest politeness.

The village of Calamachi offers but little of interest, the few
houses have only been erected since the steamers plied, and the
tolerably high mountains on which it lies are for the most part
barren, or grown over with low brambles. We took several walks on
the Isthmus, and ascended minor heights, from whence on one side is
seen the gulf of Lepanto, and on the other the AEgean sea. In front
of us stood the large mountain, Akrokorinth, rising high above all
its companions. Its summit is embellished by a well-preserved
fortification, which is called the remains of the Castle of
Akrokorinth, and was used by the Turks in the last war as a
fortress. The formerly world-famous city of Corinth, after which
all the fittings of luxury and sumptuousness in the interior of
palaces were named, and which gave the name to a distinct order of
architecture, is reduced to a small town with scarcely a thousand
inhabitants, and lies at the foot of the mountain, in the midst of
fields and vineyards. It owes the whole of its present celebrity to
its small dried grapes, called currants.

It is said that no town of Greece had so many beautiful statues of
stone and marble as Corinth. It was upon this isthmus, which
consists of a narrow ridge of mountains, and is covered with dense
fig-groves, in which stood a beautiful temple of Neptune, were held
the various Isthmian games.

How greatly a people or a country may degenerate! The Grecian
people, at one time the first in the world, are now the furthest
behind! I was told by everyone that in Greece it was neither safe
to trust myself with a guide nor to wander about alone, as I had
done in other countries; indeed, I was warned here in Calamachi not
to go too far from the harbour, and to return before the dusk of the
evening.

26th October. We did not start from Lutrachi until towards noon, by
the steamer Hellenos, of one hundred and twenty-horse power.

We anchored for a few hours in the evening near Vostizza, the
ancient AEgion, now an unimportant village, at the foot of a
mountain.

27th October, Patras. That portion of Greece which I had already
seen was neither rich in beauty, well cultivated, nor thickly
inhabited. Here were, at least, plains and hills covered with
meadows, fields, and vineyards. The town, on the Gulf of Lepanto,
was formerly an important place of trade; and before the breaking
out of the Greek revolution in 1821, contained 20,000 inhabitants;
it has now only 7,000. The town is defended by three fortresses,
one of which stands upon a hill, and two at the entrance of the
harbour. The town is neither handsome nor clean, and the streets
are narrow. The high mountains pleased me better; and their chain
can be followed for a considerable distance.

I saw grapes here whose beauty and size induced me to buy some; but
I found them so hard, dry, and tasteless, that I did not even
venture to give them to a sailor, but threw them into the sea.

28th October. Corfu is the largest of the Ionian Islands, which
formerly belonged to Greece, and lie at the entrance to the Adriatic
sea. Corfu, the ancient Corcyra, has been subject to England since
1815.

The town of Corfu is situated in a more beautiful and fertile
country than Patras, and is far larger. It contains 18,000
inhabitants. Adjoining the town are two romantic peaks of rock,
with strong fortified works, upon which stand the telegraph and the
lighthouse. Both are surrounded by artificial ditches, with draw-
bridges leading across. The immediate environs of the town, as well
as the whole island, are rich in delightful groves of olive and
orange trees.

The town contains handsome houses and streets, with the exception of
the bye-streets, which are remarkably crooked and not very clean.
At the entrance of the town stands a large covered stone hall, in
which on one side are the stalls of the butchers; on the other,
those of the fishermen. In the open space in front are exposed the
choicest vegetables and most beautiful fruits. The theatre presents
a very pretty appearance; it would seem, from the sculptures upon
it, to have been used for a church. The principal square is large
and handsome; it is intersected by several avenues, and one side
faces the sea. The palace of the English governor stands here; a
fine building in the Grecian-Italian style.

The famous and much-visited church of St. Spiridion is but small; it
contains many oil-paintings, some are good specimens of the old
Italian School. In a small dark chapel at the furthest end of the
church lies, in a silver sarcophagus, the body of St. Spiridion, who
is held in great veneration by the Ionians. The chapel is always
full of devotees who tenderly kiss the sarcophagus.

On the 29th of October we saw the low mountain-country of Dalmatia,
and on the 30th I entered Trieste, whence I hastened on to Vienna
the day following. I was obliged to pass several days in the
greatest anxiety before the town, as it had been taken by storm on
the last day of October and was not opened until the 4th of
November. It was not until I had seen that all my relations were
safe that I was able to return thanks with a grateful heart to the
good Providence which, in all my dangers and troubles, had so
remarkably protected and preserved me in health and strength. With
equal gratitude I remembered those people who had treated me with
such kindness, had so disinterestedly received me, and through whose
help I had been enabled to overcome the frequent great hardships and
difficulties I encountered.

From my readers I hope for a charitable judgment upon my book, which
in simple language describes what I have experienced, seen and felt,
and makes no higher pretension than that of being sincere and
trustworthy.



NOTES.



{9} The sextant is a mathematical instrument by which the different
degrees of longitude and latitude are determined, and the hour
known. The chronometers also are set by it. In order to find the
latitude the ship is in, an observation is taken at noon, but only
when the sun shines. This last is absolutely necessary, since it is
from the shadow cast upon the figures of the instrument that the
reckoning is made. The longitude can be determined both morning and
afternoon, as the sun, in this case, is not necessary.

{11} The heat does not require to be very great in order to melt the
pitch in a ship's seams. I have seen it become soft, and form
bladders, when the thermometer stood at 81.5 in the sun.

{12} Every four hours the state of the wind, how many miles the
vessel has made, in fact, every occurrence, is noted down in the log
with great exactitude. The captain is obliged to show this book to
the owners of the ship at the conclusion of the voyage.

{13} Some years ago a sailor made an attempt to scale the Sugarloaf.
He succeeded in attaining the summit, but never came down again.
Most likely he made a false step and was precipitated into the sea.

{14} The worthy Lallemand family received her, a few days after her
arrival into their house.

{23a} The princess was three weeks old.

{23b} Rockets and small fireworks are always let off at every
religious festival, some before the church, and others at a short
distance from it. The most ludicrous part of the affair is, that
this is always done in open day.

{27} They are differently paid, according to what they can do. The
usual hire of a maid-servant is from ten to twelve shillings per
month; for a cook, twenty-four to forty; for a nurse, thirty-eight
to forty; for a skilful labourer, fifty to seventy.

{34a} Truppa is a term used to designate ten mules driven by a
negro; in most instances a number of truppas are joined together,
and often make up teams or caravans of 100 or 200 mules. Everything
in the Brazils is conveyed upon mules.

{34b} A cord, with a noose at the end; the native inhabitants of
South America use it so skilfully that they catch the most savage
animals with it.

{38} Fazenda is equivalent to our word "plantation."

{39} Kabi is African grass, which is planted all over the Brazils,
as grass never grows there of its own accord. It is very high and
reed-like.

{40} Rost (roaster) is employed to denote partly a strip of low
brushwood, partly the place where a wood has stood previously to
being burnt.

{42} All through Brazil, carna secca is one of the principal
articles of food, both for whites and blacks. It comes from Buenos
Ayres, and consists of beef cut into long, thin, broad stripes,
salted and dried in the open air.

{47} Under the term "whites," are included not only those Europeans
who have lately immigrated, but also the Portuguese, who have been
settled in the country for centuries.

{50} This wholesome plant grows very commonly in the Brazils.

{53} In the southern hemisphere the seasons, as regards the months,
are exactly the contrary to what they are in the northern. For
instance, when it is winter on one side of the Equator it is summer
on the other, etc.

{55} Maroon negroes are those negroes who have run away from their
masters. They generally collect in large bands, and retire into the
recesses of the virgin forests, whence, however, they often emerge
to steal and plunder; their depredations are not unfrequently
accompanied by murder.

{59} The Rio Plata is one of the largest rivers in Brazil.

{60} Other captains assured me that it was only possible for men-of-
war to pass through the Straits of Magellan, as the passage requires
a great number of hands. Every evening the ship must be brought to
an anchor, and the crew must constantly be in readiness to trim or
reef the sails, on account of the various winds which are always
springing up.

{62} The glass sank in the day-time to 48 and 50 degrees, and at
night to 28 degrees below Zero.

{73} All the Indians are Christians (Protestants), but I fear only
in name.

{76} Elephantiasis, in this country, generally shows itself in the
feet, and extends up as far as the calves of the legs. These
portions of the body, when so affected, are greatly swollen, and
covered with scurf and blotches, so that they really might be taken
for those of an elephant.

{78} I purposely abstain from mentioning the names of any of the
gentlemen at Tahiti, a piece of reserve which I think entitles me to
their thanks.

{86} Up to the present period, Tahiti has produced nothing for
exportation, and therefore all vessels have to clear out in ballast.
The island is important to the French, as a port where their ships
in the Pacific may stop and refit.

{91a} The expense of living at an hotel in Macao, Victoria, and
Canton is from four to six dollars a-day (16s. to 24s.).

{91b} Carl Gutzlaff was born on the 8th of July, 1803, at Pyritz, in
Pomerania. As a boy he was distinguished for his piety and
extraordinary talent. His parents apprenticed him to a leather-
seller. In this capacity he was noted for his industry, although he
was far from contented with his position; and, in the year 1821, he
found an opportunity of presenting a poem, in which he expressed his
sentiments and wishes, to the King of Prussia. The king recognised
the talent of the struggling youth, and opened to him a career in
accordance with his inclination. In the year 1827 he proceeded as a
missionary to Batavia, and, at a later period, to Bintang, where he
applied himself with such assiduity to the study of Chinese, that in
the space of two years he knew it well enough to preach in it. In
December, 1831, he went to Macao, where he established a school for
Chinese children, and commenced his translation of the Bible into
Chinese. He founded, in conjunction with Morrison, a Society for
the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge in China, and edited a monthly
Chinese magazine, in which he endeavoured to interest the people
upon history, geography, and literature. In 1832 and 1833 he
penetrated as far as the province of Fo-Kien.

Gutzlaff's Travels have made us acquainted with several very
important facts connected with the different Chinese dialects, and
are also of great worth to other scientific points of view. They
are especially useful in enabling us to form a correct opinion as to
the merits of the works that have lately appeared on China; and
everyone must acknowledge his rare talent, must value his immovable
fixedness of purpose, and must admire his zealous perseverance in
the cause of science, and his unshaken belief in the principles of
his religion. (Dr. Gutzlaff died in November, 1851).

{93} All large vessels have two painted eyes let into the prow; with
these, as the Chinese believe, they are better able to find their
way.

{95} There is only one mail a month from Europe.

{101} When they copy a picture they divide it, like our own artists,
into squares.

{102a} A pikul of raw opium is worth about 600 dollars (120 pounds).

{102b} I had more especially reason to fear this latter
circumstance, as the people had given out that on the 12th or 13th
of August, at the latest, there would be a revolution, in which all
the Europeans would lose their lives. My state of mind may easily
be imagined, left, as I was, entirely alone with the Chinese
servants.

{103} One of the ports which were opened to the English in 1842.

{104} His costume was composed of a wide over-garment reaching to
the knees, and furnished with flowing arms, and, underneath this,
trousers of white silk. The upper garment was made of brocade of
very vivid colours and an extraordinary pattern. On his breast he
wore two birds as marks of his rank, and a necklace of precious
stones. His shoes, composed of black silk, were turned up into
points at the extremities. On his head he wore a conical velvet hat
with a gilt button.

{105} The reader must know that these animals are looked upon as
particularly sacred.

{108} The town of Canton is nine miles in circumference. It is the
residence of a Viceroy, and divided by walls into the Chinese and
the Tartar town. The population of the town itself is reckoned at
400,000, while it is calculated that 60,000 persons live in the
boats and schampans, and about 200,000 in the immediate vicinity.
The number of Europeans settled here is about 200.

{110} The Chinese adopt white for mourning.

{112} Noble Chinese ladies pass a much more secluded life than
Eastern women. They are allowed to visit one another very seldom,
and that only in well-closed litters. They have neither public
baths nor gardens in which they can meet.

{114} The leaves of this gathering are plucked with the greatest
care by children and young people, who are provided with gloves and
are bound to pick every leaf separately.

{116} 173 dollars the chief cabin, 117 the second (34 pounds 12s.
and 23 pounds 8s.)

{118} These steamers carry the mails, and make the voyage from
Canton to Calcutta once a month, touching at Singapore on their way.

{120a} Horses cannot be bred here; they have all to be imported.

{120b} The East India Company, to which the island belongs, have a



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