Ill.) American School (Lansing.

Cyclopedia of commerce, accountancy, business administration ... [microform] online

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handles the orders, the shrewd advertising manager wUl not relax
in his watchfulness of his employer's interests. He will maintain
just as complete a rate file, and watch the bills as closely as though
dealing direct with publishers.

The experienced advertiser plans his campaigns well in advance,
making annual appropriations for all advertising. This enables
the advertising manager to select mediums, determine the amount
to be used in each class, and prepare suitable copy for the different
publications.

This question of the preparation of copy for series of ads applies
especially to national campaigns and local advertising of a general
publicity nature. The advertising manager of a department store
is obliged to prepare newspaper copy daily, and at best can plan his
copy not more than two or three days in advance. In a national



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ADVERTISING AND SALES



21



campaign in which advertising is for direct returns, copy must be
tried oid and its character changed frequently. This does not mean
that, in any case, the same copy should be run indefinitely; it should
be changed in practically every issue. TVTiile following the general
style adopted for the house, there should be something new in every
issue — something that will attract and cause the reader to look for
the ad each month.

When the amount of the appropriation has been decided, a
schedule of the mediums to be used should be made. This schedule



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Fig. 13. Schedule of Monthly Insertions in Periodicals

should include the space to be used in each publication Indeed,
the schedule of mediums and space that it is desired to use, often
determines the appropriation. For a general publicity campaign,
this schedule can be made absolute, but when the advertising is for
direct returns, it should be elastic. Mediums which do not pay after
a fair trial, should be dropped, and there should be room in the
schedule for mediums not at first included. Changed conditions
may make it advisable to add a medium which previously has been
unprofitable.



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American School of Correspondence



Adverttotns Order
No.



Chicago, 111.,.



_19_



Publishers



Please Insert enclosed ad-
vertisement In space of_



lines )

Inches > Copy No..
( page )



Key No._



_ln your_



-Issue of_



This adTertlsement must NOT BE RKPEATEP without our order
This space to be billed to

% ^

Terms: (In cas« of qnesUon HOIjO ORDER and write us at once)



Position l*'*^^"*''*^^^ i

^*^^'"""1 ordered i



POSITIONS

Top of cohimn and wholly aloncside pure

frading: matter orfir^t loUowjnjj and wholly

alon^ide of pure reading matter.

Riffht-hand page, outside column.

Front of Magazine.

Back of Magazine.

Schools and Tolleires.

As stipulated in contract.

No two of our ads tc. appear on same or

oppjosite p»fic%. Mum not appear on fuck

of any other "ad" cootaininic a coupon or

Cor. School "ad."

Classified.



-Oondltlons^

see below

CONDITIONS
AdTertlsementfl tniut have our
O. K. before Insertion. Bill wlU
not be approved otherwise, un-
ices proof waived by us.

Key number of electrotype <or copy, if set
matter) nmst correspond with Key i
•bove before inserting:.



Send-



proofs.



THIS ORDER can l>e DISCONTINUED or <;AN€EL.£.ED at any time
by paying for SPACE USED at the rates In force at the date of order.
ADDITIONAL SPACE pro rata. REBATE to be given If total space
or insertions In one year earn additional DISCOUNTS. WE RESERVE
THE RIGHT to change copy at any time.

mDnDTAIIT It is a condition of this order that OUR NAME and ad-
IRIr UnlARI dress be immediately placed upon your mailing list so
1 that wo will receive your publication regularly. This will
Insure prompt settlement of your bill.



Original Cut No

Electrotype No

Delivered by J J^^^^Johs I ^" "«^
In perfect condition hold order
and send for new cut.)



Yours truly,

American School of Correspondence



Fig. 14. Order Blank Used for Ordering Insertions of Advertising Copy



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ADVERTISING AND SALES 23

The advertiser who advertises for direct inquiries or orders,
usually finds it necessary to revise his schedule monthly, basing each
schedule on previous results. That he may act intelligently, he must
have an exact record of past results. A convenient form for the
monthly schedule is shown in Fig. 13, which is printed on a sheet
punched for filing in a loose-leaf binder.

Previous results from each publication on each class of goods
is shown in respect to inquires, amount of sales, and cost of the ad-
vertising. In the three columns at the right of the space for each ad,
cost of each, and total cost are shown.

Separate sheets are used for popular magazines, trade papers,
and newspapers. When copy has been sent, the sheets are placed in
a loose-leaf binder, the full schedule for each month being in one place
where it can be readily referred to.

Orders for Insertion. When an agency is employed, the agency
usually sends copy and orders for insertion to the publisher; though
some advertisers prefer to send copy direct, leaving the agency to
send orders for insertion. It usually happens, too, that some orders
are sent direct instead of through the agency. One large advertiser
follows the practice of sending orders direct to those publishers who
do not allow agency commissions, all others going through the
agency.

If orders are to be sent direct, a special advertising order blank
should be' provided. This order should specify to the last detail the
conditions of the order. A blank, which is self-explanatory, is shown
in Fig. 14. The order is made in duplicate and the copy is filed under
the name of the publication.

Checking Returns. A necessity to the advertising department
is an efficient system of checking and recording returns from adver-
tising. Without a checking system on which he can depend, the
advertising manager is spending his employer's money blindly — he
does not know what he is getting for it.

The first requirement in devising a system is a method of keying
ads, that inquiries or orders may be identified and credited to the
proper mediums. Keying systems there are without number — to
describe all of them would retjuire a lK>ok the size of this one — but
those most commonly used are adaptations in one form or another,
of the idea of changing the address.



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ADVERTISING AND SALES 25

One of the oldest methods is to use a department number or
letter in the address, changing the number in each publication in
which the ad appears — the address in one would be Dept. A; in an-
other, Dept, B. This method is used successfully by some advertisers,
but it has its objections. Most people realize that no concern is so
large that an inquiry will not reach the proper department. If, for
example, an inquiry in response to a beef extract ad, addressed to
Swift & Co., failed to reach the beef extract department, it would
indicate a very lax system of handling correspondence.

Changing street numbers, room numbers, or postoffice box
numbers, is another connnon method of keying. This can be operated
successfully by notifying the local postal authorities that all mail is
to be delivered at one number, regardless of the address.

An adaptation of the number key, which can be used to advan-'
tage for a small number of publications, is a combination of numbers
representing publications and dates. First, the publications are
numbered, these numbers being used as the first part of the address.
To the publication number is added the number of the month or week
of publication. To illustrate :

Suppose that the Technical World in
No. 5 on the list and the ad is run in
October. The key number would be
510 — 5 standing for the publication and 10
for the month. All replies with that ad-
dress would be credited to the Technical
World for October.

In using this system it is necessary to use some figure — ^usually
— ^for a repeater to avoid confusion; No. 112 might mean publica-
tion No. 1, month No. 12, or publication No. 11, month No. 2. By
adding a naught after the publication No., confusion is avoided —
1102 would mean No. 11, 2nd month, 10012 would indicate No. 10,
12th month. The system can be further varied by using N.^ S.,E.,
and W., or by substituting Ave. for St. or vice versd, '

When readers are requested to ask for catalogs or otfier priv^ted
matter, the numbers by which these are known to the reader caa be
used for the key — as bulletin A, bulletin B, etc.

For either direct inquiries or orders one of the mort popular
and satisfactory keying systems is to use a coupon, indicating the



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ADVERTISING AND SALES 21

publication and month in the coupon — T W 11 printed in small
type in the coupon would mean Technical World for November.

A coupon to be filled in offers the reader a convenient means of
answering the ad, and this has a tendency to induce a larger number
of replies. Few people will fail to use the coupon or the address
given A certain very large advertiser, who uses the coupon, states
that less than one per cent of his replies are without means of identifica-
tion; either the coupon is used or the name of the magazine is men-
tioned.

To make their checking systems as nearly perfect as possible,
some advertisers write to all readers who fail to use the key, request-
ing them to state where the ad was seen. Some enclose a pastal for
the reply, others enclose a printed slip, on which the magazines used
are listed, to be checked and returned.

A reasonable expense is justified to find out where replies do
come from, for it is as much to the advertiser's interest to continue
the use of all profitable mediums as to drop the unprofitable ones.
Many of the most successful advertisers, however, consider it safe
to distribute unidentified replies pro rata, basing the distribution on
the number of keyed replies — that is, if 30 per cent of all keyed replies
can be traced to the Technical World, that magazine will be credited
with 30 per cent of all unidentified replies.

WTien the mail is opened all replies should be sorted by key
numbers, inquiries and orders separated. Then the total number
of inquiries, and number and amount of orders from each publica-
tion should be ascertained and credited.

For recording credits a form, similar to the one shown in Fig. 15,
should be used. This may be on a card or in loose leaf. A card is
used for each ad, in each publication — that is, if there are seven
insertions in the Technical World in one year, seven record cards
will be used — one for each insertion. These cards or sheets are to
be filed under the names of the publications.

On the back of the card the form shown in Fig. 16, is printed.
This provides for a daily record of sales resulting from the inquiries
recorded on the face, or from the ad if it calls for direct orders. These
forms supply all necessary data for a complete statistical record for
each publication. Too much time would be required to look through
all of these cards every time information is desired about a given pub-



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ADVERTISING AND SALES



29



lication; a more condensed record of total results should be provided.
All of the information of practical value can be combined with
a record of insertions on the form shown in Fig. 17, using a sheet for
each publication. The record includes the date of order, space, sub-
ject, copy No., cut No., dates of insertion, checking, and proofreading,
the date and amount of bill, and the number, amount, and average



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FIk. 1 s. Pally Record of 8ale« of Advertised Goods In a Retail Store

cost of sales. The record of sales should be entered monthly from
the detail record.

These sheets are filed in a loose-leaf binder, indexed alpha-
betically under the names of the publications. One sheet will accom-
modate the full yearly schedule for a monthly or weekly publication.

Retctil Advertising Returns. To check returns from retail ad-
vertising is quite a different problem from checking returns from
keyed ads in monthly magazines. There are no keys, and no mail
inquiries to be traced. But a record of general results is very desir-



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ADVERTISING AND SALES



able, and it is possible to obtain records which will, at least, indicate
the increase in sales due to advertising.

Results of retail advertising must be measured by comparison ;
if a department store advertises handkerchiefs as a leader for Tuesday,
all handkerchief sales for that day would not be due to the adver-
tising, but it is legitimate to credit advertising with any increase over
normal sales. If correct sales records are kept, it will be possible to
tell the ^xact amount of handkerchief sales for that and every other
day in the year. . _ _



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Fig. 19. Detailed Record of the Shipment of Street Car Cards

A close check on returns can also be obtained by requiring each
sales person to put a distinguishing mark of some kind on sales for
advertised articles. Proofs of the day's ads, showing the articl<es
advertised in the department, should be mounted on cards and hung
in each department, that the sales person may know when advertised
goods are sold. If made large enou^, the card can be ruled for a
tally of sales, and each sale of advertised goods tallied.

There should be an office record showing the results of adver-
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cannot be used, for the weather, and unusual events calculated to
increase the crowds in town, must be considered. To-day's sales
of an advertised article, with unfavorable weather conditions, prob-
ably will not equal the sales of the same article one year ago, which was
circus day. If daily records, similar to that provided in the form
shown in Fig. 18, are kept, they will soon become very valuable to
the advertising department of any retail store.



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DETAILS <>f CONTRACT


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Fig. 20. Reco»xi of Street Car Contract and Net Costs



STREET CAR ADVERTISINQ

Street car advertising is of a general publicity nature. It is
intended, not to secure direct orders, but to influence sales by keep-
ing the name of a commodity before the public. It is local in its
effects, influencing sales only in the cities in which the cards are used.

Street car advertising is now controlled by a small number of
agencies, who own the space in the cars in the different cities through-
out the country. Through one of these agencies, contracts can be
made for space in street ca»rs in any city in the country.



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m ADVERTISING AND SALfiS

The rate for street car advertising is based primarily on popula*
tion, the circulation consisting of the number of passengers carried.
WTien the advertiser buys space, he pays for having his card appear
in a specified number of cars, for a stated period. As a nile, the rate
is for monthly perio<ls, with special discounts on yearly contracts,
and cards are changed each month. On certain contracts the agency
will include extra service, without additional cost, by running cards
in a number of extra cars, which are put on during the rush hours.

If desired, the agency will design the copy and print the cards,
making an additional charge for the service. Many street car ad-
vertisers prefer, however, to furnish their own cards. This is prob-
ably the better plan for advertisers who maintain efficient copy de-
partments.

Although this book is not intended to teach the technical details
of the art of preparing copy, it may not l>e out of place to suggest that
copy for street car cards is in a class by itself. Experienced adver-
tisers have found that to use wordy arguments on a street car card
is a mistake. The card must catch the eye, for it is expected to arrest
the attention but a moment at best. A picture that tells the story
at a glance, large type, and plenty of color seem to meet with most
favor.

The special records required for street car advertising are simple,
consisting of records of contracts. A form for such a record is show^n
in Fig. 19. This can be on a card or loose leaf. The form is headed
with the name of the city and instructions for shipping. Below the
heading, is a monthly record of the copy No., subject of the ad,
size of cards, and other necessary data including the gross and net
cost. On the reverse, Fig. 20, is a detailed record of the contract,
and a record of total casts. These sheets are filed in a binder or in
a card tray, indexed by cities.

OUTDOOR ADVERTISING

Outdoor advertising is the term used to describe all such forms
of publicity as bill boards, signs, painted or printed posters, etc.
This is strictly general publicity advertising.

Like street car advertising, outdoor advertising is thoroughly
organized, and the sale of space is practically controlled by a few



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AJbVEtlTlSlNG AND SALES 33

Cotn|)anies. Ix)cal bill posters, who control the boards, or stands,
as they are technically known, have their own national organization
which standardizes the practices of the business, regulates rates, and
insures the advertiser against paying for service that he does not
rec^eive.

Rates for this class of advertising are based on {>opulation and
the relative desirability of the location. In a city of 500,000 popu-
lation, a stand which 150,000 people pass daily is worth more than
one in another section of the city, which is seen but by 50,000 people.

The advertiser pays for his space on the basis of the number of
stands used, size of posters or signs, relative number of down town
or preferred position stands, and length of service. Rates are figured
for periods of one week, two weeks, one month, and longer.

The records of outdoor advertising are very similar to those of
street car advertising. By changing the column headings of Fig.
19 from cars to stands, the form shown answers every requirement.

No outdoor or street car advertising campaign of national
scope should be undertaken until provision has been made to take
care of the business. The trade must be covered first; when the ad
appears on the boards the goods must l)e on the dealers' shelves.

Indeed, this is a most important factor in any publicity cam-
paign intended to create a demand for goods sold through the retailer.
Every possible preparation must be made in advance to secure a wide
distribution so that the consumer attracted by the ad will find it easy
to buy the goods. Making known the name of an article in a locality
where it is not carried in stock, or without telling the consumer where
it can be bought, can result in little advantage to the manufacturer.

WHERE ADVERTISING AND SALESMANSHIP MEET

A very effective method of producing sales — most largely used
in campaigns intended to secure direct orders, by mail — is the use of
circulars, booklets, and form letters. This literature is advertising,
but to use it to secure the l>est results requires the application of a
certain amount of salesmanship. The advertising man may prepare
an attractive piece of printed matter, well-written and containing
convincing arguments, but unless judiciously used, the time and
study put into its preparation is wasted.



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34 ADVERTISING AND SALES

A large quantity of such literature, distributed indiscriminately,
would probably bring some business, but the best results are obtain-
able only when its use is concentrated; when it is confined to a par-
ticular class and followed up in a systematic manner. Knowing his
goods and the class of people who use them, the salesman is naturally
the best judge of where and when to use those forms of advertising
which he turns into salesmanship by mail. The discussion of
systems of record and methods of use of this form of literature is
taken up under the head of the sales department.

SALES DEPARTMENT

The sales department proper is in charge of a sales manager,
who has immediate authority over his subordinates and is responsible
for the results secured by his departmei^t. No position in the busi-
ness organization carries with it greater responsibilities, for on the
sales manager rests the burden of marketing the goods at a profit.

Without entering into a discussion of the science of salesmanship,



Online LibraryIll.) American School (LansingCyclopedia of commerce, accountancy, business administration ... [microform] → online text (page 7 of 27)