PRAYER. GABRIEL, MAX. An ideal representation of the universal aspiration
common to human nature in every age and land. A fine example of the work of a painter
who is pre-eminent for deep, tender, and genuine feeling, with great power of imagination,
and remarkable vieor and breadth in execution.
DAYS OF | IGHT
FV M ALL LANDS
BIBLES AND BELIEFS
Scriptures, Faiths and Systems
Every Age, Race and Nation
A Complete Story
ALL CHURCHES AND COMMUNIONS
NOTABLE UTTERANCES BY FOREMOST
REPRESENTATIVES OF ALL FAITHS
REV. E. C. TOWNE, B.A.
REV. A. J. CANFIELD, D.D.
GEORGE J. HAGAR
Gay Brothers & Company
21 WARREN STREET
HE publishers will not offer this book for sale in Book- Stores.
It is published exclusively for subscribers, and can only be
obtained by subscribing for it to a duly appointed represent-
ative who has secured rights in the territory canvassed, and by paying,
without deviation, the publishers' regular printed price of publication.
It cannot be legally obtained by any other means or through any
other source, and if so obtained, by collusion or otherwise, both the
seller and purchaser become liable under recent decisions of the Federal
Courts, as the work is protected by the United States Copyright Laws.
Copyrighted by PAY BROTHERS & COMPANY, 1895.
Every Land and Every Race,
"WHO BY PEN OR TONGUE HAVE THROWN NEW LIGHT ON THE
STORY JOF THE FAITHS OF MANKIND AND TO WHOM
THE WORLD IS INDEBTED FOR THE
DAWN OF A NEW ERA,
The Brotherhood of Man and Universal Sonship in God
BECOME THE CENTRAL TRUTHS OF EVERY FAITH
IN EVERY LAND,
THE FOLLOWING PAGES
LIGHT OF BABYLONIA. 3800 B.C.
0rd of tUe xxT0r!tt, gigfot of itxs spirits 0f
0f tjfesxtxgs ; xxrto is
Babylonian Hymn to Deity.
LIGHT OF EGYPT. 3500 B.C.
/j% mtj 050 d mid ^0rd ; tuto txast made ttxe
and f 0rmje m^ gttre true au jexjje t0
atxd atx jear 10 tt^ar Itxxj;
* * *
LIGHT OF INDIA. 1500 B.C.
txs raedxtats 0n llxat
The Hindu Lord's Prayer.
LIGHT OF PERSIA. 1400 B.C.
(JLtxd xxj p^raxj likewise f0r glxxj ^ive, d)
! stenxg 11xr0xx01x
most swift, poxxrerfxxt, 10 llxe txoxxsje xxrillx 30x3
it, in matxij xxwtxdjerfxxt xxraxjs 0xxt:
LIGHT OF ASSYRIA. 1300 B.C.
the totfeou 0f Tteawett itoxt dattraest !
focrtts 0f tteatreu ttott 0petxest !
c0trjevcst tTue jeavtE xuiiTt tlxe
f irmametxt I
sjettest tlte ear t0 Ifcje ^vaijevs 0f
* * *
LIGHT OF GREECE. 900 B.C.
e litre m
are Ms offs^ncinQ t00.
^ailxer W0txfle*fxtl tEeitr
Greek Poet quoted by Paul on Mars Hill.
LIGHT OF ANCIENT CHINA. 500 B.C.
t is tlte txratj 0f a0u 10 benefit atxtt tx0t
10 injure; 10 t:ejc0nx^euse itxjwvxj witfo
LIGHT OF CONFUCIUS. 480 B.C.
feat ijott flo wot life* wrfe*w flow* to
self do wot jdo to
* * *
LIGHT OF BUDDHA. 450 B.C.
from all wtro
i* tfee relifliow of tfee
Summary given by Buddha.
LIGHT OF JUDEA. 444 B.C.
feat doife tfeje Igovfl fjequivje of tfejeje fewt
to flo Justly to lotrs metjc^ awd to
fewwMg with tfeig Cioxl.
* * *
LIGHT OF MOHAMMED. 622 A.D.
tfeaue is <&we dod aXowje^ Ciod tfeje
fre^ettetfe wot^ and feje is wot
tfeetre is wow* Xifeje ttwto feiwi.
And the multitudes were astonished at his Teaching :
for he taught them as having Authority, and not as their
Scribes. (MATT. vii. 28, 29.)
have heard that it was said to
them of old time, Thou shalt love
thy neighbor and hate thine enemy:
but I say unto you, Love your ene*
mies, that ye may be sons of your
Father which is in heaven : for he
maketh his sun to rise on the evil
and the good, and sendeth rain on the
just and the unjust. Ye therefore shall
be perfect as your Heavenly Father is
All things therefore whatsoever ye
would that men should do unto you,
even so do ye also unto them.
Christ to his Disciples.
THE present work embraces an account of the Bibles
and Beliefs of Mankind ; the Faiths of every age
and every land being presented impartially, each from
its own historical standpoint.
The chapters on the Scriptures of the World, and
the digest by religions of the most notable Parliament
utterances, are from the pen of the Rev. Edward C.
Towne, B. A., whose broad scholarship and great knowl-
edge of the World's Religious Systems was fittingly rec-
ognized in his selection as one of the principal editors of
the Official Report of the World's Parliament of All Re-
ligions. These chapters offer for the first time to the gen-
eral reader a concise, connected, yet scholarly view of all
the Bibles of Mankind, and of the various beliefs as to
inspiration under which remarkable writings have been
held to be Sacred Scriptures.
The chapters devoted especially to the representative
utterances of the great modern lights of the religions oi
the world have been culled, with the greatest possible
care, from the speeches and papers of the ablest and
most eminent representatives of every Faith who stood
upon the Parliament's broad platform ; equal justice be-
ing done to all alike, Pagan and Christian, Jew and Mo-
hammedan, Catholic and Protestant. The official report
of the doings of the Parliament, in attempting to be full,
x PUBLISHERS' PREFACE.
was overloaded with matter of no permanent value ; and
it entirely lacks the digest by religions which is of so
much importance to the ordinary reader.
The material used in preparing the history of the
various denominations has been the subject of much
careful revision, and of reference to competent repre-
sentatives of the various denominations treated, in order
to keep the work free from misstatement as to matters of
belief, ceremonial, and observance. This part is largely
devoted to a systematic and comprehensive historical
account of the denominations in the United States,
giving the origin, rise, progress, and present condition of
every sect. The work of preparing the story of the
various churches and communions has been the labor of
many years, and the publishers desire to gratefully ac-
knowledge their indebtedness to many eminent authori-
ties, among whom may be mentioned the following :
Rev. S. Morals, W. Charming Nevin, Esq., Rev. Alfred Nevin, D.D.,
William Border, B.A., Rev. Joseph Osgood, Rev. Dr. E. G. Brooks,
Rev. Willard H. Hinkley, Albert L. Rawson, Esq., John Gilmary
Shea, LL.D., Rev. C. M. Butler, D.D., Rev. W. H. H. Marsh, Rev.
Edwin H. Nerins, D.D., Rev. J. L. Gracey, Rev. L. M. Sturdevant, Jr.
The publishers also desire to gratefully acknowledge
the aid of those who, by furnishing material difficult of
access, or in revising proofs of portions of the work of
which they had special knowledge, rendered ibo the
editors assistance of the greatest value. The list in-
cludes the following eminent names :
Marshall Ballington Booth, the Salvation Army; Franklin D.
Richards, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints- Rev
William H. Roberts, D.D., the Presbyterian Churches'; Rt.
Rev. Henry C. Potter, D.D., Rev. William Jones Seabury, D.D., the
Protestant Episcopal Church ; Bishop William H. Nicholson, the
PUBLISHERS' PREFACE. xi
Reformed Episcopal Church ; Rev. Henry A. Hazen, the Congrega-
tional Churches ; Rev. William J. R. Taylor, D.D., the Reformed
Churches ; Rev. William Hull, the Lutheran Church ; Dr. Henry
Hartshorne, Editor of The Friends' Review, the Society of Friends ;
Rev. Edwin C. Sweetser, D.D., the Universalist Church ; James
Freeman Clarke, the Unitarian Congregationalists ; Elder F. W.
Evans, "The Shakers"; Rev. Edmund de Schweinitz, D.D., the
United Brethren ; Rev. Chauncey Giles, the New Jerusalem Church ;
Rev. Joseph Leucht, Hebrew Congregations ; Elias and Moritz Berla,
Hebrew Benevolent Societies and Charitable Institutions ; Rev.
Charles F. Deems, D.D., LL.D., Right Rev. Bishop H. N. McTyeire,
Right Rev. Bishop L. H. Holsy, James N. Fitzgerald, D.D , the
Methodist Churches ; Rev. G. W. Samson, D.D., the Baptist Church.
The publishers congratulate themselves and their
readers on the eminent fitness and ability of the editors
of the present volume whose labors now successfully
brought to a close will prove of inestimable value in
giving within the compass of one volume a complete
and impartial presentation of the Bibles and Beliefs of
All Ages. The Rev. Edward C. Towne was well
equipped by a life-long study of the religious systems of
mankind ; Doctor A. J. Canfield, by close touch with
the representatives of all Faiths in the Parliament of All
Religions, in his relation thereto as a conspicuous resi-
dent member of the executive committee, and from inti-
mate acquaintance with all the chief promoters of the
sympathy of religions ; and Mr. George J. Hagar, by his
long familiarity with the historical and statistical prog-
ress of the various denominations in an editorial capac-
ity on one of the leading encyclopaedias.
The whole work presents a History of the Beliefs of
All Races, Nations, and Times ; a record both of What
the World now Believes and what it has believed;
the teachings of the great Lights and Leaders of every
Laud and Faith, together with the story of their doc-
xii PUBLISHERS' PREFACE.
trines, systems, and scriptures. In dealing with each
church and communion, the strictest impartiality has
been attempted. In nearly every instance the articles
were either prepared or revised by qualified representa-
tives of the division of thought or belief represented.
The publishers desire to assure their readers that, in
the preparation of this volume they have spared neither
pains nor expense to make the work acceptable to the
adherents of every Faith as an impartial presentation of
the Beliefs of Mankind, and of the various historic faiths
throughout the world.
WHILE a member of the Executive Committee of
the Parliament of Religions, held at Chicago in
1893, I was profoundly impressed with the epoch-mak-
ing character of that surprising assemblage of wisdom
and piety. Until then, I had supposed that ever-in-
creasing knowledge and assured intellectual liberty
would probably continue to multiply the number and
variety of the world's religious beliefs. But the coming
together of conspicuous representatives of every nation,
race, and creed, in joyous fraternity, made clearly mani-
fest the welcome fact that the fundamental elements
underlying the various faiths of mankind are far less
conflicting than was formerly supposed. This convic-
tion became deeper and more lasting when interpreted
in connection with the contemporary exhibitions of
science, art, and industry.
The most conspicuous characteristic of modern scien-
tific thought is its disposition to include all things and
all phenomena under a few comprehensive principles.
In every department of investigation and enterprise the
signs all point in that direction.
The surprising physical "inventions of the last half
century, especially those relating to methods of inter-
communication, have almost annihilated time and space,
and rendered social isolation impossible. Political
changes and the growth of democracy have awakened
fresh interest in all questions which relate to the re-
moval of civic barriers. In the commercial world the
spirit of consolidation is strikingly apparent. Railway
corporations once independent rivals, are being united
into a few great systems under uniform management.
The same is true of telegraph lines. A like tendency is
seen in all kinds of industrial production and distribu-
tion. It is an era of unification. So general a tendency
toward the centralization of populations, of capital, and
of production, manifested in ways so various, can indicate
nothing less than a great new movement of humanity
toward a recognition of the essential unity of the central
truths of religion. Every new social or political.movement
of mankind is directly traceable to some new impulse of
spiritual energy. The wise thinker tries to lay hold of
these fundamental impulses of the spirit, and to study
them with a view to the explanation of existing condi-
tions, and the solution of the pressing problems of his age.
Among the most noteworthy contributions to this
fascinating study, the volume herewith introduced to
the public is destined to take high rank.
The chapters on the Bibles and Beliefs of Mankind,
with a conspectus of views of inspiration held in the
various historic religions, and of the different views
held among Christians regarding the inspiration of their
own Bible, supplies a feature of the greatest value to a
work designed to show what all men everywhere have
The chapters devoted to the history of all churches,
and communions of Christendom, their origin and be-
liefs, will prove of much interest and permanent value,
as the story of each is told with absolute impartiality,
and in most cases, by a representative of the particular
The reports of the Parliament of Religions which ap-
peared soon after the closing of the Congress were neces-
sarily prepared with newspaper-like haste, hence not
only the ordinary reader, but the expert inquirer
also, will find the thorough digest included in this
volume a much more excellent and impartial summary
than the extended and bulky reports so hastily issued.
To no small extent, testimonies of permanent value
have been brought into this sketch, which were unfortu-
nately left out of the parliament report, and there has
been omitted a considerable mass of irrelevant matter
which busy men will be glad to dispense with. At the
same time an attempt has been made to reproduce with
perfect fairness all the faiths and all the types of faiths
represented in the parliament, without any color of in-
The most notable names of the parliament appear in
the successive chapters of the story of that great gather-
ing, and among them must ever stand for special honor
those of the Wise Men of the i&aet, who, amid much
doubt of the reality of Christian welcome, and against
many obstacles, undertook the long journey from India,
China, and Japan, to attest their sense of human brother-
hood and their faith in common spiritual communion
for all souls ; and who bore themselves, in every scene
of the parliament and through all their strange experi-
ences, with a refinement of courtesy, a thoroughness of
charity, and a respect for the noblest ideals, to which
only the best Christians under the most favorable circum-
stances of assembly and conference are wont to attain.
It will long remain the enviable distinction of the Brah-
man, Brahmo-Somaj, Jain, Buddhist, Japanese both
Buddhist and Shintoist, Confucian, and Parsee repre-
sentatives in the great historic parliament, that they
were in its front rank not only by the interest of their
appearance, but by their own high character and the
character of .their contributions.
The admirable fidelity to the parliament ideals of the
Catholic representatives, of some of the most stanch
X vi INTRODUCTION.
Evangelical Protestants, of the exponents of differing
schools of new advance in Christian faith and new
breadth in Christian fellowship, and of Greek, Armenian,
and Jewish beliefs, bore conclusive witness to that broad
and generous spirit of our age which recognizes in all
races and religions a common aim at goodness and truth.
As a whole the volume contains an infinite variety of
information, not only relating to the peculiar forms and
tenets of the various sects throughout the world, but
also to some extent the manners and customs of the
people and the social and political phases of the nations
of the earth, Christian and pagan, civilized and uncivil-
ized, both ancient and modern. The treatment, how-
ever, while brief, has been comprehensive, the purpose
being to keep the work within limits that would make
it valuable alike to the ordinary reader, as well as to
the student, and it is believed that the intelligent reader
who lays hold of the facts and principles herein con-
tained can easily apply them to the solution of many of
the pressing religious problems of the present age. For
we are undoubtedly entering upon a New Era which is
to be ushered in by a broader and more humane inter-
pretation of the religious nature of man, and its vital
relations to the social and political well-being of hu-
manity. And with the dawn of this bright era comes
an urgent demand for a popular, comprehensive, and im-
partial story of the Bibles and Beliefs of mankind which
it is confidently believed will be fully met by the pub-
lication of the present volume.
As the bending sky surpasses the clouds which drift
across it, so stand the everlasting laws of justice, truth,
and love. Whenever and wherever those laws are read
aright, the human soul will recognize amid its infinite
diversity of operations a blessed unity more glorious
than that which binds the suns and systems of countless
constellations into one harmonious whole. Then will
occur the glad consummation for which the wisest sages
of all ages have longed, which the inspired prophets of
every religion have foretold, and which the minstrels and
poets of aspiring humanity everywhere have spent their
lives in singing, the
" One far-off divine event,
To which the whole creation moves,"
and which can be nothing less than the triumphant
coming of the Kingdom of Him who is to gather in one
all things, both which are in heaven and which are on
earth, "the Christ that is to be."
A. J. CANFIELD.
I NDEXICAL - CONTENTS.
KIRLKS AND BELIEFS OF MANKIND.
FOREWORDS of Eepresentative Thought 7
INTRODUCTORY : Point of View of comparison of various Scrip-
tures and Systems , 9
LANDS AND RACES of the World's Bibles : Thirteen chief Systems
of Faith 17
ORIGIN OF SACRED BOOKS : How the term Bible arose 19
VIEWS OLD AND NEW OF THE CHRISTIAN BIBLE.
I. ROMAN CATHOLIC View of the Bible. . 21
II. ORTHODOX PROTESTANT View of the Bible 26
III. HIGHER CRITICISM View of the Bible 31
IV. EXTREME LIBERAL View of Scripture 36
BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA : The Land of Sacred Books : Babylo-
nian Origins from B.C. 4000: Earliest Races conquered by
Semitic : Babylonian Conception (1) of Benevolent Deities,
and (2) of Malevolent Gods of Darkness : Semitic (and Jew-
ish) adoption of the latter 49
THE BABYLONIAN SCRIPTURES : Oldest of the Bibles of Mankind :
Four chief Sacred Writings, (1) The Priestly or Magical
Texts, (2) The Hymns to the Gods, (3) The Penitential
Psalms, (4) The Litanies: Later than these Scriptures, the
great Mythological Poems .* 73
THE BOOK AND FAITH OF EGYPT : Universal Egyptian Belief in
Immortality: Their Book of the Dead a Guide to the Future
HEBREW SCRIPTURES : First Appearance of a Book in the name of
Moses: An enlarged form of it made a Bible B.C. 444: Later
writings collected and added 103
PHOENICIA, Tyre, Sidon, and Carthage: A Religion of Fear and
Terror: Influence upon the Hebrews Ill
GREEK FAITH AND THE GREEK BIBLE: The Gods of Greece,
Zeus, Apollo, Athene, Demeter and Dionysus: Homer the
Bible of the Greeks: Hesiod 117
THE APOCRYPHA or Doubtful Books : An Appendix to the Hebrew
THE TALMUD: " The Sacred Book of the Orthodox Jews: one of
the strangest of the Bibles of Humanity." 133
THE SEPTUAGINT or Greek Old Testament: The Bible of the Time
of Christ 137
THE AVESTA or Parsee Scripture: The Great Aryan Races : The
Persian Zoroaster a great Aryan Prophet: His Gathas the
earliest part of Parsee Scripture : Zoroastrian doctrine 141
THE VEDA; the Sanskrit Scripture of India: Four original Vedic
Books : Various Nature Gods, Varuna, Indra, Agni,
Surya 'the Sun,' and the Dawn, Yama, &c. : Conceptions
of Universal Deity : The Vedic Brahmanas, books of ritual
explanation: The Vedic Upauishads, books of philosophy:
Great Ideas of the Vedic Creed 153
BUDDHA AND BUDDHIST SCRIPTURE ; The Tripitaka : The Life
and Teaching of Buddha: The Buddhist Bible and Church:
Both existing in two forms, Southern and Northern : A Three-
fold Scripture, Discipline, Discourses, and Philosophy :
Beatitudes of Buddha 171
CONFUCIUS AND THE CONFUCIAN BIBLE : Life of Confucius for
fifty years: The "Five Classics" of Chinese Scripture, (1)
The Book of Changes, (2) The Book of Rites, (3) The
Book of Poetry, (4) The Book of History, (5) Spring and
Autumn Annals: The " Four Books," (1) Confucian Ana-
lects, (2) The Great Learning, (3) The Doctrine of the
Mean,($) Mencius 186
MOHAMMED AND THE KORAN: Character of the Koran: Story of
Mohammed's Life and Experience : Nature of his Inspiration 199
CHRISTIAN SCRIPTURES: The Books forming the New Testament:
The Four Gospels : Book of Acts : Epistles of Paul : Chrono-
logic Order and Origin : Other Epistles: Book of Revelation.. 211
APOCRYPHAL GOSPEL: Many Gospels set aside as apocryphal
" The Arabic Gospel of the Infancy "Its Story of the Boy-
hood of Jesus Many miracles attributed to Him. not men-
tioned in the New Testament.. .. 229
xx ii INDEXICAL-CONTENTS.
CHURCHES AND COMMUNIONS.
WHAT THE JEWS BELIEVE. Termination of their existence as a
Nation Articles of the Jewish Creed Prayers in the Syna-
LAWS AND CEREMONIES OF THE JEWS. Slavery under the Mosaic
Law Laws respecting Marriage Betrothals and Marriage-
Funeral Ceremonies The Sanhedrin Worship in the Syna-
JEWISH FESTIVALS AND HOLY DAYS. The Jewish Sabbath Jew-
ish Festivals The New Moon New Year's Day Day of
Expiation Feast of Tabernacles Purim The Passover
Homer-DaysPentecost Modern History of the Jews 252
THE JEWS OF THE UNITED STATES. The Eeform Movement of 1885
Benevolent Societies Charitable Institutions The Pro-
posed Jewish Seminary 264
THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH. The Government of the Church
Its Form and Administrators The Doctrinal Code of the
Church Explanation of the Tenets What the Councils of
Trent and the Vatican Enjoin , 272
THE SACRAMENTS OF THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH. The Seven
Sacraments : Baptism ; Confirmation ; Penance ; The Holy
Eucharist; Extreme Unction ; Holy Orders; Matrimony 281
THE SACRAMENTALS OF THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH. The Sac-
ramental s of the Church The Devotion Paid to the Cross
The Rosary and Scapular The Sacred Utensils Vestments
of the Priest at Mass The Funeral Service 290
HIERARCHICAL OFFICES OF THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH. The
Office and Dignity of Bishops The Archiepiscopate The
Papacy Methods of Electing a Pope The Last (Ecumenical
Council The Dogma of Infallibility. 298
THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH IN THE UNITED STATES. First
Catholic Worship in the Country The Settlement of Mary-
land Jesuit Missionaries Archbishop Carroll and his Vast
Work Introduction of Religious Orders The Growth of the
Church Distinguished Members The Plenary Councils 306
THE GREEK CATHOLIC OR EASTERN CHURCH. The Separation of
the Greek from the Latin Church Differences between the
two Churches The Greek Priesthood Liturgies and Services
of the Church Solemn Festivals The Mass and Holy Sacra-
BRANCHES OF THE GREEK OR EASTERN CHURCH. Georgian and
Mingrelian Churches Nestorian Churches The Christians
of St. Thomas The Monophysites of the Levant The Copts
The Armenians 336
THE RUSSIAN GREEK CHURCH. Early Ecclesiastical History of
Russia The Russian Mass Reverence of Relics, Images, and
Pictures The Benediction of the Waters Observances of
Lent Baptism Matrimony Funeral Ceremonies The Sect
THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND OR THE EPISCOPAL CHURCH. Early
History The Thirty-nine Articles The Hierarchy of the
Church Ceremonies of Ordinations Sacrament of the Lord's
Supper The Sacrament of Baptism Confirmation Marriage
THE PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL CHURCH OF THE UNITED STATES.
Early History Organization of the Church after the Revolu-
tionEfforts to Unite the Separate Churches Subsequent