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FIRST ANNUAL REPORT



OF



The Department of Labor



July 1, 1917

TO

June- 30, 19l8



J



BARNEY COHEN, Director
BURT C. BEAN, Assistant Director



t *



[Reprinted from the First Administrative Report, Printed by authority of the State

of Illinois.!



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Springfield, III.

Illinois State Journal Co., State Printers

1918

19937—1100



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by the Civil Administrative Code, this law-enforcing power was, and
now is, centered in the Director of the department.

EDUCATION

Besides the law-enforcing function, The Department of Labor is
required to compile and disseminate labor information; in other words,
to do educational work in the field of labor. The relative importance
of these two main functions — first, law-enforcement, and second, educa-
tional work — seems to be left to the discretion of the Director. That
they are the two main functions, seems plainly evident. Their relative
importance, however, is not so evident. Strictly following administra-
tive customs which were traditional previous to the enactment of the
Civil Administrative Code, means that by far the greater part of the
work of this department is to be devoted to law-enforcement and that
the educational function is merely incidental — or at most supplementary.

While wishing to keep away from any too radical departure from
tested methods, the Director of this department has made a strong
attempt to combine these two functions, so that law-enforcement would
be educational rather than punitive. It would seem that the efficient
administration of this department rests entirely upon the principle that
it is better to educate the citizens of the State to know and observe the
law, rather than punish them for law-violation. The forty inspectors of
this department, as an instance, can and are instructed to do con-

1



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THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR O

SPECIFIC DUTIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

The general duties of the different divisions may be briefly stated as
)llows : The General Office of The Department of Labor is designed
> care for all accounting, authorization and supervision matters in con-
ection with the eleven divisions comprehended within the department.
Lccording to the uniform practice required by the Code, all claims
gainst the department, for traveling expense; and all bills for the
dministrative expenses of the various offices shall come to the General
Office for approval before being forwarded to The Department of Public
Vorks and Buildings for authorization, or to The Department of Finance
or payment.

Each division is required to make certain reports; a daily report
>f its important activities, a weekly report of employees on duty, a
nonthly report of certain expenditures, and by-yearly and yearly reports
is required by statute, or such as may be requested by the Governor.

DIVISION OF LABOR STATISTICS

The Division of Labor Statistics, the successor to the "Bureau of
Labor Statistics/* took over the work of that activity on July 1, 1917.
There were no important changes in the statistical laws formerly en-
forced by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, so that the division continues
this work as formerly done by the bureau. Statistics relating to acci-
dents in industry throughout the State are here compiled and tabulated
and the information transmitted to other divisions as may be necessary.
Compilations made by the remaining divisions of the department are
also filed in the Division of Labor Statistics and the findings made
available for public information, and for the consideration and guidance
of this and other departments.

EMPLOYMENT OFFICES

The Division of Chicago Free Employment Offices maintains an
office in Chicago, and is now cooperating with the United States Free
Employment Offices. The general duties of this division are to provide
to all applicants, free of charge, employment suited to their capabilities,
when possible; and, insofar as circumstances permit, to make a
canvass of employers needing help and to supply them with workers of
the kind desired.

Divisions Four to Eight include the Free Employment Offices in
East St. Louis, Peoria, Eookford, Rock Island, and Springfield. The
duties of each Free Employment Office noted above are similar to those
of the Chicago office. Each operates in the territory assigned to it by
the department, and cooperates with the other offices and with the
Federal Employment Service.

EMPLOYMENT ADVISORY BOARD

The Division of General Advisory Board for the Free Employment
Offices acts in an advisory capacity to the entire State employment



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4 THE DEPARTMENT OP LABOR

service. Its duties are to determine certain questions of policy, to pi
for the coordination and efficiency of the work of the offices througho
the State to as great a degree as is found practicable; and, in gener
to act as counsel to the various offices, under the general guidance
the State Superintendent of Free Employment Agencies.

CHIEF INSPECTOR OF PRIVATE EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES

The Division of Chief Inspector of Private Employment Agenci
enforces the various laws having to do with all employment agencies
the State other than free employment agencies; recommends for liceni
such agencies as comply with the law and furnish a suitable bond; an
acts as prosecutor or arbitrator in matters of dispute where patrons
licensed agencies believe themselves wronged or aggrieved.

FACTORY INSPECTION

The Division of Factory Inspection is charged with the enforcemei
of ten laws designed to insure the health, safety and oomfort of workei
The Chief Inspector, through his deputies, inspects all establishmen
coming within the scope of those laws, makes prosecutions where nece
sary and recommends changes as needed or required.

INDUSTRIAL COMMISSION

The Industrial Commission of Illinois is charged with the enforce
ment of the Workmen's Compensation Act and, together with its arbi-
trators and conciliators, attends to the adjustment of labor dispute

COOPERATION WITH EMPLOYERS

In all our dealings with the employer an attempt is made to shoi
how it is to the advantage of all concerned to comply with the laws en-
forced by the department. It has been found that what little opposition
there is from employers comes from misunderstanding — either the in-
tention or the manner of enforcement of the law. Employers as a class
are by no means hostile to law enforcement, but wish to be saved undue
expense or the minor troubles incident to over-inspection. Owing to the
comparatively small number of inspectors in the State, there is little
danger of over-inspection; but, owing to the number of laws enforced
by The Department of Labor and to changes which have occurred in
them, the employer occasionally takes the stand that it is difficult to
know what to do.

The Director of Labor and the heads of the various divisions have
cooperated with employers through their associations and otherwise to
keep them posted on what constitutes law observance, and how it is to
the advantage of the employer to observe the law. As an instance of
how this works out, the new Child Labor Law, which became operative
July 1, 1917, was much simplified in its method of enforcement, through
a practical system of cooperation by the Department with employers.



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. THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

ny factory, mercantile establishment or work shop in the Stai
Lois, to send an immediate report of all fatal accidents to the (
e Factory Inspector. This act further provides that between
l and 25th of every month, such employers shall report injn
rring to their employees during the previous calendar month,
ng a loss of time of fifteen successive days or more.

A subsection of that section provides that the reporting of accid
rovided, releases any employer making such reports from repo]
ny other State officer, board or commission.

Under an act enforced July 1, 1917, known as the "Workm
ipensation Act," it is made the duty of every employer in the S
[llinois operating under the provisions of that Act, to make
Lediate report of all fatal accidents to the Industrial Commiss

further provides that such employer shall report to the Indus!
mission, between the 15th and 25th of each month, all accide
ries to employees, entailing a loss to the worker of more than
^s time. A part of that section provides that the making of rep
irovided in the Workmen's Compensation Act shall release the
er under provisions of said act from making such a report to
r officer of the State.

Compliance with the law for reports as provided by the Workm
ipensation Act and the Health, Safety and Comfort Act, seentf
»ve the employer of the need of reporting under the 1907 J
ough that law has never been directly repealed. The Workntf
ipensation Act, being the latest of these acts passed and requiring
irt on the loss of time of the least number of days and seeminj
r all of the factories, mercantile establishments, etc., affected by I
lth, Safety and Comfort Act, seems to take away certain reportoii
rirements f rorn the latter. Accident reports as now made to 4
ustrial Commission are, also reported, in part, to the office of I
tory Inspector and further cooperation between those offices
med.

One of the provisions of the Mining Act requires an immedia
>rt of all fatal accidents, through the Division of Inspection, U
artment of Mines and Minerals. At the end of the fiscal year
>rt on all nonfatal accidents entailing a loss of thirty days time*
e in coal mines is assembled for that department.

A section of the Public Utilities Act requires that every publ
ity shall make report of accidents to the Public Utility Commissio

It is plainly evident that there is considerable conflict in the la*
jrning accident reporting. Confusion consequently results, as &
iloyer is not certain to whom a report is to be forwarded, and oft
i doubt as to what accidents are to be reported. The departmei
is to ask — after consultation with all departments concerned — for

covering a simplified system of accident reporting. This, if °'
ed, will be greatly to the advantage of both employer and employ*



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bydroflouric acid, oxalic acid, picric acid, nitrous gases."

2. The Department of Public Health and the Illinois Division of
Factory Inspection partly duplicate each other's work, and for this
reason Section 4 should read, "It is hereby made the duty of any
licensed physician who should make examinations as provided in Section
3 of this Act, to make an immediate report thereof to the Illinois
Division of Factory Inspection upon blanks to be furnished by said
division upon request."

Further, change — "Provided, that the failure of any such physician
to receive the blanks of the Illinois Division of Factory Inspection for
making such report, shall not excuse the physician from making the
report as herein provided." Change Section 5, as follows: "The
Division of Factory Inspection shall, through its medical inspectors,
receive the reports of physicians making such medical examination and
keep an accurate record thereof ."

3. A section should be introduced into the Occupational Disease
Law requiring all physicians of the State of Illinois to report to the
Division of Factory Inspection the occurrence of all diseases which, in
their opinion, are due to occupation, and also to make it obligatory op
the part of hospitals to furnish such information to the division.

4. Eepeated violation of the reporting requirement by any physician
should be made sufficient cause for revocation of his license to practice
medicine. Such evidence should be filed with The Department of
Registration and Education for that purpose.

In addition to the above changes in the Occupational Disease Law,
it is also recommended that compensation be paid for disability arising
from industrial disease as specified in section 2. Such compensation
would be provided by a change in the compensation law of this State.



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THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
COMPULSORY SCHOOL ATTENDANCE

In an ideally perfect commonwealth, in which the enforcement
bool attendance is made compulsory, and where it is found possii
rictly to enforce the law, there is little doubt that violations und
e child labor law would be remarkably few, if not entirely absei
ich a method would be dealing with the problem of child labor at i|
ry source.

REORGANIZATION OF INDUSTRY AFTER THE WAR

The Department of Labor has, during the past fiscal year, hi
iple opportunity of observing the various causes that affect the deman
r labor. The six Free Employment Agencies, the Division of Genen
Ivisory Board for those offices, and the Division of Chief Inspector i
:ivate Employment Agencies and of Factory Inspection come in tl
>sest possible contact with workers and actual industrial condition
ibor supply and demand — the geographical shift of labor — the tui
er in labor because of many jobs open, from which a choice can
ade — these factors, particularly, in the labor market are met at fii
,nd by these divisions.

It is, of course, the consensus of opinion that there will be a mark
Drganization of industry after the war. While prediction often resul
wrong deductions, yet the wealth of material assembled by the varioJ
visions of this department is so suggestive that it would seem sa/<
make some definite comments and to deduce some few probabilities,
lese are set forth below.

WOMEN IN INDUSTRY

It seems quite probable that the present extension — both of the
Lmber of women in industry and in the field in which they work — will
ntinue after the war. The reasons for this seem to be psychological
well as educational and economic. Among the psychological reason
lich warrant the belief that women will continue in industry afte
e war, is the probability that where they have taken up a class o
>rk formerly done exclusively by men, because the nation need- A sucl
)rk done and there were no men to do it, a mental barrier has beei
oken down. This barrier will probably not again be raised. Womei
11 doubtless continue to work as elevator operators, and in machim
ops — in many cases — at heavy work formerly done almost exclusivel]

men. Women who, previous to the war, were content to work ii
)res or offices for a comparatively small wage, once having securec
uble or triple the same wage at a kind of work which, though un
sasant, puts a sure and increased reward in the pay envelope, will no

content to go back to the lower wages paid the routine worker.

INTENSIVE TRAINING

The educational angle must almost be considered. Both women
d men have been educated by necessity and forced training to take



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borers have been able to make a daily wage — after intensive training
some sort — which almost, if not, wholly equals their weekly stipend
iring the pre-war period.

WAGE READJUSTMENT

The economic condition is to be considered more from the em-
lover's point of view, as he will undoubtedly again seek to secure labor
1 a cheap market. This motive will probably be basic in the matter
£ wage readjustment. On the one hand there will be the worker who
as become accustomed to a substantial salary ; on the other hand will
e the employer who has felt that owing to the scarcity of labor, he
as been compelled to pay what is to him a remarkably high wage,
'hese two opposing forces doubtless will open anew the wage question
ie moment that the labor-placing agencies find that there is an excess
I labor over the demand.

The entire subject of reorganization of industry after the war has
een taken up informally with other departments, and there is now
Jider consideration a more or less defined plan, beginning with the
aring for wounded and incapacitated soldiers by the combined work
f The Department of Public Welfare and The Department of Labor,
n dealing with prospective general unemployment, the employment
iivisions of this department are available. As the need is made mani-
est, the machinery of the Free Employment Agencies will be placed
t the disposal not only of returned soldiers, but of those also who find
t necessary to make a shift because of changing conditions, after we
iave won the war.

REPLACEMENT OF MALE WORKERS BY FEMALE

Early in September, 1917, it was noted from reports coming to The
Department of Labor that the opinion was generally prevalent that a



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THE DEPAETMENT OF LABOR

ige of labor existed in many lines and that such shortage \b
Led to become acute.

Ul the divisions were accordingly instructed to report any demai
bor not normal, such reports to be in addition to the ones ordinari
svith the department.

February 1, a statement was issued to the press concerning tli
id labor shortage. It was found, from thorough investigation, thi
hortage at that time was not general throughout the State, bi
p was confined to' certain classes of labor. It was further held 1
who were in close touch with labor conditions that there was a
pt on the part of certain employers to make systematic replaa
5 of male workers with female, such replacements often being mai
lower salary, basing such action on the alleged "unprecedent*
ige of labor."

^s it was recognized that there would be soon an actual shortage i
, and that these wholesale replacements should not be attempt
diately, but should, where necessary, be brought about gradually,
nent was issued to the press about February 1, giving the rest
hematic investigation of the labor demand and supply.
The following extracts are from the article given to the press at t
stated showing the condition of the labor supply at that time.
In the attempt to get the most systematic and authoritative J
ttion possible, The Department of Labor, about January 15,
ic inquiries of those of its activities in the closest touch with
abor conditions. The replies are now in and tabulated.
'General superintendents of free employment agencies were astei
port specifically the labor conditions in their respective localities.
aly as to the so-called shortage of labor, but as to either the actus]
ospective replacement of male workers with females.
Inspectors of private employment agencies and all businesse
lg within the scope of the laws enforced by the Factory Inspectioi
ion were called upon to secure from all of the employment agencie
3 State, and from factory managers as called upon, any informatioi
would be of value covering either labor shortage or labor repla<
3. Up to the present time more than 175 Teports have been Teceiv<
'Basically, it is found that the usual shortage of labor has
*d substantially the same, or been intensified from a slight to i
lerable degree in those industries where a shortage customarily an«
lonly exists. For instance, the usual shortage in domestic laboi
n farm help has remained stationary in some localities, while fo
s it has been extremely marked. Where crops are large and thi
unusual there was frequently noted a considerable increase in th<
demand and consequent scarcity of farm labor. Where factories
absorbing available female labor, this in many cases affected th<
em of domestic help accordingly.



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THE DEPARTMENT OP LABOR 11

"Again, locality has had considerable to do with the shortage of
aeral labor. This has been a matter of wages and locality to some
;ent, as communities within the immediate radius of unusual manu-
ituring operations have drawn in many cases heavily from associated
lustries.

"Reports from Chicago state that nothing apparent as yet has been
ted generally in connection with the shortage of labor, particularly
skilled labor. To the contrary, there actually exists a surplus of this
ss. The actual shortage appears to be machinists, tool and die
rkers and molders. Replacements of male and female workers have
& occurred to a noticeable degree, one estimate being 'less than one-
lf of one per cent/

"A report from Rockford advises that the usual conditions obtain,
ing to the fact that many workers have been released from Camp
ant and shortage exists in certain trades — tool makers, machinists
1 molders. There are some minor replacements — estimated not to
jeed two per cent, no general replacements being planned.

"Reports from Rock Island are to the effect that there is no short-
) in ordinary factory labor, but there is a considerable demand for
lied labor in factory work which has not been filled. Replacements
male by female workers have taken place in some instances where
lie workers were of draft age. Notably, instances of replacement are
3n in the use of girls in core rooms in foundaries, and in some cases
the lighter work in shops. Such replacements range from three to
ove 50 per cent in the case of some few individual businesses.

"IVom Peoria it is learned that there is no marked shortage of
bor, and but one case has come to notice where women replaced men
unskilled labor.

"Springfield reports show that the only shortage has been in rail-
id and factory work, in some cases. There have not been sufficient to


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