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Pamell, afterwards Lord Cougelton. carried a motion for the appointment of a se-
lect committee for the purpose of separating the proper expenses of the crown from
all other charges. The result of this measure was the act (1 Will. IV. c 26} for the
regulation of the civil list. The sum of X5iO,000 was now granted to his majesty,
and exclusively devoted to the pdvy j)nrse, the salaries and expenses of the house-
hold, seeret-service money, and pensions. The separate list for Ireland was dis-
coutinoed, and the Scotch hereditary revenues and other items were directed to be
paid into the Excbeouer. The chance was rather a new distribntiou. which en-
abled tlie country to look more clo«eIy into its expenditure, than a real reduction
of the civil list

On the accession of Queen Victoria, the C. L., which had long been of the nature
of a compact between the monarch and the parliament, and, as such beyond the
control of parliament during the life of the sovereign, was settled by 1 and 2 Vict, c
8. The Queen surrendered the hereditary revenues of the crown for life, in con-
sideration of a vearly sum of £385,000, to l>e devoted solely to the support of her
Majesty's household, and the honor and diffully of the crown. The application of
this sum to the particuhir branches of the Queen's privy purse, the salaries and ex-
penses of the household, tlie royal bounty, alms and special services, is intrusted
to the Lords of the Treasury ; and it is provided that if the C. L. charves in any one
year shall exceed the total sum of £400,000, an account of the particulars of excess
shall be laid before parliament in thirty days. Besides the above sum, £1^)0 a jrear
is intrusted to her Majestv for the payment of pensions, ** to persons who have just
claims on the royal beneficeuce, or who, by their personal services to the crown, by
the performance of duties to the public, or by their useful discoveries in science,
and attainments in literature and the arts, have merited the gracious consideration
of their sovereign and the gratitude of their country.'*

CrvIL SB'RVICE is a general name for all the duties rendered to and paid for by
the state, other than those relating to naval and roilitarv matters. At the head of
the British C. S., which numbers above 60,000 officials of all grades, are placed the
officers of the Royal Household, under several departments. Then come the officers
of the House of Lords and the House of Commons. Then a vast number of offices
or departments, of which the following are the more important: Treasury, Home
Office, Foreign Office, Colonial Office. India Office, War Office, Admiralty, Board of
Trade, Post-office, Customs, Inland Revenue (including Stamps, Taxes, and Excise).
Exchequer and Audit Office, Office of Woods and Forests, Office of Works and
Buiklings, Duchy of Lancaster, Public Record Office, Local Government Board,
Education Deponment, Civil Service Commission, Registrar-general's Office. Sta-
tionery Office. Ecclesiastical Commission, Charity Commission, Patent Office,
Emigration Office, Trinity House, Heralds* College, Law and Equity Courts,
Ecclesiastical and Admirality Courts, Prisons Department, British Museum, Science
and Art Department, Diplomatic and Consular Corps. Several departments peculiar
to Scotland and Ireland form distinct lists, not included in the abuve.

The heads of most of the departments are political officcn', changing with the
Ministry. Others, such as the head of the Exchequer and Audit Department, or the
Commissiouers of Cnstoms and of Inland Revenue, are permanent officials. Exclud-
ing tbejodiclal offices, and a few departments where special knowledge is required,
the C. 8. is open to the public generally, the principle of open competition behig in
force AS regards most of the departments.

In fonner times appointments to the government offices were obtained mostly 1^

Digitized by



Oivii n.A^

Civilization y>'±£i

fnvor; bat now, merit and abilities are conditions superadded. Bj an Order In
Council, dated May 21, 1850, the system was ftrst placed ou a new basis, and a com-
inis^iou was appointed to examine all candidates for the serrice. A candidate
b :in;> nominated, the Commissioners In doe time notified that be mast come ap to
be examined, and produce certificates of birth, health, and character. The beads
of the several departments agree with the Commissioners as to the extent-aud
nature of the sabjjcts on which candidates should bo examined. The Com-
mis.<«ioner8 neither nominate nor appoint; they only examine, and noti^ tbe result
of the examination.

By an Order in Council, dated 4th June 1870, the regulations were altered, tbe
rule of open and unrestricted competition being then introduced, qualified by some
exceptions. In certain small and special offices, nomination with sabscqoent
Biicci':<8 at an examination remained tbe rale of entry. But for all tbe principal
departments— tlie Foreign Office being the only prominent exception — there te open
competition, to which till British subjects of the required age and of good health
and character, are admissible. For offices of the superior grade, the age is from 18
o 24, and in the lower division, the age is from 17 to 80. Bov clerks mast tie over
.5 and under 17. Any successful candidate remaining on tbe list vrithoat obtmioioff
an appointment, is struck off at the age of 85. Boy clerks who at 19 fail to obtain
appointments as man clerks are also struck off. The first open competition beki
was on 22d February 1871, when 30 situations in the Excise were competed for by a
irge number of candidates. A further change was made by the introduction of
* writers "—a species of " tmcoTcnanted " clerks, who were paid by the hoar, were
aismissible at pleasure, and had no claim to pension. Writers were first introdoced
in August 1870, and "boy clerks" were sanctioned In July 1870.

These various changes (tending in the opinion of the service to lower the statos
of the officers) and the increased cost of living resulted in great agitation throngb-
out the C. S., and in the appointment of a commission tinder Dr Lyon Playfair, to
reconsider the whole system of C. S. organisation and pay. Following on reports
from this commission^ considerable chances were made. The decision that the
lower grade should have no claim to rise above £200 a year, or to obtain promotion
into the higher grade, and the introduction of *' duty -pay " as a means of rewaiding
spccinl responsibilities, may be named amongst tbe chief alterations. Tbe Playfair
commission reported against the employment of temporary writers; and that class
of employees ceased to be appointed after the Issue of the Order in Council of ISth
February 1876, though a small class of temporary *' copyists " is still maintained.
The granting of pensions to the C. S. is now regulated by acts passed In 185© and
1871, the latter allowing thu commutation of pensions for a lump sum wb«i tbeee
have been granted on abolition or reorganisation of office. Tlie rate of pension is
one-sixtieth of pay for each year's service.

The more important departments of the C. S. will be found briefly deacribed
under their proper headings in this work.

CIVIL SERVICE E'STIMATES Include all expenses of the state not provided
for in tbe Army and Navy Estimates. As an example of these C. 8. E., we wHl
quote the amounts voted nnder their various heads for the financial year be<^nning
April 1, 1877, and ending March 81, 1878:

Public works and buildings X1,40S,904

Salaries and expenses of public departments 8,509,873

Law and justice 5,089.974

Education, science, and art 3,546,985

Colonial and consular services 560,980

Superannuation and retired allowances, andgrataities.548,318
Miscellaneous and special. 28,614

CIVI'LIAN. This term has three meanings, wbkh are distinct, though faitl-
mately related. 1. In a popular sense, it signifies a person whose pursnite are cirii ;
L e. neither military nor clerical. 2. As a &w-term, it means either a person who is
versed bi the principles and rules in accordance with which civil liriitB xdmj be
freely, blamelessly, and snccessfolly vindicated in society generally, or ui the partis

Digitized by



AJ.Q OlTil

'J*^ Oiviliiatioa

kilar state to which he belongs — or 8. One who has mnde a special study of* these rnica
and principles as exhibited in the laws and government of Romc(the Komau civil law.)
The civil law of Rome exercised snch influence upon the formation of the nmuicipal
Bjstems of almost all the states of modem Earope, that those who devoted themselves
to its study were regarded as ** civil " or municipal lawyers par excellei^ce. From
the more learned tr^niug which this study demanded, C. came often to be used as
synonymous with professor or doctor, as opposed to practitioner of law ; the former
being generally more deeply versed in the Roman law thou the latter; and this in
its tarn led to its being loosely applied to the iatemationnl lawyers of thelTtbc.
(Grotins, Putfendorf. &c.), who generally belonged to the class of civilians in tlie
sense of Romanists, and who, though their subject was altogether dtHerentt quoted
Inigely and derived many analogies from the Roman jurisprudence. At present,
from our having in Great Briiain no class of persons who prosecute law as 2^ science
as oppMed to an art, the term O. has revertea to its narrower medieval sense of
student or teacher of theRotnan civil law, and thus wc speak of Snvigny as a C,
but not of Story. The special sense in which C. is understood in England will be
explained under 'Ecclesiastical Coukts. See also Admiralty Courts.

CIVILISA'TION. This is a general term to designate the condition of the more
advanced nations, ascontrastea with those that are looked upon as barbarians or
savages. Wc term the leading nations of Europe civilised ; the Chinese and Tartars
less so: the Red Indians, Australians, Esquimaux least of all. ** Whatever be tlie
characteristics of what wc call savage lite, the coutrnry of these, or the qualities
which society puts on as it throws off these, constitute civilisation. Thus, a savage
tribe consists of a handful of Individuals, wandering or thinly scattered over a vast
tract of country ; a dense population, therefore, dwelling in fixed habitations, and
largely collected together in towns and villages, we term ci\alised. In savage com-
munities, each person shifts for himself ; except in war— and even then very im-
perfectly—we seldom sec any joint operations carried on by the union of many ;
nor do savages, in general, find mucli pleasure in each other's society. Whenever,
therefore, we find human beings acting together for common purposes in large
bodies, and enjoying the pleasures of eocial intercourse, we term them civilised."
And so of other characteristics. " Dissertation " by J. S. Mill, art. *' Civilisation."

When we come to seek for an exact definition of the term C, wo meet with a
variety of views, implying that there is a certain complication in the subject. The
original derivation of the word points to that polisli of manners that distinguishes the
inhabitants of cUies (Lat eives) from the rustic population : but the use of the word
has greatly outgrown this limitation. Guizot has given a definition, which has be-
come generally Known, tQ the efitect that we are to include in C. the improvement
of man both socially and in his individual capacity. Bui the chief diflSculty lies in
settling what is improvement. ITiat people are lar from agreed on this point is
evident from the use of the phrase, '* vices of civilization." How arc we to distin-
guish its vices from its virtues 7

li'he question is very much simplified by making a distinction between aiminp at
the improvement of mankfbd and really efeoling that object All our inventions
and discoveries, and all our new arrangements introduced into every department of
life, are intended to nilse us further and farther above the savage condition ; nobody
denies this; but there maybe the widest difEercnce of opinion as to whether any
one new device Is a real improvement. If we were to restrict the term C. to the
changes introduced into human life with a view to improvement, the definition of it
would present no difllculty ; whereas the relation of this to progreeSf or actual im-
provement, musi ever remain open to ditference of opinion.

Leaving out of view for the present the disputable matter, C. may be explained
as follows: In the flrrt place, there are certain things bearing decidedly on human
preservation and hnman happiness that are to be excluded f rem the definition. C.
M not nataral advantages — such as those of soil and climate ; or the goodness of the
mental or bodily constitution of the race; or accideLts of fortune favoring our ex-
en ions ; or individual dexterity or skill than cannot be imparted. It is not necessarily
happiness, which is sometimes present in a low C. and ansent in a high. ** The per-

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Oivita aAA

Clackmannanshira v^^

give the rest. Qenios Cm the seiiBe of intellectual originality) 1b tbe caoae^ and C,
the efEect.

Such being the senernl defiuitlon, the enumeration of tli8 separate departments la
the enumeralion of the institutions of civilised life. These may be briefly aammed
up under the following henda :

1. The Industrial ArU, or the devices fallen npon for tominff to advantage the
material resources and agencies of the globe. Perhaps no one will be f ooud to dia-
pnte that these constitute reiil improvements.

2. The OovemmcTU, or sys^tem of political organisation. It is here that we are
most forcibly convinced of the propriety of distinguishing C. from absolute proffrttM,
or tiie devices intended for improvement from actual improvement. Scarcely any-
thing in the whole politic:iI system of Qreat Britain, for instance, has coDimanded
unanimous approbation first and last; nearly all the changes have been carried
neainst relactunt minorities, and every now and then voices are raised against insti-
tutions accounted by the mass of the nation the very bulwark of our uatniuiii great-
ness; OS, for example, the pailiamentary control of the sovereign autborit^'.

One aim of social reformers has been to make tlie necessarv functions of goventr
ment compatible with a larger and larscr range of individual liberty. The mi^jority
of men call this state of things not merely an intended but a real improvement; not
merely C, but progress. Stfli, there is never wanting a class of minds tliat see only
th« disadvantageous side of this and all other social mnovations.

Counecttjd with liberty, we may also notice the growth of humane sentiment In
all classes, the governing power included. When we revert to the horrible puniali-
ments to -which men were subjected in this country, not many generations since, not
only for real crimes, but out o! mere superstitious antipathies, as in the boming ot
witches, we ate apt to feel ashamed of our own ancestors, and to congnttolate onr-
selves on having our lot cast in a milder age.

8. The Arts o/ Social Intercourse, em1)raclng the material machlneiy of convey-
ance and communication ; and also what may be called the moral machinenr, snch
as forms of procedure for regulating assemblies, and the minor conrtesfps of life.

4. The scnemo of Moralitu established in a community appertains to their civl]i>
sation. But in this also, difference of opinion prevails, when we compare different
countries and times. Morality, in fact, has always been more or less a part of Reii'
gion, which must also be viewed as an institution pertaiuing to civilised men,
whether of their own invention or the result of supernatural commnnicatioQ. In
any case, there is mixed up with every religion much that is purely human, and
which may be judged of by its tendencies to promote human welfare, like any other
arrangement of society. This 1)eing the subject of all others that men have most
differed upon, no criterion of progress can be laid down, because none would be
universally received. The unconverted pagans alive at the final eetablishment of
Christianity, naturally believed that the human mind was thrown backward by ttiat

6. Science is the least disputed of all the ingredients of civilisation.

6. Literature and the Ftne Arts make part of the,C. of mankind. They are a
new class of pleasures, superadded to the gratifications of mere sense, and of a kind
that can be paitaken equally by a large number of people. Instead of rivalry and
contention, which are inseparable from the struggle Ifor food, money, or power, the
Arts tend to socinbility and eood-fellowship. Every contribution to Architecture,
Painting, Music, &c.. Is a result of human genius and intended for human pleasure;
Imt there is not the same unanimity in this case as in the former ; for many kinds
of art ore objected to as corrupting the mind ; and too great a devotion to Art« on the
whole, is said to endanger the just balance of men's regards to the serious interests
of life.

The above enumeration will amply shew how to define the term C. and of nrbat
parts the totalis made up. It has also been made apparent that the point as to
whether any invention be an item of genuine progress, is, and ought always to be^
. an open question. The inventions of original minds intended for placing as furtlicr
and turtlier from the savage condition, and having that effect may often be accused
of producing new evils, wtiich other arrangements are called for to neutralise. See
*'Chambers^s Papers for the People," No. 4, "Education of the Citisen."

GI'VITA CASTELLA'NA, a town of Centralltaly, about SO miles north-esst ot

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Rome. It Is a place of 4000 inhabitants, picturesquely sitnated ou a plateau of vol-
caolc tufa above the Rio Masglore ; has au old cathedral, and a citadel, now used as
a prison. It is, however, cineflj rcranrkable ou account of the vast number of
B&nsean remains. It occupies the site of tjie ancient Falerium VetuSy oue Of the
15) cities of the £truscau Leasae ; and Falerii A'ovi, of which also there are mony
remains, stood about 4 mileslo the nortli of Clvita Castellana.

CIVITA DI PE'NNfi. a town of South Italy, in the province of Teramo, situated
on a commandins hill about 90 miloe south-east of Tcranto. It is an ancient place,
havlnsr, under the name of Pinna, l)een the chief city of the Vestiui ; and some re-
mains are still found here. The modem town, though containing some flue edifices,
inci'ndiue the cathedral, is in general badly built C. di P. is noted for its manufac-
tory of silk-flowers. Pop. 9600.

CIVITAN(yVA, a town of Central Italy, province of Macerata, 12 miles west of
the town of Macerata. Population, including the port, 8583. It stands not far from
the Adriatic, and has a fine harbor, much freqneuted. Its lauds produce vines,
olives, and pasturage. It is an indastrial and commercial city.

CIVITA SAN-ATJOELO, a town of South Italy, in the province of Tcrarao,
sitnated near the Adriatic, about 25 miles south-east of Teramo. It has a population
Of 0000, and an active trade.

CIVITA VE'CCHIA, au Italian city in the province of Rome, is situated on the
Mediterranean, in lat. 4V^ 4' n., long, lio 46' e. Its andent name was Centum CellcB,
The hart>or of C. V. is one of the best In Italy, and was constructed by the Bmperor
Trajan ; the town, indeed, owed its origin entirely to the port of this emperor, and
hence it was also Icuown as Portns Trajani. The harbor is formed by two artificial
moles projecting into the sea, while a third constructed between the two serves to
protect the harbor from the heavy sea ; upon tills third and outward mole there is a
good liffhtbouse, some 80 feet above the level of the sea. Within the port there is a
small ^ck and au arsenal. The town of C. V. is fmail, and has no bnlldingH of any
note except a large church in the principal street The streets are ill paved and nar-
row, and the inhabitants poor. Pop. aoont 10.600. It is a free port, and is regu-
lariv visited by steam-packets from Marseille. Leghorn, Naples, Genoa. Messina,
ana Malta ; wliilc the majority of travellura visiting Kouie land here. It is famous
among the modem Italians for its oysters, which are extremely small, but delicious
to the taste.

CI VITE'LLA DEL TRO'NTO, a town of South Italy, in the province of Teramo,
ten miles north of Teramo. It is situated on a rock, is fortified nnd defended by a
strong castle. C. del T. Is historicaUv interesting as the place where, in 16£ft,
Robert Onlscard and his Normans gained a complete victory over the forces of Pope
Leo IX., and the Emperor Heni^ III. of Germany: and also for the siege it fus-
tahied in 165T against the French and papal army under the Duke of G jise, who was
finally forced to retreat

CLACKMA'NNAN, the couutv town of Clackmannanshire, in the south part of
the countv. on the Devon, near its confluence with the Forth, • miles east of Stir-
ling. It lies on ground rising 190 feet above the rich carse-land of the plain of the
Forth, which is also rich in coal, iron, and limestone. C. wns formerly a ro3 ul
burgh, and Is mentioned as enehin the acts of parliament of James V. in l'>40 and
1648. From ft bull of Pope Celestine HI., d:»tedll96, it appears that at tliis early
date the church and its chnpels, together with forty acre.^ of land, belonged to tlic
Abbey of Cambuskenneth. In 1380, King Dnvid Bruce n-sidcd at Clackmannan. In
1358—1359, King David II. confirmed to Sir Rol>ert de Bruce the castle and barony
of C, with the muds of Kennet and othere; and from that period to the present,
tbo Bruces have been proprietora in this parish. Pop. (1871) 4o:i8.

CLACKMA'NNANSn IRE, the smallest county of Scotland, bounded n. and w.
1^ Perthshire and the Ochil Hills : e. by Perthshire and Fifeshire ; s. by the Fort I:,
separating it from fetirlingshire. Its greatest dimensions is 10 by 8 miles: area, 48
square mUesi Fop. (1871) 28,747. It chicflv consists of the valley of the North
Dovon, gently declining from the green Ochil Hills to the Forth. The Ochils con-
sist ot trap, especially amygdaloid, claystone, porphyry, and greenstone, and rioo in
Bencleugn (more properly, Benclach), 285i fuet, and Dunmyat, or Demyat, 1845. A

Digitized by


Oladlnm aAa

Clan ^^^

Tidf^e of high CTOUDd, \vith ioferior soil, often resting on clay, rana west thiongh the
middle of C, oetween the very fertile alluvial lauds resting on the coal-measores in
the Bonth, and the North Devon vallev in the north, where the soil la loamy, and
rcstf* on gravel, and also on the coaf-ineasnres, which extend to the base of Uie
Ocnils. The chief minerals are ironstone, sandstone, ercenstoue. coal, limestone, sil-
ver, copper, antimony. The chief rivers are the North Devon, rising In the sonth of
Perthshire, and the Black Devon, rising iu the somh-westof Pifeshire; both mn
\v«st across C. into the Forth. The river Forth is navigable for vessels of 600 tons up
to Alloa, at which port shIpiCof 700 tons register have been built The chief crops are
wheat, barley, a net oats. The number of acres in C, under all kinds of crops, bare
fallow, and grrass, in 1876, was 15,884 ; under com crops, 6840 ; under preen crops, 16S5 ;
clover, sanfoln, and grasses in rotation, 827» ; permanent pasture and meadow
land, 4914. The "Hillfoots" have long been celebrated for their woollen mauu-
factures, chiefly in tartan shawls and plaids, and have become favorably known in
the production of tweeds. The district is likewise famed for its ale, there being
seven breweries iu the county. There are alfto extensive distilleries. There are
manufactures of green glass bottles, earthenware, bricks and tilee, also timber trade
and fthip- building. The chief exports are iron and coaL The columnar greenstone
of AblHjy Craig, near Stirling, has come into use for grinding flour, which it does
nearly as well as the French burr-stones. C. contains four parishes. The chief
towns are Clackmannan, the county-town ; Alloa, the most important piaoe ; and
Dollar, noted for its endowed educational establishment C, with Kinros»-shire,
returns one member to parliament; but the counhr occupies the anomalous position
of having parishes within its circumference politically— Alva In Stirlingshire, and
Tnlliallan and Cnlross in Perthshire— which it does not embrace judicially. In C.
have been found Roman stone coffins, sepulchral vases, and old Roman corns. The

Online LibraryIllinois Homeopathic Medical AssociationChambers's new handy volume American encyclopaedia: being a ..., Volume 3 → online text (page 121 of 190)