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whoffo work will be found in Martin's *• Bloerapliia PliilOBophica."

CX>PIAPO\ a name of various applicution in the north of Chill, marldog at
once a volcano, a river, a district, a village, and a city. 1. The volcano la a peak
of the Andes, in lat. 27o 82' a. 2. The river baa a westerly coarse of 120 miles
from the Andes to the Pacific ; its month being in lat. 27^ 20' s., and long. Tl© S*
w. 8. The district, sometimes reckoned a part of the province of Coqniinbo, is
rich in silver and copper ; bat, excepting on the Imroodlate banks of streams, id-
most valueless for agncnitnral pnrposes. 4. The village, known as Port C, stands
at the mouth of the river, containiug about 1200 inhabitants. 6. The city built oo
the river, about 80 miles from the sea, had in 1675 a popalation of 11,432. It is
connected by railway with Caldera, a harbor of the repnblic, about 20 miles to the
norih of the month of the river. The C. Railway has IM miles in operation. The
shares owned by British subjects amount to the sura of 1,600,000 dollars. The ex-
ports from this region are copper, silver, cobalt ore, and hides. The imports are
almost wholly from the United kingdom, coiisisting of coals, iron, bricks, machhi-
ery, &c. There is also some trade across the Cojmllera with the Argentine Pro-
vinces.

GOTLAND, James, a distingnlshed phvelcan, bom at Deemess, in the Orkneys,
in 1792. After studyiue medicine, at Kdlnbargh. he travelled on the continent, and
sal)scqncntly undertook a journey to Africa, to Investigate the nature of epidemic
difleases prevalent in tropical luiids. Ho settled in London about 1S20, and was
made a member of the Royal College of Physicians. In 1822, ho undertook the
editorship of the" Loudon Medical Repository; "and being chosen in that year to
deliver the annual oration of the London Medical Association, he in his lecture ad-
vanced a new theory of electro-galvanism. His "Outlines of Pathology and Practical
Medicine," in which he especially treated of the ganglionic nerves and their fnnctions.

rtantwork was the



and proposed a new and more simple claaslflcatlon of diseases, app

tiie '* Elements of Physlologr »Mn 1S24. But O.'smoet Import!^

** Dictionary of Practical M^Icine." four clomly printed volumes, to which be de-
voted the labor of many years. This comprehensive work has attained an exten-
Hive rcpatation in America and Germany as well as in Bngland. Tiie views given
in his essay on ** Pestilential Cholera,'' published in IS.'^C when the cholera first
appeared in Britain, have been confirmed by experience. Healso pabliabed, besldea
VHrions contributions to medical periodicals, a treatise on Palsy and Apoplexy, and.
in connection wIthDr Annesley, one "On the Diseases of Warm Climates." He died
in 1870.

CO'PLET, John Singleton, the father of the late Lord Lyndhurst, and a historical
painter of some note, was born at Boston in the United States, July 8, 1737. In 1774
ne came to England, and after a visit to Italy, settled permanently in London. In
1783 he was elected a member of the Royal Academy, and died m 1815. C.'s best
work is the ** Death of Lord Chatham," now in the national collection. Besides it,
may bo mentioned his *' Klne Charles Ordering the Arrest of the Five Members of
Parliament," the " Death of Major Pierson," the " Assassination of Bnckiugham,**
and ** King Charles Signing Stratford's Death Warrant"

CO'PPER is one of the most anciently known metals, and its name Is derived
from the island of Cyprus, where it was first obtained by the Greeks. In the earlier
times, C. does not appear to have been employed by itself, but always in admixture
with other metals, principally tin, forming what Is now called bronze (q. v.). There
is every reason to believe, tliat next to the large qnantities of tin which they obtained,
one of the great inducements which the PlKenlcians had In making searches for metals
in Great Britain, was the C. which they procured in their workings in Cornwall.

C. is sometimes met with in nature in a state of purity, but generally it Is asso-
clnted with oxyi;en, water, and carbonic add, fomiiiig the native ctirbonate of C or
inalachiU (CuO.UO -f CuO,COa). or with iron and sulphur, fonning the ative
solphurets of C. and iron or C. f>yrites (CuoSiFejSj). In smaller quantity^ C. occurs
OS the oxide (CuO), and sulphate (CuOSOg), and in dll cases the ore is obtained from
fli»8ures or veins in other rocks. The principal yield of C. ore In Great Britain ii» from
the mines in Cornwall, but large supplies are also obtained from Australia,
and from Cuba and Chili in South America. In North America, in the ueigfaborhooa



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of Lake Superior, C. ore occnrs abundantly, and a vein of metallic C. Ifl there found
which in some places ia about two feet in tbickness.

In the extraction of 0. from its ores, the metallnraic proceBsea followed are rery
tedious and complicated, which mainly arises from the difficnlty of separating the
iron and sulphur from the copper. The general principle which regulates the work-
ing-npof the ore Is to bum awav the enipbnr (S) as sulphurous acid (SOj), and to
carry off the iron by means of flnxos in tlie form of scorite or slag. Metallurgists
enumerate ten distinct steps In the prodnction of commercially pure copper.

C. (symb. Cu, from Lat cwprum) has the eqniv. SI*!— new s}*8tem, &*4. It is
the only red metal, has the specific graTlty 8T8 when cast, and 8W when rolled or
hammered ; fuses at 1M6<> F. (Dauiell), and at a white heat passes off in vapor, and
bums with a green flame. It is very malleable, and can thus bo beaten out into
thin leaves; is very ductile, so as to admit of being drawn out into thin wires; and
Its tenacity ia only inferior to that of iron. It is a powerful conductor of electrieity,
and hence is employed in the constractiou of lightuing-condnctorSf &nd in tele-
graph-wires for nucferground or submarine communication. C. is alao employed
largeiy in the sheathing of wooden vessels, and in the coinage. See also Aixot.

C. forms many compounds. There are two oxides, the black oxide (CuO) and
the red oxide (CujO). The latter ia employed in coloring glass of a ruby-red tint.
The Qretn rwA which forms on the surface of a C.-sheatned ship, and on C. coins
and versels wiiich lie in moist places for some time, is a carbonate of C, and is due
to the carbonic acid and oxygen of the air acting upon the C. in the presence of
moisture. It is very poisonous, and hence any barnacles which may attach them-
selves to the C. sheathing are poisoned. The carbonate of C. under the name of
Wti« verditfr^ is largclv prepared and sold as a pigment. The subchlorlde of C.
moistened and exposed to the air, yields the pigment known an Brunsirick green.
There are several compounds obtained by allowing acetic acid to act upon OMde of
C, which are commercinlty called bhif and green verdigris. The snlpnate of C, or
bltte vitriol (OuO,8os-^5HO), is prepared by dissolving ttie black oxide in sulphuric
add. and allowing the salt to crystallise ont The crystals are large, and present a
flue blue color. K is soluble in water, and is extensively used by the dyer and calico-
printer for the production of several blue and green colors. The solution of blue
vitriol is also employed In the preservation of timber from dry rot, and it forms a
constituent of some writing inks.

Mineralogi/. — Native C. is not of very rare occurrence ; it is fometimes massive
or in grains, plates. &c.; sometimes crystallised in cubes or octahedrons ; sometimes
it assumes dendritic and other beautiful forms. Great masses of native C. have
been found both in North and South America. What are called C. ores in com-
merce, generally consist of the true ore disseminated through rock, and are there-
fore very variable in productiveness. A C. schist is profltably wrought at Mansfeldt
in Germany, altbongh it yields only one per cent, of copper. Among the most
plentiful and valuable C. ores is the C. Pyrites already mentioned, or YeXlone C. Ore;
but there Is a richer ore called Purple C. or Varisgated C, or Bomiu, also a com-
pound of sulphur. C, and iron. Malachite ahd AzurUe^ both consisting essentially
of carbonate of C., are valuable ores ; as are some ores which ore essentially com-
iiosed of oxygen and C, particularly Red C. Ore (.Cuprite) and Black C. Ore {Tenonte).
Some ores of C. contain also silver, and some contain arsenic, antimony, ^c. Gray
C. Ore ia very compound, containing silver, mercury, zinc, antimony, arsenic, iron
and sulphur. Atacamite, wrought as an ore of C. in South America, is composed of
chloride of C. and hydrochlorate of copper.

COPPBR I'NDIQO Is an ore of copper found in spheroidal masses, of an Indigo
bine color, in Thuringia and Vesuvius, and is very nearly pure sulphnret of copper.
Its composition in 100 parts, is copper, 64^ ; euiphnr, ^X i Iron, X '* and lead, 1.

CO'PPERAS is the commercial term for the sulphate of Iron. See Ibon.

COPPERED, Coppering, In Ship-bnlldlng, are terms used In reference to the
lihcathing applied to the bottom of timber-built ships. The copper so need la In
sheets, weighing from 18 to 82 ounces per square foot, and usually measuring 48
inches by 14. A Uyer of felt, paper, or coarse linen, is first applied to the planking ;
and the copper ia nailed down upon it. So much of the bottom as Is immersed in
the water is thus covered. The timbers ore by this means protected from molluscs,



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cirrbopods, and weeds ; and consequentijr the ship can eaU quicker than if no each
Bheatbin^ were applied. Some balldere copper their ehips up to the load^water-lioe.
while others ffi no higher tbau the light^Ioad liuc; there being a difference of
opinion whether tlie inUrmediate apucc, eoinetlmes dry and sometimes wet, on^
to expose a wood or a copper surface.

A copper-bottom^ sliip always ranks better at Lloyd*B than one not so sheathed.
The same is the case with a ship said to be copper-foHtened ; L e., in which bolts of
coppor are used instead of Iron in those parts of the ship immersed in water.
Ships can be insured at a lower premium when thus provided.

CO'PPERMHOC RIVER— so named, in common with the mountains to the west
of it, from the metallic products of the Ticiuity— enters a bay of the Arctic Ocean
about Int. 68* n., aod long. 116« w. Its overlaud discoTcij l^ lieutenant neaxpe,
- then of the Hudson's Bay Company's service, in June 1771, excited considerwlo
interest, as lucontesiably proving that the supposed Strait of Anian. whatever
miglit be the truth as to its westwai^ terminus, Lad its eastward outlet, it any, only
iu the Icy Sea. The C.ll. rises near a feeder of Great Bear Lake, which itself is
tributary to the Macicenzie— the former of the diverging watar-couxaes taking a vastly
shorter route to the coast than the latter. Ucuce the C.R. is throughout little better
than a scries of falls and torrents, being thus, even without r^ard to its iaohOod
position, but little available iu Itself, for navigation.

COPPERPLATE PRINTING. See Emobaviho.

CO'PItA., the dried kernel of the cocon-nnt, from which cocoa-nnt oil has been
expressed. It is much itsod in India as an ingredient of curries.

CO'PROLITES (fi-oni Gr. koproa^ flimg, and lithos, a stone), are the fossilise^
excrcmenlB of animals found iu the Secondary and '^et tiary strata of the earth's
crust Their true nature was first inferred from their occurrence in the bodies of
several species of Ichthyomuru%^ iu the region where wus situated the intestinal
tube. It has beeu since shewn that they are the voidings chiefly of saurlaus and of
sauroid flshes. Thev often contain portions of scales, bone, teeth, and shells, the
luUigesiible parts of the food on which the animals lived. Occasionally they may
be found exhibiting the spiral twisting and other mark& produced by the confor-
roatiou of the iute.stinal tube, similar to what is noticed iu the excrement of some
living fi8he£«. These peculiar markings obtained for them the name, when their true
nature was unknown, of •* larch-cones" and »* bezoar-stoncs." C. ore found to
contain a large quantity of phosphate of lime ; and as this forms a valuable manure,
the deposits containing them have been of late years largely quarried by the manu-
facturers of artificial manures.

COPS, Coping (Anglo-Sax. eop, Oer. hopf, the head). The merlooA or rubig
parts of battlements are sometimee called cops, but the term coping is usually
applied to the covering course of a wall, which is made either slopmg or round, so
OS to throw off water. Where the coping is of hewn stone, it is frequently orna-
mented with a circular moulding rnnning along the top, and aometlmes tho angle at
the top is simply taken bfE, to prevent it from being chipped.

COPSE, or Co'pplce, a natural wood or plantation, of which ihc trees are cut
over from time to time, without being allowed to attain the size of timber trees,
sending up new shoots from their roots or stools. Some kinds of trees— as tho firs
—are Incapable of being treated in this manner, refusing to send np new shoots;
but many— a-* the oak, birch, chestnut, ash, elm, maple, alder, hazel, and willow-
very readily do so, at least if tney have not been allowed to attain too con&ld»«ble a
size before being cut over. C.-woods are sometimes planted chiefly to vaiy and
beuntify the landscape, but more generally with a view to profit, either owing
to great local demand for their produce, or to peculiarities of soil and aitsatioo.
It often happens, that owing to scantiness of soil or to unfavorable subsoil, oaks
and other trees, after growing vigorously for a number of years, are arrested, and
remain almost stationary in their growth. In such circumstances, it is advantageous
to cut them over early, and to ti-eut the plantation as a C, the former vigor being
again manifested in the young shoots, and tho land yieldlne In this way a greater
return to its owner. Oak w much nianted as C.-wood, in consequence of the
demand for its bark ; in some parts of Herefordshire^ the trees arc cut over every



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twelve yearf; bnt In the HighTaocIs of Scotland, twenty-five or thfrtjr years are often
Deces^aiy for anfflcient growth, nor is the bark tliougllt to have nttuincd Its highof>t
perfection till the rteras areof thie age. The J«rg**at pieces of the wood are used
for making wheel-^poke^f and for ointT piirposes of timber; the smaller portions
for charcoal, and firewood. Aah Is sometimee planted as C, with a view to ihe
employment of the wood for handles of impleirents, hurdles, hoops, Ac., the wood
of the ash, even when very youn^, being highly valued for strength and elasticity.
Chestnut copses are planted in England to supply hop-poU'S. Hazel is a very com-
mon C.-wocfd. being in great demand for making crates, &c« Besides the cultivation
of different kinds of willow or osier for basket-making in which they are cnt over
aimaally, some of the species are cultivated as C, and cot every five, six, or seven
years, for hoops, crates, &t.; the species which is deemed most tniuble of all being
Saliz cavrta. See Wiij:x)w. In some countries, C-wood is particularly valued fok-
the regular supply of fuel which it affords.

In cutting C.-wood, care is taken to dress the stools fo that water may not lodge
In them and cause them to rot. The size to which, the stems are allowed to attalu
before being cut, and the frequency of cutting, differ according to the different
kinds, and the uses intended. Stems more than four inches thick are generally cut
with the saw. bnt smaller stems with a cur^'ed bill, cutting upwards. Extensive
copsea are' sometimes divided Into portions, of which one is cut every year.

CCPTIS, a genus of planta of the natural order RanwieiUacece. C. tri/oliata
is a native of the north of Europe, Siberia, Greenland, Iceland, and North America.
It grows in swamps. From its long, thread-like, golden-yellow rhizomes, it derives
the name of Oolden Thread, Its Jeaves have three wedge-shaped leaflets, and its
leafless stems bear each a solitarv, rather pretty white flower. Very similar to the
O. tri/oliatn^ is C. teetCL, the Oolden Thread of Assam, the root of which has long
been in high repute in Assam and neighboring countries. It has come into extensive
use in India as a bitter tonic, and is sold at ii very high price. Qreut efflcacy is
ascribed to it aa a tonic for patients beginning to recover, oat it is of no value as a
fcbrffnge.

COPTS, the Christian descendants of the ancient Egyptians. Various deriva-
tions have been given of the name, which, however, is mobt probably from the
same root as E-gi/pt. The C. are in number about 160.000, only about a fourteenth
of the population of the country. Tliero are about 10.000 of them in Cairo. They
are not of great stature, have black eyes, and rather curly hair, and in a number of
pointu resemble the ancient Egyptians, fi-om whom also they have inherited the
custom of circumcision. Tbev arees like the Moslems, but are generally dietln-
goished by a black turban. Their character is in general gloomy, deceitful, and
avaricioas. They are very expert In calculations, and are therefore much employed
as acconutants and book-keepers, by which they have acquired great influence In
the country, fllHug very important posts. In religion they are generully mouophy-
sites (q. v.) of the Jacobite sect ; smaller sections of them, however, are united to
the Greek and Roman Catholic churches. They ascribe their conversion
from heathenism to St Mark, whom they regard as the first patriarch of Alex-
andria. Their highest dignlury is the patriarcti of Alexandria, whose residence,
however, is In Cairo. Their other orders of clergy are bishops, arclipriests,
priests, deacons, and monks. The patriarch is named by his predecessor
from among the monJu of the convent of St Anthony, or chosen from
among them by lot. Ho is not permitted to marry. He nominates the
Metropolitan of Abysainta. See Abyssucia. There are twelve bishops. The C.
are yery strict in their religions observances, and bate other Christian secta eveu
more than they hate the lOoslems. They baptise by immersion ; practice unction,
exorcism, and auricular confession ; and celebrate the Lord's Sapper with leavened
bread which has been dipped in wine. They ktep Friday with great strictness as a
fvt-day. They have many schools, but only for boys, who If am the Psalms. Gos-
pels, and Apostolic Epistles In Arabic, and then the Gospels and Epistles in Coptic
The Coptic, however, is not grammatically tanght, and is not now a spoken lan-
guage, having been everywhere supplanted bv the AraUc It has not been spoken
in Ix>wer Egypt since the 10th c, but lingered for some centuries longer in Upper
EgypU It vi, hoYfey&rt still usod by the C. iu their religion* servlocs, but the tea-



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Bont, After being road in Coptic, are exptalned io Arabic The Coptic literature con-
Bi8t« in great part of lives of sainta and homilies, with a few Ouoatic works. The
alphabet was borrowed from the Greeks at the time of the iutrodoctiou of Christian'
ity, with the addition of a few letters. There are two prindpal dialects of the lan-
guage—the Sahidic or Upper Egyptian, and the Memphitic or Lower Bgyptian,
wliich is sometimes exclusively called Coptic A third dialectt the Bashmnric, of
which only a few remains exist, was q>oiceu in the Delta^ and is interesting from its
points of resembhtnce to the language of the IiierogiyphiCB.

* CO'PULA (Lat. band) is a term employed in Logic to designate the word which
unites the two notions of a sentence— viz, the subject and -predicate into one judg-
ment or thought Thus, in the sentence, *' Art is long,^ art is the subject, ioM the
predicate, and U the copula. The C. is either expressed apart by some (lort of the
verb ** to be," as in the above sentence, or it is contained in the word expressing the
predicate— as, " The flower blooms "— L e., i» blooming.

CO'PT, in the Fhie Arts, Is a reproduction of a work, whether painting, statue,
or engraving, not by tho original artist. A C. made by the master uimselt is called
a repetition (In French a doubleUe). It is said that copies are of three degrees:
first, where the original is mechanically imitated in its minutest details (tliis is
always done when an engraving is to be obtained) ; second, where only the princi-

£al traits are imitated ; and, third, where the general idea merely is borrowed. A
'. of a statue, or ot^er piece of sculpture, taken from a mould, is not called a C, but
a Coat (q. v.).

CO'PTHOLD, a species of estate or right of property In land. In Ireland and
England, uearlv resembling in many particulars the feu-rights of Scotland. C.
is expressed technically as ** tenure by copy of court-roll, at tbe will of the lord, ac-
cording to tho custom of the manor." 'J^is means, that it is tenure of hind, being
part of a manor, tbe title being evidenced by tbe conrt-rolis of the manor, and the
riffht of the owner being in conformity with toe immemorial customs of the manor.
The addition, "at the will of the lord,'' serves oulv as a memorial of the derivation
of this species of estate from the estates granted in old times to the boudsmeu, or
Villeina (q. v.), which were of course resumablo at the pleasure of the lord. Bat
the will of tho lord is now absolutely controlled by the custom of the manor, which
forms the law of tho tenure ; and as this custom must be immemorial, i. e., extend-
ing to the reign of Kichard II., no C. can now he ci'eated.

The custom of each manor may varv In Important particulars. In some, C. lands
are held for life only ; In some, they acsceud according to particular rules of their
own ; In most, however, they descend according to the ordinary rules of sncce^idon.
But the custom, whatever it may \ye, cannot be altered by tho holder of tlie C. ; he
cannot, for Instance, entail his land unless the custom warrants him.

Au important point, also dependent entirely upon special custom, is the amount
of the money-payments due by tho copyholder to the lord of themauor. These are
divided Into tho rmtnj an annual payment of the nature of the Scottish feu-duty :
4mui, payments on particular occasiouj*, such as nlienatlon or succession ; and
Mriots, or the best piece of pergonal property, to which, on tho death of the copy-
holder, the lord becomes entitled. As to fines, it may bo observed, that the custom
may either fix the amount, or It may leave them to be at tho pleasure of the lord ;
but as the courts of law require that all customs, even when indefinite, shall ba
reasonable, they have fixed the extrome amoimt that can be exacted at two years' mvX
of the land.

One practical distinction of much importance, drawn between freehold and C. land,
is the mode in which It must be conveyed. An ordinary conveyance is ineffectual in
regard to C, and indeed would operate, like other attempts 'to break through tho
custom which forms the title, as a forfeiture. The course adopted is almost identi-
cal with the Scottish reHf^natian, The owner comes to the steward of the manor,
and l»y a symbolical delivery, accortliug as the custom may prescribe, surrenders tho
lahd to the lord of the manor. In order tliat it may be granted again to such person,
and on such terms as are desired, and as tho custom authorises. The steward, by a
repetition of the symbolical delivery, transfers the C. to the person in question. In
terms of the surrender ; and he then pays the customary fine, and takes the oath of
fealty. This is called conveyance by surrender and admittance. In the case of aa



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beir 0nccoediDg, there Is no snrreoder, bat there is admittance only apon pajroent
of the caatomary flue, and it ia enforced by a cuatoroary penalty. A mortgage is
effected by a anrrciidcr, npon coudltlou thot the money i» repaid, and the admittance
takes place only in the event of failure of payment. A C. may, \^ like manner, be
deviara by will, the devisee being admitted on the death of the devieor. A compari-
aon between C. and the Scotch fen will be foand in Patcrsou'a " Compendium of
Bngliah and Bcotch Law," p. 5T.

The iuconveniencea and lo«a accming through the variety of coftome to which
C. landa are aabject, have led the legialatnre to make provuion for their gradual



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