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society. The nominations were confirmed by the trustees.

It was voted on motion of Judge McCulloch that the secretary be
instructed to procure a seal with a device approved by the president,
if the society has no seal.

On motion of Judge McCulloch, it was voted that the constitu-
tion as printed in the transactions for 1901, be adopted as the rule
of action for this board till superseded by a code of by-laws, except
that wherever the words "executive committee" or "trustees" appear
in the constitution, the word "directors" shall be substituted there-
for; and except farther that the last clause of section 1, article 4,
and the first clause of article 5, and the whole of article 6 shall be
omitted.

It was voted on motion of Captain Burnham that the society hold
its next annual meeting at Springfield, at such date in January, 1903,
as the program committee may determine.

Adjourned to meet at the call of the president.



16



HISTORICAL DEPARTMENT OF ILLINOIS— STATISTICS

AND SUGGESTIONS.

[By Dr. J, F. Snyder, First Vice President Illinois State Historical Society.]

No state in the Union, west of the Alleghany mountains, has a more inter-
esting history than Illinois.

Among its picturesque ranges of bluffs; along the shores of its beautiful
streams and lakes, and on its fertile prairies and alluvial bottoms, abound i
the curious relics of its earliest human occupants in the distant past — evi -
deuces of the primitive beginnings of the mound building Indians, and off
their highest culture.

Here, in Illinois, the ethnologist finds a limitless field for tracing the origin,,
migrations, affinities and racial characteristics of the numerous tribes of I
nomadic and semi-sedentary Indians that replaced the mound builders, and I
chased the buffalo and elk over our boundless prairies and made this region i
the theatre of their interminable wars for supremacy.

It was here, in Illinois, the first germs of civilization were planted in the
Mississippi valley, that struck deep their roots in its generous soil, and grew
and expanded until, displacing its aboriginal inhabitants, they converted the
wilderness of forest and plain into a rich and mighty state.

The first peopling of Illinois by hardy Canadian and French adventurers,
presenting so many elements of romance, lends a peculiar charm to its early
history.

Then the efforts of France, with her priests and arms and forts, to colonize
Illinois, is also a fascinating page of her story.

The fierce contention of European monarchies, in the 18th century, for do-
minion over the great west, culminating in the surrender of Fort Chartress
and transfer of the Illinois to Great Britain, adds another page of absorbing
interest.

Then followed the heroic expedition of Col. George Rogers Clark, and the
wrestling of Illinois from England, and attaching it to the new-born republic,
to become in time one of its brightest gems.

Upon the trail of Col. Clark and his men, pressed a horde of rugged
pioneers, whose numbers, ever increasing, spread over the hills and prairies
of Illinois, and, by the magic of their genius and industry, wrought from her
hidden resources her wealth and splendor.

The victories of Illinoisans, in peace, over the wild forces of nature, over
dire machinations to fasten the blight of slavery upon her fair domain, and
over all other obstacles in the path of her wondrous progress, were no less
brilliant than the achievements of her sons on the gory fields of the English
war of 1812, the Indian wars, the confiict with Mexico, and the great civil
war.

In the field of politics, statesmanship and diplomacy, in arts, philosophy
and education; in the realm of science, poetry and literature, and in the
amazing advanements in mechanical inventions and discoveries, the sons and
daughters of Illinois have been found in the front ranks, and are today, in
those lines of brain work, the peers of any in the world.




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With patriotic pride we contemplate the grandeur of Illinois and exult over
her vast mine of historic wealth outlined in this rapid sketch.

Let us pause here and inquire what the State of Illinois has done in collect-
ing and preserving the voluminous and intensely interesting records of her
foundation; and of the agencies that have reared upon that foundation its-
present splendid superstructure.

Not until the year 1889— 71 years after its admission into the Union— did
the State of Illinois awake to the importance- indeed, the necessity— of taking
action for rescuing from oblivion, and preserving, the fading records of her
history. In that year, the 36th General Assembly passed a bill for an "Act
creating a state historical library," to be managed by three non- salaried
trustees, appointed by the Governor for the term of four years.

The act founding the historical library appropriated $2,500 annually for its
maintenance, book purchasing fund and librarian's salary. That amount was
increased to $3,200 annually from 1891 to 1895, inclusive. In 1897 it was
further increased by the legislature to $4,000. In 1899 a publication fund of
$600 was added, and in 1901 there was appropriated, for annual maintenance,
$1,500; for librarian's salary, $1,000, and for publishing, $1,000. By a special
act, the further suna of $2,500 was granted for collecting and publishing cer-
tain specified historical documents and papers. The total amount tnus far
appropriated by the State in 13 years, for its historical library and its publi-
cations, aggregates $34,300, of which $10,040 was paid in salaries.

As an equivalent for that expenditure, the historical library of Illinois at
this date comprises, approximately, 6,000 books, 7,416 pamphlets, 55 maps
and atlases, |70 manuscripts, 74 portraits and other pictures, and 17 historic
relics. Among its books are about 100 bound volumes of newspapers, and it
receives regularly four daily newspapers— one of those from Missouri— and
has three of them bound every quarter.

It must be admitted that the State of Illinois has made a very creditable
beginning in accumulating so valuable a collection of historical material in 13
years, for the modest sum of $34,300. The library has outgrown the limited
space alloted to it by the State, and imperatively demands more roomy quar-
ters and fireproof shelving and cases. It also needs the intelligent contribu-
tive aid and cooperation of the State Historical society to make it a source of
diffusive knowledge and a benefit to the people at large.

The value of a State Historical society, with unlimited membership, for col-
lecting, systematising and investigating historical data, and for diffusion of
facts thus gained, need not here be discussed. It is known to all. It was so
strongly impressed upon the early public and literary men of our State, that
they formed such an organization at Vandalia, the State capital, as far back
as 1827. Judge James Hall, the gifted writer, was elected its president, and
on its roll of members were the now historic names of John Mason Peck,
Professor John Russell, Sidney Breese, Governor Coles. Governor Edwards,
: John Reynolds, Samuel D. Lockwood, David J. Baker, Chief Justice Wilson.
1 Samuel McRoberts, Peter Cartwright, Wm. L. D. Ewing, Wm. Thomas,
i Richard M. Young and Theophilus W. Smith. The society held several ses-
jsions of exceeding interest, when many original papers were read and ad-
i dresses delivered of the highest historic importance. The abandonment of
that organization and loss of its archives were a positive calamity to the
i State, more grievous than its bank suspensions or collapse of its subsequent
I Quixotic internal improvement enterprises. But with an empty State treasury
and very attenuated revenues. State aid for perpetuating the society was out
of the question; and without State recognition and aid, or ample wealth of its
members, no State historical society can long be maintained.

In recent years local historical societies have been established in a few of
the most populous and wealthy counties of Illinois and sustained by individual
efforts of their enlightened and public spirited citizens.

We are all familiar with the noble work of the Chicago Historical society.

Organized in 1856, it suffered total loss of its building, library and collections

in the great fire that destroyed Chicago in 1871, and again the nucleus of its

re-establishment was swept awav by fire in 1874. Phoenix-like, it arose from

— 2H.



18

its ashes and once more began the great work and persevered. It now occu-
pies its own majestic building, erected by private subscription at the cost of
$190,000. In its spacious rooms are 30,000 books, 60,000 pamphlets, 5,000
manuscripts, over 100 oil paintings of distinguished men connected with our
local history, and a large number of engravings and photographs, 1,000 bound
volumes of Illinois newspapers, and a vast collection of historic and pre-
historic relics. And all that has been accomplished without a dollar of state
or city aid. But it is obvious that such magnificent results could not be pos-
sible without extraneous aid, excepting in a large and wealthy city, and by
the munificence of its opulent citizens of culture and refined literary tastes.

Not until May, 1899, was a second attempt made to establish a State histori-
cal society in Illinois. In that month an organization with that title was ef-
fected by a few of us who met for that purpose at the State university. In
June following we placed the society on an enduring basis, so far as was in
our power, by fixing its seat at the State capital and incorporating it in ac-
cordance with provisions of the State incorporation laws. Without state
recognition or aid we have since held regular meetings and made some con-
tributions of value to the history of our State, and intend to continue our un-
thanked labors.

There are in the United States two classes of historical societies; the one
supported by endowments, gifts and membership fees — such as that of Chi-
cago, of St. Louis, and of many of the eastern cities. The other class, of
which Wisconsin is the highest type in the west, are maintained altogether by
the state. Thus far the State of Illinois has given neither aid or encourage-
ment to a society of either class, but it has collected a store of rare and val-
uable data, which awaits the studious toil and discriminating sifting of a his-
torical society to develop its sterling worth.

Having seen what Illinois has done for the care of its history, it may be of
interest to glance at what two or three of our neighboring states have done
for preservation of their history.

Kansas was admitted as a state in 1861, 43 years after the admission of Illi-
nois. In 1876 a State Historical society was there organized, which, with its
library and collections, was shortly afterward adopted by the state in its his-
torical department. For the maintenance of that department the state of
Kansas has appropriated to date a little over $125,000. The last Kansas Leg-
islature granted for its support for the years 1901-1902 the sum of $13,280. In
addition to that provision, it appropriated $15,000 for steel shelving and library
furniture. As the result of all that expenditure by the state, the Kansas His-
torical department now possesses 23,051 books, 67,418 pamphlets, 23.907 vol-
umes of Kansas newspapers, 23,317 manuscripts, 5,030 pictures, 4,886 maps
and atlases, and 6,397 historic relics. It also regularly receives and preserves
a copy of each newspaper and periodical published in the state of Kansas.

Iowa was admitted into the Union in 1844, 27 years later than Illinois. In
1892 the Iowa Legislature established its State Historical department with an
annual appropriation of $7,500 for two years. Each of its legislatures since'
has granted it $6,000 per annum, besides a liberal publication fund. Its li-
brary and other collections are about equal to those of Kansas in extent. It
has over 3,000 bound volumes of Iowa newspapers, and regularly receives 300i
Iowa publications. It publishes quarterly " The Annals of Iowa,'' an 80 page,
finely illustrated magazine of Iowa and western history and biography. It
also publishes a biennial report, and has issued 15 volumes of Iowa territorial
laws and numerous historical monographs. The state of Iowa has now in
process of construction for its historical department, upon ground donated for
the purpose, a magnificent stone edifice that, when completed, will cost
$400,000.

The state of Wisconsin, admitted into the Union in 1847, 29 years after Illi-
nois became a State, excels all the states of the Mississippi valley in the
amount expended for its historical department, and in the results achieved by
that department. Its library contains 108,860 books and 106,746 pamphlets.
It receives regularly 340 Wisconsin newspapers and periodicals, and 409 from
other states. Its famous collection of Draper manuscripts is the most exten



19

sive and valuable of any similar collection in the United States, New York
perhaps excepted. Its maps and atlases number in the thousands. The pub-
lications it issues from time to time are numerous and of the highest authen-
ticity. Its portrait and picture gallery fills a large hall, and its museum of
historic relics and pre-Columbian antiquities, collected in Wisconsin, is un-
surpassed by any other state museum in the west. Its'one specialty of ancient
copper implements of the aborigines cannot be duplicated anywhere. So
complete are the historical collections of Wisconsin that Illinois students — we
acknowledge with shame — are compelled to go there to study the history of
their own State. Each Wisconsin Legislature since 1892 has appropriated
$5,000 annually for current expenses of its historical department, besides lib-
eral publication and book purchasing funds. The Legislature of 1900 in-
creased the historical department's annual appropriation to $8,333, and gave
it a special sum of $20,000 for 1901. During last summer the Wisconsin his-
torical department moved and installed its library, picture gallery, museum
and other collections into its new palatial building in Madison, erected for it
by the state at the cost of $620,000.

We are proud of Illinois, of her commanding position in the Union, of her
resources and wealth, and of her eventful and glorious history; hence cannot
repress a feeling of humiliation when reminded that Wisconsin — made up a
little over half a century ago of what was left of the northwestern territory,
after Illinois had taken from the southern end of that remnant enough to form
our 14 northern counties including Chicago and the Galena lead mines — a
state greatly surpassed by Illinois in population and products, has expended
two-thirds of a million of dollars upon its historical departmcTit, and amassed
at our very door a priceless historical collection, unexcelled in the Mississippi
valley, while Illinois has expended but, $34,300 for the same object and is yet
without a historical department.

In the states mentioned, as in several others, having established historical
departments, it may be here explained the libraries of those departments are
not strictly confined to historical publications alone, but comprehend the en-
tire library of the states excepting their law libraries. There are now iii the
State house at Springfield three separate libraries belonging to the State,
namely: The State library, the State Historical library and the State Law
library. The Historical library is not restricted to works on Illinois history
exclusively, but contains many devoted to general history, to poetry, science
and promiscuous literature. Among the miscellaneous publications in the
State library are many valuable historical volumes also. The two are on the
same floor in adjoining rooms and each in charge of a special librarian and
an assistant. What reason exists, if any, why the two should not be consoli-
dated, as in Wisconsin, Iowa, Michigan and other states, in one State His-
torical library, and be made a part of the State historical department?

Appreciating as we do the exceptional opportunities for acquisitions of
historical data that Illinois has lost, by neglect and indifference, in past
years, we are impressed with a sense of duty due to our society to the public
and to posterity, to do all in our power, even at this late date, to retrieve, as
far as possible, that loss, and give to the historical interests of our State the
prominence and value to which they are justly entitled. That can yet be ac-
complished by the willing gratuitous labors of the State Historical society, if
aided and encouraged by the State.

To enable us to so serve the State, our committee on legislation
should be instructed to ask of the next general assembly the follow-
ing legislation:

An act, providing for the establishing of a State Department of History,
comprising the present State library, the State Historical library and the
State Historical society, to be controlled and managed by the Secretary of
State, the Superintendent of Public Instruction and President of the Slate
Historical society acting as a board of trustees. Said State Department of
History to occupy the rooms in the State house now occupied by the two State
libraries above mentioned.



20

The secretary, librarian and such assistant librarians as may be necessary,
to be the only officials of said State Department of History to receive com-
pensation.

The secretary of the State Historical society to be, ex-officio, secretary of
the State Department of History. The Librarian and assistants to be ap-
pointed by the board of trustees.

An annual appropriation to defray expenses of publishing reports, transac-
tions and contributions to the history of Illinois.

Also, authorizing: the board of trustees of the State Department of History
to gather together, in the south library room, all Illinois historical relics now
in possession of the State, and establish there a State Historical museum —
as has been done in many other states of the Union.

A State Historical museum, in connection with the consolidated libraries,
would here prove to be a novel, attractive and valuable educational agency,
teaching by instructive and interesting object lessons the history of the State's
industrial, economic and social progress, from the stone implements of its
prehistoric aborigines, the trappings, accoutrements and weapons of its
more recent Indian tribes, the simple mechanical devices, domestic appliances
and utensils of our early pioneers, on up and through the successive phases
of improvement and refining processes marking the marvelous onward and
upward advance of our great State.

The changes wrought by the legislation herein outlined would be
of inestimable benefit to the people of our State. They would cre-
ate no new offices and incur no additional expenses but a trifling
amount annually for valuable publications, but would in effect simply
cause a rearranging, reorganizing and proper combination of the
present disconnected historical and literary material belonging to
the State, and render it more available and effective for the student,
the scholar and the historian.

Address op Welcome.

[By Dr. C. W. Barnes, President of Illinois Colleee.j

Ladies and Gentlemen, Members of the Illinois State Historical Society:

It gives me great pleasure this evening to extend to you a word of welcome
in behalf of the city of Jacksonville and of Illinois college. We feel you
have done us no small honor, and certainly have afforded us a very great
pleasure in choosing our city and our old college as your meeting place for
this year. Jacksonville can not offer such wonderlul evidences of commer-
cial prosperity as the great city of Chicago, such evidences of wealth as
Peoria or even Bloomington, such evidences of political activity as our neigh-
boring city of Springfield, but it can offer to the student that which is of
especial interest to you — records that reach far back into the past, marks of
antiquity which are full of interest, and a history made fragrant and beauti-
ful by noble lives willingly given in behalf af their State and country. We
feel that this makes our little town and old college dear to you, and that the
pleasure of this gathering is, therefore, mutual.

As one looks back over the work accomplished by various members of your
society, he can well understand the pride which you all feel in your organi-
zation, and the bright outlook which you see for it in the future. Some of
you have gathered together bits of ancient history, brought from far and
near, pertaining to the early days of Illinois, which, without your energetic
labors must certainly have been forever lost; some of you have skillfully
woven together facts heretofore unrelated, and so have brought to life an
almost new history of certain portions of our community, and others of you
have taken these bits of facts and these scattered data of historical events,
and have so breathed into them the breath of life that the times gone by
seem to once more throb and pulse with the joys and sorrows, the aspirations



21

and the failures of a living people, so truly living that we love as they love
and sorrow as they sorrow, and find ourselves moving in the very atmos-
phere of those by-gone days in which they had their being. All this means
a great gain to the student of history who is seeking to acquaint himself in-
timately with the early days of our commonwealth, but it also means, or
should mean a great gam in higher citizenship for every man in Illinois to-
day. Out of the past we should learn lessons for the present and the future.
By the wisdom of our forefathers our judgment should be better, because of
their mistakes, our failures should be less; where passion and prejudice
wrought harm to them, we should be doubly safe-guarded against like errors.

But all this is in a large measure dependent on how carefully you naembers
of the Illinois State Historical society fulfill your mission. Let history be
used as the ground-work of fiction, so long as it gives us a true atmosphere
of those early years, and helps us to see and to feel as men did in those
times; let hitherto unrelated data be so brought together as to give us new
views of old scenes; but against this be on your guard: Distorting tacts for
the sake of more pleasing results, misrepresenting truths for the sake of a
more noble record, glossing over errors that the times gone by may seem as
full of virtue and as free from vice as the proverbial "good old days."
Strong with hope and courage, and full of confidence in our God-given op-
portunities, let us not shut our eyes to whatever history has recorded whether
it be good or evil; but, helped by such societies as yours to clearly read the
pages that have been written, let us learn such lessons from the past as will
help up to do better in the future, and more ably serve our country and our
God.

We bid you welcome, therefore, to this old town, and especially to this old
college with all its noble history of success and of failure, and we hope that
by reason of your stay here, though only for a few short days, there may be
gathered into the annals of history some new and inspiring story taken from
the lives of those who helped to plant these elms and build these buildings.
Let your poets sing to us the sweet melodies that have for so many years
been sounding through these leafy trees on College hill as they looked down
on young and old passing to their tasks; let your novelists find an inspiration
for new tales in the worn steps which lead to the old halls, and in the names that
have so long been carved in the rough brick walls; and let him to whom facts
alone appeal find in the records which fill our shelves or are carefully treas-
ured in the college vaults, such hitherto undiscovered data as shall better tell
the splendid story of the days of our honored fathers.



Response.

[By Hon. H. W. Beckwith, President of the Society.]

President Barnes:— The Illinois State Historical society, by its chairman,
thanks you and the people of Jacksonville for your hearty welcome. To me
this presence is more than a passing event.

As a witness tree in the timber, or the little mound with its deposit of char-
coal out on the prairie, proves the original corner, so does your city and
county mark the high grade of moral and mental worth that was planted here



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