Indiana. State Board of Agriculture.

Annual report of the Indiana State Board of Agriculture online

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ii




i^


§5





H?


Ck


s


4«431


33,476


373


1383


17,276


161


16^0


183340


120


16,884


165323


221


1,238


14,035


13


4,641


78338


257


2,545


23,743


93


5.911


39,292


230


2.467


20,710


238


10,216


88,691


284


5,677


38374


140


6,129


64,661


196


4,499


62,774


220


13.169


139,741


547


4,605


41,922


170


2,674


8334


18


15,791


176,8il


148


2,060


10,023


37


4,625


60,491


88


6,289


67,969


154


8,741


82,761


245


1,320


7388


64


2,174


20377


134


2,205


29,648


82


1.063


11,122


19


3,948


37,775


42


8,204


108,078


318


4,363


47,664


126


3,113


21,960


82


4,365


45364


957


993


5,986


83


2,338


25.931


152


1^165


8300


68


796


7,958


12


13,714


180364


116


4324


61324


109


5,528


55,075


429


3,730


25,956


96


2,979


45335


170


3,052


80.458


106


1369


203I6


38


347


2347


27


830


9302


23


1,153


11358


23


11,733


108,651


152


2378


68,466


55


2333


16342


32


7346


61,920


47


3,652


32304


267


7,773


83.186


288


2,705


29.297


85


9,443


97,423


315


459,097


4.631,477


15,727

1










3

I*

CQ



c .a

^^£

e8 e8 a

See S
>



Johnson . . .

Knox

Kosciutko .
Lafrange . .
Lake



Laporte ...
Lawrence
Madison . . .
Marion —
Marshall . .



Martin

Miami

Monroe

Montgomery .
Morgan



Newton.
Noble...
Ohio ....
Orange..
Owen . . .



Parke..
Perry . .
Pike...
Porter.
Posey..



Pulaski...
Putnam....
Randolph.

Ripley

Rush



Scott

Shelby...
Spencer..
Starke . . .
Steuben..



St. Joseph . . .

Sullivan

Switzerland .
Tippecanoe..
Tipton



Union

Vanderburgh.

Vermillion

Vigo



Wabash

Warren

Warrick

Washington .

Wayne

Wells

White

Whitley



ToUl 861,024



7,484

3385

30,757

28.797

2331

8,681
5334
7.765
4,147
19396

8,439
12,954

8,949
28,746

8,147

1,631

28,751

2369

6,660

15,055

14,750
2,065
3,175
5313
2327

5,766
14.058
7359
4,853
9,460

1,264
4,738
8,103
1,614
31348

10,441
9373
5,124
8395
5339

3,451

563

1317

1,793

18.614
6,683
3322
9312

5350
12,759

4381
16306



55
20
36

240



67
20
21
102
5



95

30

798

422



10
1

33
21

205
3
27
22
11



109
38
94

230

1

22
4

7
6

33

842

30

39

269

28
5
14
13

24

179

21

9

52

260
75
73



9,719



427

234

2.093

1337

161

656
260
484
263
I3O8

363
746
335
2,078
633

95

2344

119

368



1.126
111
201
252
226

428
863
620
215
1.143

53
295

79

173

1323

684
811
289
568
414

199
39
173
112

1309
667
247
496

280

767

262

1348



55384



34311
48^58
77387
42,150
30,052

33,160
40,388
45321
48,743
73,496

25315
52,967
37,110
6.5.084
51,678

14,184
55,012
7,925
42,662
39,047

46,433
25,267
35,724
17311
74394

40,316
115.790
62,791
31.759
40327

12310
18:^,496
108.420
28.720
28,669

187.910
46,^17

61.444
12,972

19,166
43.213
21,959
191,843

52331
,^,297
141398
56,940

50,824
67,692
42,460
37,727



4,795,639



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



AGRICULTUKAL STATISTICS.



203



MILK, BUTTER, CHEESE, EGGS AND POULTRY.



Milk, Butter, Cheese, Poultry and Eggs^ Product for 1899,



COUNTIES.



Milk. 1899,
Gallons.



Butter,

18i^,
Pounds.



Cheese, , Poultry,

1899. 1899.

Pounds.; Dozens.



Eggs,

1899,
Dosens.



Adams

Allen

Bartholomew

Benton

Blackford ...

Boone

Brown

Carroll

Cass

Clark

Clay

Clinton

Crawford

Daviess

Dearborn

Decatur

Dekalb

Delaware

Dubois

Elkhart

Fayette

Floyd

Fountain

Franklin

Fulton

Gibson

Grant

Greene ,

Hamilton

Hancock

Harrison

Hendricks —

Henry

Howard

Huntington . .

Jackson

Jasper

Jay

Jefferson

Jennings



2,118r'^19

3,l*22.510

1,278,128

9S1,3()1

381.390

1,698,406
512,611
1.576.232
1.24,5.319
1,488394

1.254,832
2,805,069

502.687 ,
1.123,617
1.422,042 I

933,748
1,689,054
2,432.970 I

4a=>,048
2.837,326

819,405 '

897,120

978,775 ,

1.515,235 I

1,144386

1,223,227 I
3,903,093 I
1,270,099 I
2,069,756
1,601351

1,466.652
1,697,607
2,225^544
1.480,396
1,863,736

1,038,974

971.280

1398,890

1,470.779

819,045



401,a36
840,-«3
353,98:5
143,461
56360

533.400
163365
430.193
298,720
333,657

430,487
417319
163,463
298,052
405,150

260.725
555397
679,442
m3,768
511,862

240336
263,046
240,478
440,424
324,924

3.S9,675
417352
331,778
682354
462,484

457379
413319
374,705
389,431
440,103

885322
186,037
429372
286,458
236,199



61313

409,466

1330



418
823
50
781
391



172



338
216



130
410



1,024
500



141

1393 !

175

40 1
96 '
2.385 I
2.947
3,000

1387 I

68,794

5308 I

1334

100

4350
3,425
774
3373
1,662 ,



6,795
13,060
14,607
4396
2,729

30,700
68,956
15310
8370
9,167

11,678
14318

3,905
15,857

6319

8,695
10,937
10,943

3,999
16,947



4,060
18376
11322
26.986

18,930
28,297 I
11,935 I
15,216 I
12,460

11,191
19,461
13,838
15,766
113-'i9

14,489
7,948
12,447

8,799
20312



660320
819,464
349,044
108316
115315

762,106
209318
592394
623,792
321,067

230,901
419,726
246,992
279373
3W370

316,462
883314
580399
307,395
937,656

220,375
126,199
228,171
707329
389319

323,732
4«6,182
471,029
552,647
573,723

626,461
432,931
480,321
399,062
432.275

448.915
227,915
773,430
454.059
323379



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



204



BOARD OF AGRICULTURE.



COUNTIES.



Johnson . . .

Knox

Koscinsko .
Lagrange . .
Lake



Milk. 1899,
Qallons.



Martin

Miami

Monroe

Montgomery 1,484 »56y

Morgan 1,022341

Newton

Noble

Ohio

Orange

Owen



374,934

2/M8.52t>

351,855

826,357

1,222,605

1,133,561
661.115

Porter 2,^90,2*^5



Parke.
Perry .
Pike.



Posey.



Wabath 1^39,135

Warren 653,585

Warrick ' 855,879

Washington 1 ,697,88.")



Wayne .,
Wells....
White . .
Whitley .



2,920^14
2^**9.ft>5
1.102,882
1.543,684



Batter,

1899.
Pounds.



1,492,783
1,008,722
2,206,748
2,021,415 1
10,341 ;i57 ,

Laporte 1357,827

Lawrence I 746.429

Madison ' 2,267,392

Marion 4/>99,088 i

Marshall 1,651,195 ,

980,662

l,783,5r)8

836,a33



618,114



Pulaski I 1,012,847

Putnam ' 1,294,4:^>

Randolph 2,070.06.5

Ripley ],7(/7,913

Rush ' 1,374,5U)

I

Scott 418,645

Shelby 2,100,825

Spencer 739,243

SUrke 537,755

Sleuben 1,524330

St.Joseph 2,796,805 '



SuII i van 1 ,0*»s,026

Switzerland 800,585

Tippecanoe 1,4*25316

Tipton 702325

Union 1324,702

Vanderburg i 2,425,20} i

Vermillion ; 756,415

Vigo 1301,952



438346
253,734
523311
547,785
315,182

354,754
191,ia4
500,270
671,5:57
386321

375,170
405,1.52
196315
392375
246327

58310
420,006
107,842
23:5 ,6a3
258358

S15396
211.814
1.52,2:52
2^50.467
199,765

222374
a38,0:i8
54439.5
522,601
323,483

161,ia5
407,437
2873">6
125378
411,796

527,445
311,836
311.7:59
3*5,742
136,062

249,n61
285 ,?.♦:;
204312
3:^,498

498,491
190,473
353,497
518,474

425,960
620,981
266,423
371325



Cheeset

1899.
Pounds.



Total 144333,666, 31,905,140



Poultry,

1899,
Dozens.



I



50

7314

10

2300

619

844

756

918

2312

1,748

83:^

351,913

1313

953



75

20
1,780 I

41 !
1305

I
1302

12 ,



3 ;

268 ,



40

400 ;

10350
500

4
122 .
112 '
12



950

7 .

2,239

9300

100

I
75 I
304

:<9«

M9

I
100 i

6 ;

331

500 I

93,'588
6,880



I



I



I



Dozens.



19370
14,189
12,0ft4

8,002
7,200

7346
6,7<)0
17,240
2<»360
11,812

8,109
10.065

736:5
20,628
18,754

12,211
24,205 I

1,852 I
21,074

7361

22,188
22.,3*»3
22307
4,940 ,
8,112

9,469
16,174 I
29.879 '

8,747
16,407

3,433 '
19,96.3
9395
4,167
6,123

9,099
15,970
12,2^)0
1539:5

6,860

6395
4.689
9.972
12390

r2,&'55
7.670
9378

18,847

35,204
12,825
12,900
6,760



1.083,403 1,^41,702 39,069,760



408384
758372
749,606
402,635
297302

2:13321
281399
512,738
1,653.677
505,276

274334
463,939
214.477
366388
440350

174358
533,921
124,000
370321
386332

349342
216,704
216,104
185,431
2j6366

291304
490,028
501,424
674.165
332,977

190371
459.257
399335
110,197
387323

346,189
462350
785,684
322367
231381

196,175
162,487
157,232

277329

554337
190.988

:«i,4a5

1,183323

403,422
693,459
.321,755
.395,411



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



AGRICULTURAL STATIf-TICS.

LABOR.



205



Farm and Domestic Labor, 1899.



COUNTIES.


la


Average Wages
Per Alonth.
With Board.


d

si •

3.2:-=


Average Wages
Per Week.
With Board.


COUNTIES.


Hi


? c o

<


d

Ill


1-1


Adams


282
567
6tt5
858
49

329
75
447
343
282

746

427

75

388
156

438
320
351
225
333

a52
127
393
273
172

698

:^2

314
298
373

215
a35
329
263
2i9

393
448
197
264

159
458
972
331

563
444
450
267


S12 71

13 35

14 71

15 86
12 28

15 87

12 02
15 19

13 40
12 47

14 10
14 69

12 28
14 02

13 02

13 64

12 32

13 61

12 H.5

14 77

14 58

13 34

14 41
13 48
13 7S

15 01

12 72

13 34

14 62

13 48

12 32

14 89

14 52

15 46

13 85

10 50

14 63

13 as

13 66

11 55

14 80
1197
13 95

13 25

14 10

14 56

15 54


74

438

120

108

9

158
27
97
99
90

609
145

28
157

45

107
177

115
342
123

ia5

16

90
89
69

152
132
67
69
119

107
87
61
54
60

^
89

ia5

54

38

76

140

85

101

76
157
174


$1 24 I Madison

15? I; Marion

2 08 MarshaU

2 20 ! Martin

1 77 Miami

1 54 1 Monroe

138 Montgomery..
1 51 1 Morgan

1 57 ' Nftwtnn


505
654
269
152
324

123
574

387
493
331

22

197
189
643
139

153

289
821
187
289

263
249
716
105
850

364
101
279
469
734

81

858
2:i6
233
584

245
476

ass

518
393

253
363
2:u
611
219


914 93

13 26

14 09

14 02

13 90

15 28

14 &S

15 77

16 17
14 53

12 28

13 03

14 17

15 41

11 17

14 51
14 66
14 67
14 17

16 55

13 06

12 67

14 71

12 91

13 68

12 63

12 51

13 41

15 65
13 36

1160
15 19
15 31

15 73

12 (>4

13 96

14 45
14 72

16 70

11 70

12 91
14 42
14 84
14 50
12 47


155
1,645
62
95
97

14
176

67
102
139

14
19
42
124
26

39

58
95

as

115

47
65

175
16

140

122
13

1?0
495
64

41
149
€7
59
697

51
46
38
61
55

61

288

122

81

100


$166
1 59


Allen


Bartholomew..

Benton

Blackiord

Boone


1 37

las

154

1 84


Brown


1 49


Carroll


1 61


Cass


2 2.S


Clark


1 42

1 59
153 ,
1 40 '
1 42
1 40 1

1 40 1
16.5 '

1 58
1 45


Noble


1 58


Clay


Ohio


1 22


Clinton


Orange

Owen


1 46


Crawford


1 24


Daviess


Parke


1 60


Dearborn


Perry


1 80


Decatur


Pike


1 16


Dekalb


Porter

Posey


2 05


Delaware


1 62


Dubois


Pnlnaki ...


1 56


Elkhart


1 66 Putnam

1 70 ' Randolph


1 77


Fayette


1 54


Floyd


2 00
144
142 ,
1 47


Ripley


1 62


Fountain


Rush


1 67


Franklin


Scott


1 00


Fulton


Shftlbv


1 46


Gibson


'l — •

1 33 1 Spencer

1 88 Starke

1 21 11 Steuben

1 41 ! St. Joseph ....
164 gullivan

1 38 ' Switzerland ..
1 66 1 Tippecanoe .. .
1 53 1 Tinton


1 22


Grant


1 70


Greene


1 62


Hamilton

Hancock

Harrison

lendricks

Henry


1 87
127

102

1 87
1 84


loward


147
1 47 1

149 1
1 96 1


Union


1 54


luntington

Jackson


Vanderburgh .

Vermillion....
Viffo


1 72
1 43


Jasper


1 52


Jav


1 51
1 52 1

1..

144 1
1 53
1 38 1

1 87
1 87 1
1 80,
165


Wabash

Warren

Warrick

Washington ..

Wayne

Wells

White

Whitley

Total

Average....


1 79


Jefferson

Jennings

Johnson

Knox


184
119

1 09
1 72


Kosciusko


1 60
1 77
148


Laporte


33,404


127,785 00
113 89


11,714


14,364 00
$166


Lawrence



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



SPECIAL REPORT



Indiana State Board of Agriculture



The Hog.



PREPARED UNDER THE DIRECTION OF HON. W. W. STEVENS, MEMBER OF
THE BOARD, AND CHARLES DOWNING, SECRETARY.



INTRODUCTORY.

The Indiana State Board of Agriculture is yery desirous of enlarging its
sphere of usefulness, and to this end herewith presents the first of a proposed series
of special reports on such leading agricultural topics as are of paramount im-
portance to the farmer.

The swine industry is first to receive consideration. The hog has always been
an important factor in the State's advancement, and in order that he may be still
better understood and become a more important factor than ever before in the
commonwealth's prosperity and welfare, his rearing and successful management
from start to finish is carefully considered.

Probably the most complete and carefully prepared work on swine diseases and
their remedies ever issued in this country is presented herewith, and the very best
talent in the land has contributed interesting and valuable suggestions along the
lines of practical breeding and management.

We felt that no one man knew all there was worth knowing on a subject so
extensive and important as that of swine husbandry, and therefore drew upon a
host of practical breeders and specialists for such contributions as we thought
would make the most valuable report.

To all who have thus gratuitously given us a helping hand we are under last-
ing obligationp, and to them we will give credit for any good results that may
follow. W. W. STEVENS,

For the Board.
(207)



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



208 BOAED OF AGRICULTURE.



BREEDS OF SWINE*



To give anything like a complete history of the different breeds of
swine bred in this country would require more space than is allowed us
for this special report, so we must, under the above heading, give only a
very brief synopsis of the characteristics of the different breeds that are
favorites among our farmers.

The introduction of the hog into this country dates back to the very
first settlements. It is said that Columbus brought swine to Hispanolia
in the year 1493. They were introduced into Florida by DeSoto in 1538.
They were first introduced into Virginia in 1609. It is said that the
fecundity of swine in Virginia forests was so great that in eighteen
years after their introduction the inhabitants of Jamestown had
to palisade the town to keep them out. There were no wild hogs In
America when first discovered, but they soon ran wild as then managed,
and spread rapidly through many parts of the country. The improved
swine we have to-day is not the outcome of the wild hog, but has gradu-
ally developed from the frequent importation of the best breeds found in
other countries. The origin and history of the several prominent breeds^
will necessarily have to be very brief in this connection.



THE POLAND-CHINAS.

The contentions and discussions among the breeders and friends of
the different strains of these hogs as to their origin and name, as well as
who should have the most credit for efforts to perfect and bring them into
popular favor, would, if published, fill volumes. Among the names which
have been given them from time to time, and by which they are still
known in some parts of the country, are, "Magie," "Moore," **Poland,"
"Butler County," "Big-boned China," etc. This breed had its origin in
that part of southwestern Ohio lying between the Big Miami and Little
Miami rivers, namely, in the counties of Butler and Warren, during the
years from 1835 to 1S40. It is also generally conceded that the ground-
work was stock locally known as Warren County hogs, and these were the
result of crossing together the "Byfield," the "Russia" and the "Big
Chinas." Later on the Irish Grazier blood was introduced, and probably
some Berkshire blood was mixed in as well. No one man probably had
more to do in the formation of (liis breed than another. It was. In fact,
the result of the labors of many. For more than half a century now they



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



SPECIAL REPOET ON THE HOG. 209

have been bred as a distinct breed without any infusion of foreign blood,
and in the hands of progressive breeders have developed Into probably the
most popular breed of swine found in the whole country.

This breed of swine has gradually developed with the country, or
rather has been bred up to meet the demands of farmers in the great corn
belt of the United States where large size, quick maturity and hardiness
are the main characteristics of a hog. In the detailed description of the
Poland-China as now bred, we find the following characteristics:

Head short and wide; face short and slightly dished; eyes large and
prominent: ears small and thin, with tips drooping gracefully; neck wide,
deep and short, and slightly arched; jowl broad and deep; shoulders deep
and full; chest large, deep and roomy, making a large girth Just back of
the shoulders; back broad, carrying same width from shoulder to ham;
Bides and ribs full and smooth; belly and flank wide, straight and full;
hams and rump broad, full, long and wide; legs and feet medium length,
straight, set well apart and squarely under the body; tail small, smooth
and tapering; coat fine, straight and smooth; color black, with white face
or on lower jaw; white on feet and tip of tail, and a few small, clear
white spots on body not objectionable; size, large for age and condition;
boars two years old and over, if in good flesh, should weigh not less than
500 pounds. Sows, same age and condition, not less than 450 pounds.
Boars, eighteen months old, in good condition, not less than 400 pounds;
sows, 350 pounds. Boars, twelve months old, not less than 300 pounds;
sows, 300 pounds. Boars and sows, six months old, not less than 150
pounds. Other ages in proportion.

BERKSHIRBS.

Thi! first importation of Berkshires into America of which we have any
record was in 1823. For some yeai^ this breed was very popular, and
large importations were made. But the careless, neglectful systems then
in vogue with too many farmers are not adapted to maintaining the good
qualities given the breed by English breeding and feeding, and deteriora-
tion followed, and the breed was everywhere discarded. About 1865 new
importations were made and the breed suddenly sprang into popularity
again, and is now widely disseminated through all parts of the country.
When fine quality of meat is the object sought for the Berkshire probably
stands second to no other breed. Great Improvement has been made in
size and symmetry in the past forty years, but the spirit of improvement
is still abroad and the standard of perfection is placed high.

Prominent among the good qualities that seem to make them favorites
are:

1. Great muscular power and vitality which render them less liable
to disease than some other breeds.

2. Activity combined with strong digestive and assimilative powers.

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210 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE.

3. They are remarkable for their prolificacy, as well as for being
careful mothers and good sucklers.

4. The pigs are strong, smart and active at birth and consequently
less liable to mishaps.

5. They fatten readily at any age, while they may be fed to any
reasonable weight desired.

(). Their flesh is the highest quality of pork.

7. Power of the boar to transmit the valuable qualities of the breed
to its progeny, when used as a cross.

8. Their unsurpassed uniformity in color, marking and quality.

It is doubtful if we have any hog that is nearer thoroughbred in its
best sense or more certain to reproduce themselves with fidelity, than the
improved Berkshires crossed with other breeds, especially the larger ones.
They make the best feeding hogs possible.

Characteristics.— Head and face short and well dished; eyes large and
dark hazel or gray; ears medium size and erect; neck full, deep and
arched; jowl firm and neat; shoulders broad, deep and full; chest large,
wide and roomy; back broad and straight; hams broad, full and long; legs
straight and strong; coat firm, straight and smooth; color, black, with
white on feet, face, tip of tail and an occasional splash oh arm; size, large
for age. Boar, two years old and over, not less than 450 pounds; sow,
same age, 400 pounds. Boars, eighteen months old, 350 pounds; sow,
same age. 325 pounds. Boar, twelve months old, 300 pounds.

CHESTER WHITE.

The Chester County white hog is a native of Chester County, Pennsyl-
vania. In the year 1818 a pair of fine white pigs was imported from Bed-
fordshire, England. They proved to be a good hog, and by careful selec-
tion and judicious crossing for many years the modern Chester White
was produced. They are appropriately classed with the large breeds,
growing, if kept, to probably the largest size of any other hog, and they
will hold their white color perfectly under all circumstances. Docility
and cleanliness are some of their marked characteristics. The greatest
objection urged against the breed is their lack of hardiness, or their
tendency to degenerate under careless treatment or neglect. Their de-
scription calls for:

Head and face shoit and wide; eyes large and bright; ears medium
size and pointing forward; necjt short and thick; jowl large; back and
loin broad and straight; body lengthy and deep; hams broad and deep;
legs short and straight and well set apart; coat firm and either straight or
wavy; color white; the action easy and graceful, and style attractive; dis-
position is quiet, and they are easily handled; take good care of them-
selves; size large for age and condition; boars two years and over, if in
good flesh, should weigh not less than 500 pounds. Sow, same age and



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SPECIAL REPORT ON THE HOG. 211

condition, not less than 450 pounds. Boars, eighteen months old, In good
flesh, should weigh not less than 400 pounds; sows. 350. Boars, twelve
months old, not less than 300 pounds; sows, 300. Boars and sows, six
months old, not less than 150 pounds each, and other ages in proportion.

VICTORIAS.

This is a breed that has not won a very wide reputation throughout
the country, but they are a hog of considerable merit, and are fancied by
good breeders here and there in many parts of the country. Mr. Leland.
of New York, says they originated in Saratoga County, of that State.
They were made by crossing the Byfield hog with the native in which
there was a strain of the Grazier. Subsequent crosses were made with
the Yorkshire and Suffolk, the result being a purely white hog of medium
size. These pigs, if pure bred, should all have a direct descent from a sow
called Queen Victoria, which may be said to be the mother of the family.
They seem to suit breeders in the Eastern States, where a medium-sized
hog is desirable, and white is not an objectionable color. In size, boars
two years old and over, when in good condition, should weight not less
than 550 pounds; sows, same age and condition, 450 pounds. Boars,
twelve months old, not less than 300 pounds; sows, in good flesh, 250
pounds. Pigs, Ave to six months old, 140 to 160 pounds.

SUFFOLKS.

This is an old breed of swine of English origin, and it is a true breeder.
It is probably the most popular breed in England. It attains maturity at
an early age and is said to be always in condition to kill from the time
they are a month old. The breeders of this hog claim that they get from
it the most meat to the least bone and the most pork with the least food.
They are highly recommended for crossing on other hogs. They are in-
variably white, but sometimes have bluish spots on the skin. They can
be made to weigh four hundred pounds.

ESSEX.

The Essex is a l)lack hog, originating hi the south of England. They
are very squarely built, fatten easily and weigli, when full grown, from
250 to 275 pounds. For the gentleman in town, or the small farmer, they
will give satisfaction. They thrive well on pasture without any grain
food. They will get fat and ready for the market on clover. Their color
enables them to withstand the hottest sun of July or August witliout hav-



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