Indiana. State Board of Agriculture.

Annual report of the Indiana State Board of Agriculture online

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STATE DAIRY ASSOCIATION. 583

STATE AVERAGES. Entire

Average Score.

Illinois 90.52

Minnesota 90.17

Iowa 89.65

Nebraska 80.07

Wisconsin 87.60

Indiana 87.59

Kansas 86.67

South Dakota 85.86

To the highest scorer in each State having twenty or more entries
a silver cup was awarded as a State prize. Indiana lacked just four tubs
of winning one of these cups, though her average was higher than some
which did receive one.

AMERICAN DAIRY JOURNALS.

The publishers of these journals will not doubt gladly send copies to
those who may apply for them.

American Cheese Maker, Grand Rapids, Mich. Monthly.

American Dairyman, New York City, N. Y. Weekly.

Chicago Produce, Chicago, 111. Weekly.

Creamery Gazette, Des Moines, Iowa. Monthly.

Creaiiery Journal, Waterloo, Iowa. Monthly.

Dairy and Creamery, Chicago, 111. Semi-monthly.

Dairy World, Chicago, 111. Monthly.

Elgin Dairy Report, Elgin, 111. Weekly.

Hoard's Dairyman, Fort Atkinson, Wis. Weekly.

Jersey Bulletin and Dairy Farmer, Indianapolis, Ind. Weekly.

Milk News, Chicago, 111. Semi-monthly.

New York Produce Review and American Creamery, New York City.
Weekly.

Practical Dairyman, Indianapolis, Ind. Monthly.

St. Paul Dairy Reporter, St Paul, Minn. Weekly.

Note—The National oleomargarine and the filled cheese laws are
printed in full in the 1897 Report of the Dairy Association. The Indiana
pure food law is printed in the 1898 Report of the Dairy Association.



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PROCEEDINGS



Indiana Horticultural Society,

HELD AT

INDIANAPOLIS, INDIANA, JANUARY 3 AND 4,
1000.



PROGRAM FOR THE MEETING.

WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 3, 1900, 1:30 P. M.

President's Address CM. Hobbs, Bridgeport.

Reports of Secretary and Treasurer.

Reports of Vice-Presidents.

Report of Committee on Experimental Orchard.

Report of Superintendent of Experimental Orchard.

Joe A. Burton, Orleans.
General discussion of reports.
Appointment of Committees.

WEDNESDAY EVENING, 7:30.

Paper— "Crossing and Hybridizing*' Fred Domer, Lafayette.

Discussion.

Paper— "Essentials to Successful Orcharding."

W. F. DeVilbiss, Ft. Wayne.
Discussion led by L. D. Creel, Angola.
General discussion relating to Life Memberships in the Society.

THURSDAY MORNING, 9:00.
"Is the Carolina Poplar a Desirable Tree for Street Planting?"
Discussion led by W. B. Flick, Lawrence.
J. J. HoUowell, NoblesTille.
Paper—"A Plea for a More Complete Organization of Horticulturists."

J. C. Kimmell, Llgonler.
Discussion led by Cal Husselman, Auburn.
Paper— "The Local Horticultural Society's Program."

J. C. Grossman, Wolcottville.
Discussien led by Miss Lncretia Hobart, Indianapolis.

(584)



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INDIANA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 585

THURSDAY AFTERNOON, 1:30.

Paper— **The Value of Horticulture to Our Public Institutions."

Prof. A. W. Butler, Indianapolis.
Discussion led by Prof. T. J. Charlton, Plainfleld.
Dr. S. E. Smith, Richmond.
Supt. Alex. Johnson, Ft Wayne.
Paper— "What Can We Do Toward Creating a Better Sentiment Con-
cerning the Improvement of Our Rural School Grounds?"

Supt Lawrence Tuman, Anderson.
Paper— "Some Desirable Trees for Planting in School Grounds."

J. P. Brown, ConnersvIUe.
General Discussion.

THURSDAY EVENING, 7:30.

Election of OflScers.

Paper— "Some of the Essentials to Successful Fruit Growing."

R. Morrill, Benton Harbor, Mich.
Discussion.

FRIDAY MORNING, 9:00.

Paper— "The Apple— Its Origin and Development."

John Morgan, Plainfleld.
Discussion led by John Tilson, Franklin.
Report of Delegate to American Pomological Society.

W. H. Ragan, Greencastle.
Report of Committees.
Adjournment.

C. M. Hobbs, Bridgeport, J. Troop, Lafayette,

President Secretary.



PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS.



C. M. HOBBS, BRIDGEPORT.



It is with pleasure I greet the members of the Indiana Horticultural
Society in this our thirty-ninth annual meeting. During all these years this
Society, with its limited means and facilities, has done what it could in the
dissemination of horticultural knowledge and the promotion of the hor-
ticultural interests of the State. Being purely educational in its charac-
ter, it has never promoted private or business interests, and it is to
be hoped it never may.



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586 BOABD OF AGRIOULTUBE.

At our annual and summer meetings, we have had papers and dis-
cussions upon the scientific and practical aspects of horticulture in the
fullest meaning of that term. The propagation and growing of trees
and plants, the cultivation and marketing of fruits, forestry, landscape
gardening, floriculture, vegetable gardening, practical entomology, botany,
ornithology, geology and chemistry— all these subjects have been pre-
sented and discussed by persons of scholarship and experience, and these
discussions have appeared from year to year in our printed reports, mail-
ing a valuable reference library on horticultural subjects. These meet-
ings and reports have been of vast benefit to the horticultural Interests
of the State, and more especially to the beginner and the inexperienced.

This Society has encouraged the organization of county or local horti-
cultural societies throughout the State. These societies have done much to
promote horticultural interests in the locality where the meetings are
held. There are now 18 or 20 such societies in the State. The State So-
ciety has encouraged the growing of better fruits, fiowers and vegeta-
bles by offering premiums at Its annual and summer meetings, and at
the State Pair, to the exhibitors of the best specimens of these products.

As In all other lines of education, it is necessary that those who are
capable and see the importance of accurate knowledge and thorough
preparation should constantly press the importance of this upon the
people; the experienced must lead the inexperienced. Out of more than
100 million fruit trees planted annually in the United States, probably
not more than ten per cent, ever come into successful fruiting. This is
too great a loss of time and money, and shows the necessity of improve-
ment in our methods of planting and caring for trees.

With impoverished soils, and greater extremes of climate, caused
largely by the destruction of our forests, with insect foes and fungous
diseases brought from every quarter of the globe, and the competition of
the world's markets. It is absolutely necessary to success that the agri-
culturist and the horticulturist be thoroughly informed, and that he
be able to bring to his assistance all the aid that modern science, inves-
tigation and experience can give him.

As a basis for this preparation, we must start with the children in the
public schools. Eighty-five per cent, of the children who attend the com-
mon schools never get farther than that in a school education; forty to
fifty per cent, of these children remain on the farm or in the country. Is it
not then a most reasonable demand that the children in our public schools
should be taught those things that are of most interest to them, and that
are to be the most useful in after life?

The plea is sometimes made that all pupils in the school have not a
taste for these studies; that many will go into the trades and professions
for their life work, and this line of study will be of little use to them. All
children are not equally Interested In mathematics, but It Is taught to all
alike for Its practical use and as a mental discipline.



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INDIANA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 687

There is no better all-round thorough means of full, well rounded
mental development than nature study affords. If observing accurately,
recording correctly in the mind, comparing, grouping and inferring Justly,
and expressing cogently, are the foundation for a symmetrical and proper
development of the reasoning powers, is there a better field for the exer-
cise of these faculties than nature offers? I feel that it would have been
much better for me, and would be much better for my children, to know
more about themselves and the many important and interesting things
that are all about them, and with which they constantly have to do. It Is
vastly more Important that they should know these things, if they have
to give up some mathematics and some of the Islands of the sea.

Every American citizen should own a home, and a home is not
worthy of the name without its trees, shrubs, vines, fruits and flowers.
So horticulture appeals to every man, woman and child in a greater or
less degree. I hope this Society and each individual member will press
this matter home upon the educational authorities until the study of
nature in the common schools of the State shall be an accomplished fact.
Other States see the importance of this work and are moving out along
this line. .

New York State has an experienced teacher in nature study, whose
business it is to attend teachers* institutes and give special instruction as
to the best methods of teaching and illustrating nature study. Our State
should do as much.

In connection with this subject we must see to it that we have better
school buildings and grounds. Instead of the bare, muddy yard and un-
inviting surroundings, let us have at least some good lawn, ample shade,
and a few flower beds, where the children may be interested and in-
structed and may assist in beautifying the school yard. We have scarcely
made a beginning in this line of work in our State; much needs to be
done.

It is gratifying to know that our State is beginning to recognize the
importance of the subject of forestry. The last legislature gave us some
helpful legislation, and a State Forestry Association has been formed.
We hope this is the foundation for some active work in this very much
neglected yet important field.

We are pleased to be able to state that through the legislative commit-
tee of this Society, we were able to secure from the last legislature a law
which will greatly assist us In preventing the introduction and spread
of injurious insects and fungous diseases, and providing for the appoint-
ment of a State Entomologist to see that the law is enforced. The past
year's experience has proven that the law, when generally enforced, will
be of great benefit to the horticultural Interests of the State.

We are sorry to have to state that the last legislature failed to make
our regular annual appropriation of $1,000. The principal reason given
for this was that we had too large a surplus on hands. This unusual



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588 BOARD OF AGRICTJLTUEE.

surplus occurred by our funds getting temporarily tied up so that they
were not available, but came in in time to appear in our annual report as
surplus on hands.

We can not anticipate what the next General Assembly may do for
us, but it Is certainly a short-sighted policy in State legislation to fail to
encourage the development of the productive resources of the State. Con-
sidered as an investment or business proposition, it pays in the increased
taxable wealth of the State. The constitution of the State recognizes the
importance of agricultural education and provides for the same. Our
State has done and is doing something in this line, but certainly not as
much as the importance of the subject demands.

Neighboring and many other States have been more generous toward
horticulture, and as a result the horticultural interests of those States
have been developed to a much greater degree than in our State.

Illinois appropriates annually for horticulture $4,000

Prints 2,000 copies of reports.

Michigan appropriates 1,500

Prints 4,000 copies of reports.

Missouri appropriates 2,500

Minnesota appropriates 1,000

Iowa appropriates 2,500

Prints 5,000 copies of reports.

Wisconsin appropriates 1,500

Prints 800 copies of reports.

Ohio appropriates 1,000

New York appropriated a few years ago $15,000 annually for horticul-
tural purposes, to be used in one judicial district in the apple section of
the State. This work enlarged until it covered the whole field of agricul-
ture and embraced the entire State.

I wrote Prof. Bailey, of Cornell University, to know just how much
the State was now appropriating for horticultural purposes, and as to the
scope of the work in that State. The following is his reply:

"Ithaca, N. Y., December 20, 1899.
"The State of New York makes an appropriation of $55,000 a year for
the purpose of carrying on extension work in agriculture. Only a frac-
tion of this is used for horticultural work. The fund is divided approxi-
mately into halves, one-half of it being used for carrying on experiments
all over the State, and the other half for carrying on nature study work
in the schools and reading courses amongst the farmers. In the experi-
mental work, the horticultural department has the disbursement of a
part of the funds, but I suppose not more than three or four thousand
of the whole fund can be said to be devoted to horticultural purposes



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IXDIANA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 589

alone. We are of the opinion that this extension work is the most im-
portant work which the agricultural college has ever done. The fund
was originally given for horticultural wort alone, but gradually increased
in importance until it now covers all agricultural industries. It is an ap-
propriation for which we do not ask, but which the legislature seems to
be glad to give."

Too much depends upon the prosecution of this work for our State
to drop the work here. This Society has established an experimental
orchard in a favorable location where it hopes to test the comparative
merits of fruits, and give the results without bias to the public. It is the
purpose of those in charge to give special attention to the origination of
new varieties by cross fertilization, and to test all promising new va-
rieties that may come to notice elsewhere.

Many valuable varieties of fruits have originated in this State, and
have been extensively grown throughout the country. The Gregg rasp-
berry, Taylor and Snyder blackberry have proven very valuable over a
great extent of country and in a diversity of soil and climate. This So-
ciety should make a record of all the valuable fruits originating in the
State, by whom and where originated, with a general description of the
variety. This will bring proper credit to the State and place their his-
tory on authentic grounds for the future.

Our State possesses a great variety of soils, climate and topographical
features. All classes of fruits and varieties do not succeed equally well
in all parts of the State. We have, for instance, the lake region on the
north, where the climatic conditions are perceptibly affected by the pres-
ence of these large bodies of water; we have the Ohio River section;
the knob or hill section extending from the Ohio northward and terminat-
ing in Morgan County; and the prairie section of the northwestern portion
of the State.

I think this Society would do the horticultural interests of the State
great service in preparing a map of the State, defining these well marked
sections, and indicating, as far as can be, the classes of trees and fruits
best suited to each section.

I have not the time nor the inclination to discuss fully the subjects
presented here, but believe them of sufficient importance to claim the
careful consideration of this Society. I trust this thirty-ninth annual
meeting will be the most interesting and profitable in otir history.



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY.

FINANCIAL STATEMENT.

The following is a statement of the financial transactions for the fiscal
year ending Octol>er 31, 1899. With this is submitted a list of vouchers
and a summary of all moneys collected and paid into the hands of the



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590 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE.

Treasurer, with warrants drawn on that officer for the corresponding
period:

Summury of the lieceipts fov tin Year EwUng (Mtol^ r Jl, isuu.

Received for membership fees $87 50

Received from the Treasurer for office expenses 50 00

Total receipts $137 50

Summit mj of Cirdifit.

Balance due from last year $2 97

Paid for stationery and printing 30 90

Paid for freight and express 10 11

Paid for postage and postal cards 54 30

Paid for traveling expenses 24 05

Paid for telegrams 78

Paid for tree protectors for experimental orchard 2 00

Balance due the Society 12 39

Total S137 50

Acrount frith th Tiau^nrir.

To balance on hand November 1, 1898 $1,564 54

To State appropriation from State Treasurer 1,000 00

To cash received from the Secretary as membership fees 87 50

Total $2.(552 04

He has paid warrants 284 to 331, Inclusive 1,486 94

Balance in the treasury November 1, 1899 $1,165 10

Following is a list of warrants drawn on tlie Treasurer for the fiscal

year ending October 31, 1899:
1898.

December 8, Warrant No. 284, S. Johnson, Treasurer, to pay pre-
miums at annual meeting $51 50

December 8, Warrant No. 285, W. R. Lazenby, expenses at an-
nual meeting 14 80

December 8, Warrant No. 286, Mary Teas, services as Entry

Clerk 5 00

December 8, Warrant No. 287, Mrs. H. M. Dunlap, expenses at

annual meeting 12 25

December 8, Warrant No. 288, J. A. Burton, expenses at Board

meeting 10 00



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INDIANA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 591

December 8, Warrant No. 289, J. Troop, Secretary, expenses at

Board meeting 12 00

December 8, Warrant No. 290, Flora Chlzum, stenographer 20 00

December 8, Warrant No. 291, Snead Thomas, expenses at

Board meeting 7 60

December 8, Warrant No. 292, J. C. Stevens, expenses at Board

meeting 10 60

i^ecember 8, Warrant No. 293, G. F. Newton, expenses at Board

meeting 13 00

liecember 8, Warrant No. 294, E. Y. Teas, expenses at Board

meeting 2 00

December 8, Warrant No. 295, C. M. Hobbs, expenses as Presi-
dent 14 00

December 8, Warrant No. 296, L. B. Custer, expenses at Board

meeting 6 50

December 8, Warrant No. 297, C. M. Hobbs, expenses as commit-
tee at Orleans 6 60

December 8, AVarrant No. 298, W. W. Stevens, expenses as com-
mittee at Orleans 1 50

December 8, Warrant No. 299, J. Troop, expenses as committee

at Orleans 4 50

December 8, Warrant No. 300, L. B. Custer, expenses as commit-
tee at Orleans 11 50

December 8, Warrant No. 301, W. H. Ragan, expenses as dele-
gate 18 00

December 8, Warrant No. 302, John Craig, expenses at annual

meeting 43 00

December 8, Warrant No. 303, S. Johnson, expenses as Treas-
urer 10 00

1899.

January 25, Warrant No. 304, J. Troop, Secretary, part of salary. 100 00

February 6, Warrant No. 305, C. M. Hobbs, to pay for land for

experimental orchard 600 00

February 22, Warrant No. 306, J. Troop, Secretary, office ex-
penses 50 00

March 4, Warrant No. 307, S. Johnson, Treasurer, to pay ex-
penses Executive Committee meeting 12 20

March 4, Warrant No. 308, S. Johnson, delegate to Illinois meet-
ing and other expenses of Legislative Committee 18 00

March 15, Warrant No. 309, M. G. Huey, premium omitted at an-
nual meeting 1 25

April 19, Warrant No. 310, Wm. B. Burford, wrapping and label-
ing 000 reports 2 50

August 10, Warrant No. 311, canceled.



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592 BOARD OF AGRIOULTUKE.

August 10, Warrant No. 312, Albertson & Hobbs, trees for experi-
mental orchard 16 SO

August 10, Warrant No. 313, C. M. Hobbs, expenses at summer

meeting 4 50

August 10, Warrant No. 314, S. Johnson, Treasurer, expenses at

summer meeting 5 50

August 10, Warrant No. 315, G. F. Newton, expenses at summer

meeting 5 00

August 10, Warrant No. 316, S. Johnson, Treasurer, for premiums

at summer meeting 28 50

August 10, Warrant No. 317, J. A. Burton, expenses as Superin-
tendent of experimental orchard 6 89

August 10, Warrant No. 318, Snead Thomas, expenses at sum-
mer meeting 5 35

August 10, Warrant No. 319, J. C. Stevens, expenses at sum-
mer meeting 9 70

August 10, Warrant No. 520, E. Y. Teas, expenses at summer

meeting 4 20

August 10, Warrant No. 321, J. A. Burton, expenses at summer

meeting 8 80

August 10, Warrant No. 322, Miss Flora Chizum, stenographer. . 15 00

August 10, Warrant No. 323, C. R. Barns, expenses and services

at summer meeting 26 30

August 10, Warrant No. 324, Stanley Coulter, expenses and serv-
ices at summer meeting 6 00

August 10, Warrant No. 325, J. C. Power, expenses and services

at summer meeting 13 50

August 10, Warrant No. 326, Mrs. V. C. Merideth, expenses and

services at summer meeting 14 70

August 10, Warrant No. 327, J. Troop, Secretary, expenses at sum-
mer meeting 50

August 10, Warrant No. 328. J. Troop, part of salary 150 00

August 10, Warrant No. 329, C. M. Hobbs, expenses as President

of Board 6 50

August 10, Warrant No. 330, Mrs. W. W. Stevens, expenses at

summer meeting 13 50

October 31, Warrant No. 331, J. Troop, Secretai-y, office expenses. 87 50

Total nASC) 94



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INDIANA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 593

TREASURER'S ANNUAL REPORT.

Irvington, Ind., Janwaiy 3, 1900.

Report of the Treasurer of the Indlaua Horticultural Society for the
fiscal year ending October 31, 1899:

JJebits.

1898.

October 31. Balance in the treasury at last report $1,564 54

November 23. Received from State Treasurer 1,000 00

1899.
October 31. Received from Secretary Troop, membership fees.. 87 50

Total receipts $2,652 04

1899.
October 31. Paid on Warrants Nos. 284 to 331, inclusive, except-
ing No. 311, which was canceled $1,486 94



Balance in treasury $1,165 10

Respectfully submitted,

SYLVESTER JOHNSON, Treasui-er.

These reports were referred to the Finance Committee.

Reports from the Vice-Presidents were then read as follows:

VICE-PRESIDENT'S REPORT— FIRST DISTRICT.



MR.S. W. W. STEVENS, SALEM.



The report of the Vice-President from the Southern District will of
necessity be quite brief. There is rarely a year when our fruit interests
have paid so small a dividend. The summer and fall of 1898 was so very



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