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A treatise on architecture and building construction, prepared for students of the International Correspondence Schools (Volume 5) online

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A TREATISE

ON

ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING
CONSTRUCTION

PREPARED FOR STUDENTS OF

THE INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOLS

SCRANTON, PA.



Volume V



HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE
ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

SPECIFICATIONS

BUILDING SUPERINTENDENCE

CONTRACTS AND PERMITS

WITH PRACTICAL QUESTIONS AND EXAMPLES



First Edition



SCRANTON

THE COLLIERY ENGINEER "CO.
1899



Entered according to the Act of Congress, in the year 1899, by THE CoLUERY

ENGINEER COMPANY, in the office of the Librarian of

Congress, at Washington.



PRESS OK EATON & MAINS.

NEW YORK.



:r?n
t&rary

NA



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CONTENTS.



HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE. Section. Page.

Ancient Architecture . 20 1

Egyptian Architecture 20 3

Asiatic Architecture 20 15

Grecian Architecture 20 21

Etruscan Architecture 20 40

Modern Architecture 20 41

Roman Architecture . '. 20 41

Early Christian Architecture 20 52

Medieval Architecture 20 65

Romanesque Style 20 66

Gothic Style 20 79

Domestic Architecture 20 101

Renaissance Architecture 20 108

Classic Revival 20 155

Recent Architecture in Europe .... 20 164

Gothic Revival . . / 20 169

American Architecture .-20 170

Commercial Architecture 20 183

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN.

Nature of Design 21 1

Composition and Design 21 2

Elements of Beauty 21 9

Composition 21 11

Interior Arrangement 21 19

iii



iv CONTENTS.

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN Continued. Section. Page.

Exterior Treatment 21 27

Classic Standards of Proportion .... 21 36

Five Orders of Architecture 21 36

Classic Moldings 21 69

Intercolumniation . . - 21 78

Pedestals 21 81

Arcades and Colonnades 21 82

Supercolumniation 21 90

Pilasters . 21 92

Imposts 21 94

Balusters 21 96

Doors and Windows 21 97

Medieval Proportion 21 99

Window Tracery 21 105

Medieval Details 21 111

Nature and Function of Ornament . . 22 1

Arrangement of Form and Color ... 22 3

Egyptian Ornament 22 5

Greek Ornament 22 10

Roman Ornament 22 19

Byzantine Ornament 22 22

Romanesque Ornament 22 24

Gothic Ornament 22 26

Renaissance Ornament 22 36

Natural Leaves and Blossoms .... 22 51

Practical Planning 22 59

Propriety of Style 22 61

Italian Renaissance 22 61

French Renaissance 22 65

German Renaissance 22 71

English Renaissance 22 71

Early American Residence Architecture .22 ?'

Relation and Proportion of Rooms . . 22 87

City Houses 22 105

Country Houses 22 117

Office Buildings 22 12*

Churches 148



CONTENTS. v

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN Continued. Section. Page.

Armories ... 22 149

Educational Buildings ....... 22 151

Public Buildings . . . 22 152

SPECIFICATIONS.

Introduction 23 1

Form of Specification 23 4

Heading and General-Condition Clause .23 4

Masonry . . . . . .23 10

Carpenter Work 23 23

Hardware 23 39

Plumbing 23 43

Gas-Fitting ... 23 52

Heating 23 53

Painting 23 54

Electrical Work 23 5G

BUILDING SUPERINTENDENCE.

Introduction . 24 1

Duties of a Superintendent ..... 24 2

Superintendence of the Work .... 24 5

Practical Work 24 19

Inspection of Lumber 24 75

Superintendence of the Framing ... 24 84

Superintendence of the Plastering ... 24 101

Superintendence of the Brickwork . . . 24 107

Superintendence of the Plumbing ... 24 111

Superintendence of the Electrical Work .24 118

Superintendence of the Joinery .... 24 121

Hardware 24 136

Superintendence of the Painting ... 24 138

Conclusion 24 141

CONTRACTS AND PERMITS.

Introduction 25 1

Contracts 25 2

Character of the Agreement 25 2

Carrying out the Agreement 25 25



vi CONTENTS.

CONTRACTS AND PERMITS Continued. Section. Page.

Abandonment of Contract 25 27

Fraudulent Contracts 25 32

Completion of the Contract 25 34

Penalties and Premiums 25 38

Extra Work 25 46

Responsibility and Risk 25 55

Architect's and Owner's Responsibility . 25 59

Legal Meaning of Words 25 61

Forms of Contract 25 63

Permits 25 71

Application for Permit Forms .... 25 72

Granting of Permit 25 77

New York Building -Law 25 79

QUESTIONS AND EXAMPLES. Section.

History of Architecture . . . 20

Architectural Design 21

Architectural Design (Continued) 22

Specifications 33

Building Superintendence 24

Contracts and Permits . . 25



HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE.



AXCIEXT ARCHITECTURE.



INTRODUCTION.

1. Architecture had its origin in the efforts of man to
provide for himself a means of protection from the inclem-
ency of the seasons. At this period of the world's history,
mankind was divided into but three general classes : hunters,
shepherds, and agriculturists. The hunters dwelt mostly in
rock clefts, or caves, while the shepherd pitched his tent
wherever night overtook him in his wanderings with his
flock; but the agriculturist became a permanent resident
where he tilled his land, sowed his seed, and gathered his
crops. Hence, we find different forms of habitations for dif-
ferent classes of people, which forms again vary in different
climates and localities. In the agriculturists we find the
nucleus of a community, and to this class we must look for
the founders of a city and the constructors of permanent
dwellings, of tombs and temples, and of other architectural
edifices, which serve as monuments of instruction to future
generations.

But construction alone is not architecture, for it may be
found among the most uncivilized people ; only when it is
governed by systematic laws of proportion, which are based



2 HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE. 20

upon a refined conception of what is most suitable for the
purpose, can construction be classed as a fine art. It is for
this reason we find no architectural advancement in a nation
until its condition betokens culture, wealth, and prosperity.

Buildings vary architecturally, according to the purpose
for which they are erected, the locality in which they are
built, and the historical period in which they are designed.
The first two conditions will influence the character of the
building, while the last will very largely determine its style.

A building is said to have character when its form and
proportions express the purpose for which it is intended. Its
style will depend largely upon the method of spanning its
openings, such as doors and windows (whether with lintels,
after the manner of the Egyptians and Greeks, or with
arches according to the Roman custom), and also upon the
formation of its roof. All architectural styles are based upon
one or more of three general principles of construction : the
lintel ; the arch, or vault; and the truss. The ornamenta-
tion of a building is governed by the purpose for which the
building is intended, the period in which it is built, and the
character of the people by whom it is erected. We may say,
therefore, that the history of the architecture of a country is
a history of the manners, cttstoms, and temperament of its
people.

As tombs and temples form the principal structures from
which we study the architecture of the ancients, one can
readily see that religion is a most important factor in the
development of architectural history. The civilization of
Egypt was very different from that of Greece, but each pos-
sessed a polytheistic form of religion, and we find a great
similarity in the arrangement of their temples ; but owing to
the difference between their conceptions of the immortality
of the soul, we find a well defined distinction in the arrange-
ments of their tombs and the methods of disposing of their
dead.

With similar religious faiths we find similar systems of
architectural design, and with dissimilar customs and habits
we find a corresponding variation in some branch or detail of



20 HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE. 3

architectural arrangement peculiar to the customs of each
individual people.

The dawn of Christianity was the advent of an entirely new
style of architecture, and the division of the Church at the
time of the Reformation was the signal for the alteration of
this new style and the attempt to return to the old classic
forms.

2. In the following pages on the styles and methods of
different countries, observe how the locality, climate, and
temperament of each people affected the contemporaneous
architecture. Observe also how the religious fervor of cer-
tain classes expressed itself in every detail of their architec-
tural monuments, and note carefully the decline in purity of
style and nobleness of character, whenever the morals of a
nation became lax, and worldly pastimes superseded proper
religious thought.

EGYPTIAN ARCHITECTURE.

3. For the beginnings of architecture we turn to Egypt,
the cradle of the arts and sciences, where .we find a rev-
erential nation, who, believing in the resurrection of the
body, embalmed and preserved with great care the remains
of its dead. Its people built the pyramids as resting places
for the bodies of their kings, and hewed immense temples
out of the mountain sides wherein to worship their gods,
while their dwellings, built of sun-dried bricks molded with
clay from the banks of the Nile, were ephemeral structures,
typical of a people who attached little importance to the
details of their earthly existence.

4. The pyramids form a distinct class by themselves, and
present no points in common with any other Egyptian struc-
tures. They are of gigantic proportions and were accounted
by the Greek historians the first of the ' ' Seven Wonders of
the World. " The Great Pyramid of Cheops, as seen in Fig. 1,
was constructed with blocks of limestone, some of whose

dimensions are so great that it is a mystery at the present
5-2



4 HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE. 20

day how they could have been quarried and transported with
the primitive tools and machinery in use 3,000 years before
the Christian era. This pyramid, about 800 feet square at
the base, and 450 feet high, is the largest structure in the
world. It is estimated that it took 100,000 men twenty years
to build it, at a cost of over forty millions of dollars.

Next to the pyramids in massive grandeur comes the Great
Sphinx at Gizeh. This is a statue of the Egyptian god
Harmachis, carved out of solid rock, making a figure 146




FIG. 1.

feet long, 65 feet high, and 34 feet across the shoulders. The
body, which has the form of a crouching lion, is now entirely
buried in drifted sand, but the human head, measuring 28
feet from chin to top, and the broad massive shoulders, are
still visible above the sand drifts, as shown in Fig. 1.
Between the forefeet of the body is excavated a temple
where the god was worshiped, and if built at the same time
as the sphinx, this temple is the oldest architectural monu-
ment on record, as it antedates the pyramids over 1,000
years.

5. The most important architectural monuments of Egypt
are its temples, and though they are very numerous and



20 HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE. 5

differ widely in size and elaboration of plan, the general
scheme of arrangement is the same in all cases, whether the
example is taken from northern Egypt or southern Nubia.

The Egyptian temple consisted of a small sanctuary, or
sckos, as it was called, which was reached through a large
hypostyle, or covered columnar hall, generally known as
the "hall of assembly." Preceding the hypostyle hall was
a large open courtyard, which was surrounded by high walls
and entered between two tower-like front walls, called
pylons. Each of these parts varied in its simplicity or com-
plexity in different structures, but they are the essential
features of all Egyptian temples, and may be traced out in
every temple plan, no matter what may be their change of
form.

Between the years 1GOO and 1100 B. C., the greatest tem-
ples were built. The Pharaohs wanted eternal dwelling
places for their deities, and built their temples entirely of
stone, laid up in blocks so massive and so well fitted that they
have withstood the ravages of time down to the present day.

6. In Fig. 2 is shown the plan of the Ramesseum, a tem-
ple built by, and named after, Rameses, one of the kings of
Egypt, who reigned about 1500 B. C. Here the sanctuary is



1
::
!




FIG. 2.



shown at A, surrounded by a number of smaller apartments
a, which were used by the priests and members of the royal
family, both as places for their mysterious devotions, and as
royal residences; the king and his immediate relatives being



6



HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE.



20



considered earthly representatives of the gods. The sanc-
tuary contained the shrine, and was entered through either of
two portals, one from the hypostyle hall B, and the other
communicating with one of the sacred apartments a '.

At B is shown the hypostyle hall, the roof of which was
supported by two sets of columns, the central ones being
longer than those on each side, in order to provide a clerestory
for the admission of light and air.

This is more clearly shown in Fig. 3, which is an illustra-




FIG. 3.

tion photographed from a restored model of the great hypo-
style hall in the temple at Karnak. At a is seen the double
row of long columns, which are connected longitudinally by
the stone lintels ^, in order to receive the edges of the stone
slabs c, which form the roof over the nave, or central por-
tion of the temple. On each side of these are the shorter
columns </, which are connected transversely by the lintels e,
and the inside row, longitudinally by the lintel f, to support
the roof slabs g in the same manner as over the nave. An
open space h is thus left to admit light to the interior of the



HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE.



hall, and form a clerestory, similar to the same detail in our
more modern cathedrals, of which we shall learn later on.

This system of supporting the roof is based upon the first-
of the three principles of construction referred to in Art. 1;
i. e. , the lintel. The spacing of the supports being governed
entirely by the length of lintel the builders were able to
quarry, the columns are exceedingly close together, and this
is the case not only in Egyptian structures, but in all archi-
tectural edifices, where the "lintel system of construction"
prevails. For this reason, large apartments were never
entirely roofed over in the Egyptian temples, but were open
to the sky, either wholly or in part, as shown in Fig. 2 at C,
which is the inner court of the temple, from which the hypo-
style hall must be entered.

On each side of this inner court is a double row of col-
umns supporting a roof extending from the side walls, while
at the back is a single row of columns c, and a row of square
piers d, which carry a portion of the roof
which extends over from the hypostyle hall.
Another row of square piers e carries the
roof over the front end of this inner court,
which, with the other partial coverings, sur-
rounds the court with a narrow, projecting
roof on all four sides.

The effect of this treatment must have
been very imposing in itself, but, to add to
the impression, colossal statues, such as
shown in Fig. 4, were carved on the inside
faces of the square piers, and flights of stone
steps led up to a gallery at the level of the
hypostyle hall, the floor of which was con-
siderably above the level of the inner court.
The outer, or entrance, court D was a com-
paratively plain enclosure, with columns on
each side and a single flight of steps up to
the floor of the inner court above. It was
entered through a narrow portal f flanked
on each side by the massive pylons , and served merely as




FIG - 4 -



8



HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE.



20



an entrance court preparatory to the grandeur and solemnity
of the more sacred apartments beyond.

7. The pylons can best be studied from the exterior,
where they appear to tower up with impressive dignity as if
in forbiddance to any person unqualified to enter the pre-
cincts of the gods. The entrance was approached through
an avenue, sometimes over a mile in length, lined on both
sides with colossal statues of sphinxes or rams, as shown in
Fig. 5. The walls of the pylons were richly decorated in




FIG. s.

colors, with hieroglyphical figures, the outlines of which
were cut into the stone in order to render the design perma-
nent, even after the elements had destroyed the effect of the
color. On the inside, the walls were similarly decorated, so
that the worshiper was everywhere confronted with the
mysteries in which the ancient Egyptian religion abounded.
Fig. 6 shows the outer court of the temple of Isis, on the
island of Phylae, somewhat farther up the Nile than the
Ramesseum. Here on the right are seen the columns which
support the roof along the sides, while in the center is the
entrance through which the court is reached. To the left of



HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE.



9



this main entrance is a smaller door, used only by the priests
of Isis to enter some of the secret passages leading to other
parts of the temple.

At the top the walls of the pylons flared out, forming a
simple concave cornice, above which iron stocks carried gleam-
ing cressets at night and flaunting banners by day, which,




combined with the highly colored decorations on the walls,
gave the building an effect of mysterious grandeur, perfectly
consistent with the complex system of the ancient Egyptian
belief.

8. As we progress in the study of architectural history,
we will find that, in religious edifices, the aim of the design-
ers has always been to create in the building an impression
of grandeur, dignity, and awe. In Egypt the worshiper
entered the temple after traversing the long avenue of
sphinxes. Passing between the towering pylons, he found
himself in the large outer court, which was brilliantly illu-
minated by the vertical rays of the tropical sun. He then



10 HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE. 20

ascended the stairs to the inner court, which was smaller and
partly shaded by the projecting roof. In this shade he laid
his offering- of fruit or grain, at the feet of one of the graven
images described in Art. 6, and then in sblemn silence
ascended to the gallery and entered the dimly lighted hypo-
style hall to receive from the priest the acknowledgment of
his offering to the gods. If he was an Egyptian of high
caste, he might then proceed farther, to one of the sacred
apartments beyond the hypostyle hall, or even to the sanc-
tuary itself, but if not of royal birth his pilgrimage ended in
the hypostyle hall, from whence he retraced his steps or
departed from the temple through a side door provided for
the purpose.

The numerous temples throughout Egypt varied in size,
but the essential features remained the same, and the varia-
tion consisted principally in the addition of chapels and royal
apartments around the sanctuary, while the sanctuary itself
remained about the same, being one of the smallest apart-
ments in the temple.

The great temple at Karnak, erected 1500 B. C., was 376
feet wide, 1,215 feet long, and covered over 400,000 square
feet of ground twice the area of St. Peter's Church at
Rome (the largest building now existing) but contained
a sanctuary only 16 ft. X26 ft., the area of which was only a
little more than the space occupied by one of the great
columns of the hypostyle hall, which were 21 feet in
diameter. The Ramesseum, shown in Fig. 2, was much
smaller than the temple at Karnak, being 182 feet wide
and 590 feet long.

9. To the early inhabitants of Egypt, who dwelt in caves,
we are indebted for the origin of the rock-cut temples.
These excavated worshiping places have little architectural
interest in themselves, but serve to illustrate most forcibly
the temperament of this ancient Egyptian people, who toiled
patiently and almost unceasingly to excavate in the moun-
tain side a temple that should be as permanent and enduring
as the mountain itself.



HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE.



11



Fig. 7 shows the plan of a rock temple at Ipsamboul, while
Fig. 8 shows its longitudinal section. The entrance is guarded
by four colossal statues of ^w^v^v^^.;
King RamesesI I, as shown ^^^^4^
in Fig. 9, and at a in Fig. 8.
These statues represent
the king in a sitting pos-
ture, and are 68^ feet high,
and carved in the native
rock of the mountain side.
The general arrangement
of the excavated temples
is similar to that of the
ones above ground. A
covered vestibule hewn
out of the rock forms the
entrance, as shown at a
in Fig. 7, which opens into
a hall b that corresponds
to the inner court of the

open temples, as shown at C in Fig. 2. Beyond this is located
a smaller chamber c, similar in position to the hypostyle
hall, where columns or piers are introduced, according to





FIG. 8.



12 HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE. 20

circumstances, and at d is excavated the sanctuary accessible
to none but the priests and king. The walls, architraves,
piers, and columns are always richly decorated with sculptured
or painted ornament, similar to the decorations on the walls
of the open temples. In these decorations the winged globe
occurs very frequently, especially over entrances and on




FIG. 9.

entablatures. This consists of a globe or disk, emblematic
of the sun, on each side of which is a spread wing. The
winged globe is used frequently in Egyptian hieroglyphics
to represent immortality or divinity, and sometimes as the
emblem of sovereignty in the sense that the kings were the
earthly representatives of the gods.

1O. The roofs were supported on piers or columns, the
earliest form being a quadrangular pillar with parallel or
slightly inclined sides, without either base or capital; this
form occurs in the most ancient tombs, though it may be
found later in the temples at Karnak and at Medinet Aboil.
The sides of these square columns are often covered with



20



HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE.



13



painted scenes; the front is usually sculptured, sometimes
with a head, and at other times with a full-length figure of
Osiris, the god, who, according to Egyptian Mythology,
represented the beneficent power of nature, and was supreme
judge of the dead. Fig. 4 shows one of these square columns,
in the temple at Medinet Abou, and is a type of them all,
though the details of the figure may vary slightly in different
examples.

By cutting off the corners of these plain square pillars, we
make an eight-sided column, and then cutting the eight new
edges, a column with six-
teen sides is obtained, as
in the processional hall
of the great temple at
Karnak. In this same
temple we find columns
with thirty- two sides, the
arrises, or meeting edges,
of which are emphasized
by making the sides
slightly concave. The
addition of a large
square slab on. the top gives us the form of column used in
the facade of the tombs at Beni Hassan, erected 2000 B. C.,
as shown in Fig. 10, and this column is of vast importance in
architectural history, as it is undoubtedly the prototype of
the Grecian Doric, of which we shall learn more later on.

1 1 . Subsequently the column became perfectly round, and
tapered towards the top, where it spread out into an enormous
bell-shaped capital (therefore called campaniform), carved
and painted to represent the full blossom of the lotus flower,
as shown at z, Fig. 3. The edge of the shaft at the bottom was
sometimes rounded off and decorated with a pointed ornament
representing the large leaves around the sprouting lotus, above
which to the top of the column would be engraved hieroglyphic
inscriptions or bas-reliefs, as shown in Fig. 3. The corners of
the four and eight sided columns were sometimes rounded




FIG. 10.



U HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE. 20

off, while the plain sides were reeded, thus giving the appear-
ance of a bunch of stems. These stems were finished with
a clustered row of lotus buds under the capital, as at j in
Fig. 3, and were ostensibly held in place by a number of
bands, as at /'. The capital was narrower at the top than at
the bottom, and its surface was sometimes reeded like the
shaft, or painted on a smooth surface to represent the reeds.
Such columns are called lotus-bud columns.

Another form of column had a square cubical block for a
capital, the upper portion of which was designed to repre-
sent a naos, or cell, similar to the sanctuary, with a miniature
entrance and propylon on each side, under which were carved
heads of either that of Hathor or Isis, the former the Goddess
of Love, and the latter the Goddess of Fecundity and consort



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