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A treatise on architecture and building construction, prepared for students of the International Correspondence Schools (Volume 4) online

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Volume IV




First Edition



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1899, by THE COLLIERY

ENGINEER COMPANY, in the office of the Librarian of Congress,

at Washington.

Press of EATON & MAINS






Plumbing 16 1

Plumbing Fixtures 16 2

Materials 16 51

House Drainage 16 61

Water Supply 16 96

Systems of Plumbing and Drainage . . 16 113

Gas and Gas-Fitting 16 123

Varieties of Gas . . 16 123

Gas Measurement 16 129

Piping Buildings 16 131

Gas Burners for Lighting Purposes 16 143

Fixtures 16 150

Illumination 16 159


Heat 17 1

Nature of Heat: Temperature .... 17 1

Heat Propagation 17 3

Expansion by Heat 17 6

Specific Heat : ... 17 8

Latent Heat . 17 11

Air and Gases ^ ... 17 14

Composition of the Atmosphere .... 17 14

Heat Contained in Air 17 15

Humidity 17 18

Friction of Air in Pipes and Flues ... 17 25

Mechanical Effects of Wind 17 33



HEATING AND VENTILATION Continued. Section. Page.

Combustion and Fuels 17 38

Heating- and Heating Apparatus ... 17 43

Radiators 17 46

House Heating 17 66

Steam Heating 17 81

Steam Generators 17 81

Fittings and Appliances Used in Steam

Heating 17 92

Piping Systems 17 94

Types of Heating Systems 17 106

Hot- Water Heating 17 113

Proportioning a Hot- Water System . . 17 130

Heating Greenhouses . 17 137

Furnace Heating 17 141

Air Supply and Distribution 17 146

Ventilation 17 153

Vitiation of Air 17 154

Amount of Air Required 17 158

Preparation of Air 17 160

Diffusion and Distribution of Air ... 17 164

Ventilation Systems 17 166

Mixing Valves, Flues, and Ducts ... 17 173

Practical Ventilation 17 178

Examples of Ventilation and Heating . . 17 185


Introduction . 18 1

Classification of Paints 18 2

Composition of Paints 18 2

Pigments 18 3

Primary Colors . . 18 9

Secondary Colors 18 17

Semineutral Colors 18 22

Vehicles ... 18 24

Oils and Driers 18 24

Driers jg " 28

Varnishes 18 29


PAINTING AND DECORATING Continued. Section. Page.

Stains 18 35

Methods Employed in House Painting .18 41

Tools Used by Painters 18 41

Laying the Color 18 51

Graining . . 18 62

Marbling 18 69

Stenciling 18 76

Media 18 91

Gilding 18 96

Paper Hanging 18 107

Glass ...... V 18 112

Ornamented Glass 18 120


Introduction 19 1

Principles of Estimating 19 2

Approximate Estimating 19 3

Estimating Schedule 19 4

Excavation 19 11

Masonry 19 13

Brickwork .19 17

Carpentry 19 19

Roofing 19 27

Plastering .' ."19 35

Joinery ... 19 37

Hardware 19 42

Heating and Ventilating System . . . 19 42

Plumbing and Gas-Fitting 19 43

Painting and Papering 19 46

Glazing . 19 50

Example in Estimating 19 52


Plumbing and Gas- Fitting . . 1(5

Heating and Ventilation of Buildings 17

Painting and Decorating 18

Estimating and Calculating Quantities .... 19




1. The duty of a plumber, is to provide dwellings and
other buildings with systems of piping, the several objects
of which are:

1. To supply and distribute water to convenient points.

2. To receive and conduct away all dirty and refuse water.

3. To conduct away and dispose of all filth, excreta, and
other sewage matter, and to remove all noxious odors arising

He also provides apparatus for heating water, and for
pumping, storing, and measuring cold water, also lavatories
and baths, laundry tubs and sinks, water closets and urinals,
cesspools, drains, etc.

The comfort and healthfulness of dwellings, especially
in towns and cities, depend in a great measure upon the
adequacy and thoroughness of the plumbing. And, as the
health of the inmates is seriously affected by defective drain-
age, it is necessary that the work of the plumber shall be
thoroughly and conscientiously performed. The general
public are profoundly ignorant of the importance of thorough
drainage, and in many cases the plumber must protect people
against the evil consequences of their own ignorance. In
many communities laws have been made which greatly aid
him in constructing drainage systems as they should be.


2. In all cases of new buildings, or repairs, or remodeling
old buildings, the architect must furnish plans and specifica-
tions of the plumbing work, and the plumber is guided by
them. Of course, in order to prevent conflict with the health
authorities, the plumber must also be controlled to a certain
extent by the plumbing ordinances of the city in which the
work is to be done. It is well, therefore, that all architects
should provide themselves with office copies of the rules and
regulations which govern plumbers and plumbing, so that
they may be enabled to design the plumbers' work in accord-
ance therewith. A copy, in pamphlet form usually, can be
easily obtained by application to the Health Department, the
Building Department, or the Plumbing Inspector, as the
case may be.

3. It is necessary that the architect should possess a little
knowledge of the nature of the materials used in plumbing.
He should also become familiar with the mode of performing
the necessary operations upon them, both the shop work and
the outside work; and he should acquire a clear compre-
hension of what is necessary to .constitute an efficient and
satisfactory system of water supply, a safe and reliable sys-
tem of drainage, and a complete and convenient outfit of
fixtures and domestic apparatus.



4. Sinks are of several varieties ; viz. , kitchen sinks, but-
lers' pantry sinks, and slop sinks.

They are made of wood, cast iron, steel, enameled iron,
brown glazed earthenware, porcelain, soapstone, slate, etc.

All sinks should be provided with a strainer and waste
pipe. The waste pipe should be trapped if it extends to a
drain pipe or cesspool ; or, even if it is open to the air at the
end, it should be trapped to prevent the wind from blowing
foul odors back into the house.


5. Kitchen sinks should be placed where there is plenty
of light, and as near to the pantry as possible, so as to save
steps for the person using them. They should be removed
to such a distance from the range that the persons using
them will not be subjected to the heat of the fire, and should
be set near a window, if possible, to secure plenty of ven-
tilation. Sinks should not be encased in woodwork, but left
exposed all around, so that no damp places can be main-
tained. Care should be taken to avoid leaving any crevice
or cranny where dirt can lodge or where vermin may breed.
If the sink is furnished with a back of any material, the
space behind it should be thoroughly filled with cement or
plaster of Paris, or provided with a special air space for a free
circulation of air.

Kitchen sinks should be supported by legs, or placed upon
substantial brackets, at a height of about 30 inches above
the floor.

Wooden sinks are fitted with a waste pipe A and strainer

B, as shown in Fig. 1. The waste pipe is of lead, and
is flanged over and

secured with copper

tacks. The strainer is

made of sheet copper,

and is sunk flush with

the bottom of the sink.

Theconnection is made

water-tight by setting

the flanged end of the pipe in white lead. This connection

can be strengthened by wiping a flange around the pipe at

C, and fastening it to the woodwork.

Wooden sinks may be lined with sheet metal, preferably
copper, weighing 16 to 20 ounces per square foot. The
bottom must be secured at several points by brass screws
soldered over the top to prevent bulging when heated.
Wooden sinks should never be used in dwelling houses
because they harbor vermin so easily, and soon acquire a
disagreeable odor.

Cast-iron sinks are provided with strainers, and the waste



pipe is attached as shown in Fig. 2. The lead waste pipe A
is flanged over the conical nozzle G of the sink, and is held
in place by the clamp ring B and the bolts C. To prevent
water from leaking past the heads of the bolts and trickling
down upon the outside of the pipe, washers of rubber or
leather are set up tight by the nuts H.

The size and style of sink required will, of course, depend
upon the service it must render, and upon the size and shape

FIG. 2.

of the place in which it is to be set. This can easily be deter-
mined by reference to the catalogue of any reliable plumbers'
supply house. For ordinary circumstances, a sink 36 inches
long by 20 inches wide by 6 inches deep is generally employed.
For general plain service galvanized cast-iron roll-rim sinks
are usually specified. Porcelain sinks, however, are the best,
and should be used on the finest work.

6. Butlers' pantry sinks are made of various shapes
and materials. The most common are made of sheet copper
tinned on the inside. They are either struck up from one
piece of sheet copper, or are built of two or more pieces.

A copper pantry sink composed of one piece of sheet cop-
per is shown at a, in Fig. 3. It is oval in plan and semioval
in section. It is supported by a flange 6, which is nailed
down to the board c before the hard-wood top d is bedded
down and secured in position.



This form of pantry sink is always provided with an over-
flow horn, as shown at e, and a plug and socket waste con-
nection in the center of the bottom, as at f. This is known
as an oval pantry sink.

FIG. 3.

Flat-bottomed copper pantry sinks are built from flat
pieces of tinned sheet copper. The seams are locked and
sweated with soft solder. The bottoms are flat, and the
sides are usually slightly rounded at the corners. They are
also furnished with a flange a around the top, as in Fig. 4,

FIG. 4

nailed to a wooden frame &, which prevents the flat sides
from bulging. The hard- wood top c is bedded on the frame b
with red or white lead putty, and secured with brass screws.
The bottom of this sink should be supported by a shelf d,
which is scooped out in the center, as shown, so that the
bottom may be perfectly drained.



7. Porcelain pantry sinks are commonly made with a
recess A in the back, which affords room for a standing over-
flow B, Fig. 5. This overflow tube is removable from the
socket, and serves as a plug which can be pulled up to let
the water out.

These sinks are usually fitted with a marble slab D and

FIG. 5.

marble splash or wall plates E. A dish drainer F, made of
wooden slats, or of rubber, is used to protect dishes from
contact with the slab. The waste connection is similar to
that of a wash basin.

8. Slop sinks are made of cast iron, plain, galvanized, or
enameled, and differ from kitchen sinks chiefly in dimen-
sions; being smaller in length and width, but of greater
depth. They are usually set so that their rims are about 20
inches above the floor.

Slop sinks which receive chamber slops and sewage matter
are provided with flushing rims and flush tanks, and are
cleansed in a manner similar to washout closets. They are
constructed with large traps, and are connected to the drain
pipes in a manner similar to the connections of water closets.
They are often supplied with hot and cold water faucets,
similar to those used for sinks.


A slop hopper sink is shown at A, Fig. 6. It is pro-
vided with a strainer B, which can
be removed to clear the trap be-
low, and is supported directly upon
a 4-inch trap C. The outlet end
D of the trap is flanged so that it
may be attached to a lead waste
pipe. It may be had without the
flange, when the trap is to be
calked into the socket of an iron

A 2-inch back- vent connection is made to the trap at E.

9. "Wood as a material for sinks, has some advantages
and many disadvantages. Dishes are less liable to break or
chip, by coming into violent contact with it, than with a
metal or porcelain sink. But it absorbs greasy liquids and
becomes foul, emitting unhealthy odors. It fosters vermin,
and becomes leaky from unequal shrinkage. If it is lined
with sheet metal, the inner side of the woodwork has no
chance to dry out, and it soon rots. If ventilating holes be
made in the wooden bottom, they soon become infested with

The cast-iron sinks, plain or galvanized, seem to answer
all requirements. To save the dishes from damage, the
bottom of the sink may be covered by a grating of wood or
rubber, which can be readily removed and cleaned. Other
sinks may be fitted with the same device.

Enameled iron is very fine material for sinks while it is
new. But the enamel will crack and admit moisture to the
iron beneath, which will oxidize and detach the enamel,
causing it to come off in flakes.

Steel sinks are light and cheap, but are not durable. They
rust very rapidly. If they are enameled, the enamel on the
bottom is soon cracked by the bending of the metal, caused
by the weight of dishes in it, and it is soon spoiled, as before

EartJienware or brown glazed sinks are about 1^ inches


thick, and are glazed both outside and inside. They are
quite heavy, and require an iron frame with legs to properly
support them.

The chief merits of glazed earthenware or porcelain sinks,
are (1) they are easily kept clean and free from smell;
(2) they are practically imperishable.


1C. Wash basins are either round or oval in shape. The
oval basin affords more room for the free use of the arms
than a round one of the same capacity, and is, therefore,

Basins are measured over the outside of the top flange.
Round basins vary in diameter from 12 to 16 inches. Oval
basins are usually made in three sizes, 17 in. X 14 in.,
19 in. Xl5 in., and 21 in. xlG in. The word bo^vl is now
often used instead of basin. It refers only to that part of
the fixture which holds the water.

Basins are made of iron, galvanized or enameled, and also
of porcelain. The porcelain basins are made in plain white
color, or they are decorated to any degree of elegance that
may be desired. Wash basins are constructed in many
ways. In the commonest variety, the bowl is separate
from the slab or top, and the splash plate or back is also
separate from the slab.

In other varieties, the bowl, top, and back are made in
one piece of metal or porcelain.

11. Bowls are made with and without overflows, and

the overflows are of sev-
eral varieties. In Fig. 7
the overflow consists of
a strainer A and a
nozzle, or horn, B, to
which a waste pipe is
attached by a cemented

slip joint, or by a rubber cone connection. The latter is



In Fig. 8 the overflow duct a, which is molded on the
basin, leads into the waste
outlet b through holes c in
the connection under the
rubber plug d.

In Fig. 9 the porcelain
bowl is constructed with
a recess a to contain a
combined standing over-
flow and waste plug b.
The base of the waste
plug is perforated and <IG-

forms a good strainer, which can easily be cleaned by lifting
out the entire waste plug and overflow arrangement. The

FIG. 9.

top of the plug b slides in a guide which is secured to the
marble top c by a lockout d. The standing waste is sus-
pended by a bayonet catch, as shown at e.

In Fig. 10, the bowl c is made plain without even a stop-
per, and has a strainer only. The stopper and standing
overflow are contained in the tube a. The surplus water
escapes through the holes b. Bowls are also made with




flushing rims, and the faucets are placed below the top, hav-
ing- only the handles in sight. The rim of the bowl is thus
freed from all obstructions, and the hands of the bather can-
not be injured by the nozzles of the faucets.

FIG. 10.

Wash basins are supported upon substantial wall brackets,
or upon metal frames or pedestals. They should never be
cased in with cabinet work, because such enclosures cannot
be kept clean, and vermin will find lodgment in the crevices
of the woodwork.

12. The slab, or top, should have a raised rim around its
entire perimeter, so that splashes of water will drain back
into the bowl. The holes for basin cocks and other attach-
ments should also be surrounded by raised rims, for the same
purpose. The holes for ordinary basin cocks should be made
square to receive the square shank of the cock, and thus pre-
vent it from turning.

The proper height of the top of the slab from the floor varies
from 30 to 31| inches, the former being generally satisfactory.


The basin, cocks should be attached to the slab with a
lead washer between the marble slab and the nut underneath.
The chain stay should be fastened in the same manner. The
cocks should be set in plaster of Paris.

The connection between the waste pipe and the discharge
outlet of the basin is commonly made by means of a screw
coupling-, as shown in Fig. 8. Great care must be exercised
in screwing up this joint because the bowl is very liable to
crack or break at this point. A thick gasket of soft rubber
should be used between the lockout e and the porcelain.

The space between the splash plates, or back, and the wall
should be completely filled with plaster of Paris, so that no
crevice or hole is left for vermin.


13. The sloping end of a bath tub is called the head,
and the vertical end is the foot. Tubs are made in three
general styles, the ordinary, French, and Roman, the differ-
ence being in the shape.

The ordinary style has a round bottom, with sloping
head and vertical foot.

The French style has a flat bottom and flat parallel sides,
with rounded corners. The head slopes, and the foot is

The Roman style is rectangular, the sides, bottom, and
ends being flat, with round corners. Both ends and sides
are nearly vertical.

The ordinary style requires the least water, but the bottom
being semicircular in form, is of inconvenient shape to stand

The French tub affords more room for the bather, but
requires more water.

The Roman bath gives most room for the bather. It is
designed chiefly to overcome the unbalanced appearance
which the other forms present when fitted up elsewhere
than in a corner. In this style the faucets are nearly always

located outside the tub, and the hot and cold water enters



through a single opening. The interior space is thus clear
from all obstructions or projections upon which the bather
might be injured.

14. The cheapest grade of baths are those made of wood
and lined with zinc or tinned copper. Such baths are encased
with wood finishings and have a special top made to fit the
bath and the position in which it is placed.

Open copper-lined and aluminum-lined baths are clad with
a steel or indurated fiber casing, supported on four cast-iron
feet, and have the top rim 3 or 4 inches wide all around,
attached to the bath.

A sheet of non-conducting material, such as asbestos, is
put between the lining and metallic casing. The tin coating
soon wears off, and exposes the copper. A harder and more
durable coating is secured by nickel plating.

Bath tubs are also made of cast iron, and are used with or
without protective coatings. The best grades of iron tubs
are coated with porcelain enamel.

The finest grades of bath tubs are made of porcelain, or of
a fine fireclay body with a heavy porcelain enamel. They
are finished white, or are decorated to any degree desired.
Iron and porcelain tubs are usually supported by detachable

The waste pipe is always connected to the bottom of the
tub, and should be provided with a strainer to prevent the
passage of soap, rags, etc. into the trap.

FIG. 11.

A common form of copper-lined wooden tub is shown
in Fig. 11. The bath empties through the l|-inch waste




pipe a, through the 1^-inch half-S trap b, into the drainage
system. A 1^-inch lead overflow pipe c connects the copper
overflow pipe horn d to the trap. A f-inch or f-inch lead
pipe c supplies the bath with water through the bath cock f.

15. Standing overflow and waste pipes are frequently
used, as shown in Fig. 12. The overflowing water passes

FIG. 12.

over the top of the standing tube a, and when the tub is to
be emptied, the tube is pulled upwards, thus uncovering the
perforations at the bottom of the inner tube c, as shown.
The outer tube is provided with a rubber ring d, which makes
a water-tight joint with the seat when it is dropped down
upon the bottom. A bent coupling e is shown attached to
the waste outlet. If desired, a straight coupling may be




16. A better combination of waste and overflow is shown
in Fig. 13. The tube a is provided with a rubber ring b, which
shuts down water-tight upon the seat c. The water rises
between the tubes a and d to the same height that it does

FIG. 13.

in the tub, until it reaches the perforations e; it overflows
through these and passes down the interior of a to the waste
pipe. . The inner tube is provided with a handle F having a
suitable slot and catch by which it can be lifted and sus-
pended, as shown.

These combined waste and overflow devices are adapted to
all kinds of bath tubs, whether of wood, metal, or porcelain.

17. The hot and cold water may enter the bath through
separate faucets, but are, however, generally delivered to


the bath through a single bath cock composed of the hot
and the cold shut-off valves joined together into one discharge
nozzle. Such a fixture is known as a combination bath cock ;
it is usually nickel plated. The valves of the cock may be
inside or outside the bath. Ground key cocks are seldom used
as bath cocks. Fuller and compression valves are mostly used.

The faucets which are used to control the water supply are
of two kinds. Plug cocks are used only on very low pressure
work; compression cocks are mostly used. The hot and
cold water faucets are commonly made in one piece, with a
single discharge nozzle.

In the best grades of fktings, angle valves with brass
screw-joint connections are used, and they are arranged to
deliver water into the tub through the same nozzle, which
should enter near the bottom of the tub if it is especially
desirable that the water should fill the tub quietly. All the
valves and pipes are thus located outside of the tub, and the
whole interior space is free of obstructions.

Sometimes the hot and cold water faucets are connected
to deliver into the outer shell of the standing waste, so as to
supply the tub through the waste-pipe strainer. This is a
bad plan, because when the tub is emptied the water passes
out first and all soap or refuse goes last. This tends to lodge
in the waste pipe, and it will be washed back into the tub,
if the fresh water is introduced in that way. In buildings
where there is a liability of the water supply being shut off
while a bath is in use, the water should enter the bath at a
point above the overflow openings. This will prevent it
from being siphoned back into the water pipes.

18. Fig. 14 shows the arrangement of the connections to
a Roman porcelain bath A. The standing waste B and the
supply faucets C and H are placed at the side of the tub,
between it and the wall. The mingled hot and cold water
enters through the single nozzle J. C is the hot-water
faucet, D is the hot-water circulation pipe, E the waste pipe,
G the trap, F the trap vent, and H the cold-water faucet.

Online LibraryInternational Correspondence SchoolsA treatise on architecture and building construction, prepared for students of the International Correspondence Schools (Volume 4) → online text (page 1 of 44)