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giving the height from the average surface of the ground,

helps to keep the gauge in an upright position.

In building the fence described above, judgment should
be used in distributing the force if first-rate progress is to
be made. With a force of a dozen men, the following dis-
tribution is recommended: Two men to lay out the work,
four digging holes, three setting posts, and three nailing on
boards and stringing wires.

A wire stretcher is necessary to first-class work and prog-
ress, though good work at stretching wire can be done
with a crowbar if sufficient care and strength is used.

At highway bridges and culverts, the fence usually re-
turns to the -ends of the abutments. The angles made in
the fence by these returns must be thoroughly braced.
Effective braces for such returns are shown in Figs. 515 and.
516.

In Fig. 515 the angle of the return is 90, and a brace in
each panel abutting on the angle is sufficient, but in Fig.
516, where the angle contains 150, an inside brace is added.



1078



TRACK WORK.



This brace abuts against a short post set in the ground to
receive the thrust of the brace.

Braces must be placed at each opening, such as farm and




road crossings, and at all points where changes in direction
require it.

At streams crossed by pile bridges, it is customary to make
a return in the fence on both sides of the stream, and to
string the wires across the stream, fastening them to the
piles.

On tangents, and on the outside of curves, place boards
and wire on the farmers' side of the posts, but on the inside
of curves place them on the track side of the line of posts.

1651. Material for One Mile of Fence. It will
require 661 posts spaced 8 feet between centers to build one
mile of fence. One fence board 16 ft. long, 6 in. wide, and
1 in. thick contains 10 sq. ft. of lumber, and 330, the num-
ber of boards required for 1 mile of fence, will contain
330 X 10= 3,300 sq. ft.

. Barb wire, of average weight, weighs 1 Ib. per rod of sin-
gle wire or 4 Ib. per rod of finished fence. Hence, for 1
mile, or 320 rods, it will require 320 X 4 = 1,280 Ib. Adding
10 Ib. for splices, we have 1,280 + 10 = 1,290 Ib., the amount
of barb wire required for 1 mile of fence. It will require
Ib. of staples for 1 rod of fence, and for 1 mile, or 320
rods, it will require 320X^=40 Ib., and we have the
following



TRACK WORK. 1079

TABLE OF MATERIAL FOR 1 MILE OF FENCE.



Posts.


Boards.


Barb Wire.


Staples.


661


3,300 sq. ft.


1,290 Ib.


40 Ib.



When barb-wire fences were first introduced, the posts and
braces were the only wood material used, but they proved
very injurious to live stock, which, failing to see the wire,
continually came in hurtful contact with the barbs. This
objection is removed by placing a single board for the top
rail. This board clearly marks the fence line, and, together
with the barb wire, makes the most effective fence known.

1652. A Day's Work at Fence Building. From*
12 to 14 rods per man is a fair day's work at fence building,
though much depends upon the hardness of the ground, the
quality of the work, and the skill and industry of the work-
men. Fence building requires intelligent industry. A
poorly built fence is little better than no fence.

1653. Distributing Emergency Material. In the

late fall, but before any snow falls, place at each mile post,
and well up from the ground, a number of rails and joint
splices to be used in case of emergency, and known as
emergency material. Such supplies are available when
most needed, and are constantly near at hand.

All track material lying about the yard should be collected
and piled well off the ground. Piles of ties must be placed
far enough apart to avoid catching fire from one another in
case of fire. All loose spikes, splices, bolts, and nuts
should be collected and placed under cover, and everything
about the station made snug and safe for the winter.



WINTER TRACK WORK.

1654. General Repairs. As winter approaches, the
entire section should be gone over carefully, tightening up
all loose splices, correcting defects in gauge, and closing up
joints which the contraction of the rails has left too open.



1080 TRACK WORK.

The joints of switches are most liable to be open and the rails
battered. Close up these joints and renew the rails if neces-
sary. See that switch joints, rods, and frogs are in proper or-
der, and that guard-rails are properly spaced and well spiked.
Keep all spikes driven home, clear the snow from yard
tracks and switches, flange out the main track after every
snow storm, and remove ice from the ditches.

1655. Shimming Track. There is ho work con-
nected with track repairs requiring more care and judgment
than shimming. All mud-ballasted tracks are bound to
heave from the action of the frost, and heaving spoils the
surface of the track. Inequalities as small as inch should
be corrected by shims placed beneath the rail. Shims should
be made of hard wood, slightly wedge-shaped, and driven
crosswise under the rail. All shims over inch in thick-
ness should have a hole bored in them to receive the spike.
They are easiest made by boring a hole through the end of
a straight-grained plank and cutting off a piece to the re-
quired length, after which the plank maybe split into shims
of the required thickness. If the rail has cut into the tie,
the edges of the groove must be adzed smooth before pla-
cing the shims, in order that the rails may have a solid bear-
ing. If the track continues to heave, thin shims must be
replaced by thicker ones. Where a number of ties side by
side require shimming, a plank should be placed lengthwise
under the rail and spiked to the ties with boat spikes and
track spikes driven through the plank to hold the rail.
Where shims exceed 1 inch in thickness, spikes 7 or 8 inches
in length should be used.

For 4-inch shims use 1-inch shims on top of 3-inch plank,
and for 5-inch shims, use 5-inch timber. Where shims ex-
ceed 1 inch in thickness, old rail splices should be set with
one end against the outside of the rail and the other end
spiked to the tie to serve as rail braces. These braces
should be spiked to every second, third, or fourth tie,
according to the height of the shim.

All high-shimmed track should be closely watched, and



TRACK WORK. 1081

as the frost leaves the track and the track settles, thinner
shims must be substituted for the thick ones. The last
shim must not be removed until the frost has left the ground.
When the shimmed rail is higher than the rest of the track
by the thickness of the shim, you may know that the frost
has left the track. All good shims, spikes, and braces
should be stored in the tool house, to be in readiness when
needed the following winter.

1 656. Heaved Bridges and Culverts. Pile bridges
and pile culverts require careful watching during the winter
season, and whenever they are found to be heaved out of
surface or line, the bridge carpenters should be promptly
notified. Pile foundations., when heaved by frost, unlike
earth foundations, do not resume their original position
after the frost has left the track. Neither does the frost
affect them equally, as one or two piles in a bent may be
heaved out of surface while the others are not stirred. This
places the track in a dangerous condition. To remedy the
evil, either the track must be shimmed to the surface of the
heaved piles or they must be cut down to the original sur-
face. Where piles are driven in deep water, the ice should
be cut away from them whenever a thaw is imminent, as a
sudden rise in the water may lift the body of ice, and the
piles, being frozen fast in the ice, must rise also.



sxow.

1657. Its Prevalence and Effects. Nearly all
roads in the Northern States are obliged to contend with
snow, and, in the Northwest especially, the keeping of the
track clear of snow constitutes one of the main items of cost
of track maintenance. Snow must be contended with in
many forms, the most common of which is drifted snow;
but it is almost equally difficult to contend with it when it
fills the flanges of the rails with ice, or in melting and freez-
ing it fills the track ditches and flows across the track,
covering the rails with ice and threatening derailment to the
first passing train.



1082 TRACK WORK.

1 658. Snow Reports. Immediately after every snow
storm, the section foreman should ascertain the condition of
his track, noting which cuts are clear and which are blocked,
and how much snow is in each cut, and the lengths of the
drifts. These facts he should report immediately by tele-
graph to the roadmaster, in order that preparations may be
made to clear the track. If the section is clear of snow, it
should be so reported.

1659. Preparing Track for Snow Plow. After a
storm, as soon as the condition of the section has been re-
ported to the roadmaster, the foreman should take all his
force and put his section in shape for the snow plow. In all
cuts where the drifts are over two feet in depth, the track
should be cleared of snow and flanged out to where the snow
has a depth of at least 18 inches, leaving a clean face to the
drift. Both ends of the cut should have the same treatment.
Snow is most apt to cause derailment when it is of slight
depth and hard, and so ground into the flanges that the
engines mount the rail. By clearing the track of snow at the
commencement and ends of drifts, this danger is avoided.

1660. Clearing Switches and Flanging Track.

As soon as the track is ready for the snow plow, the men
should clear the switches of snow from heel of switch to frog,
special care being taken to clear the switch rails, rods, and
switch stand. The platform, track, and approaches to the
station should also be promptly cleared.

The section foreman should next give his attention to
flanging out the main track, beginning near the summits of
the hard grades, and at all points where the work upon the
engines is most severe.

1 661 . Clearing Ditches and Culverts. If possible,
keep the ditches and culverts clear of snow. If, in the fall, a
tall stake is driven at both ends of a culvert opening, there
will be no trouble in locating it when the culvert is com-
pletely covered with drifted snow. By keeping the ditches
open, all snow water can run off instead of accumulating
and flooding the track, where it is bound to freeze, making



TRACK WORK. 1083

the track not only hard to operate, but a continual menace to
the safety of trains. The ditch for snow water should be
fully 6 feet from the rails to insure the safety of the track.

1662. Snow Fences. All railroads exposed to severe
and repeated snow storms should have some protection
against drifting snow. This protection is best provided in
the form of fences. Their efficiency will depend upon their
strength, height, position, and distance from the track. The
fence should be placed at such a distance from the track that,
when drifted full, the snow will not reach within 30 feet of
the track. To effect this, the distance of the fence from the
track should be 12 feet for each foot in height of fence.
When the fence is placed too near the track, the snow will be
carried to the track before the fence is drifted full ; if, on the
other hand, the fence is placed too far from the track, the
wind, after clearing the fence, will fall and gather up all
the snow between the foot of the drift and the track, and
carry it into the cut. Usually but one side of the track re-
quires protection from snow, viz., that side from which snow
storms most prevail. Most railroads in the snow belt of the
United States run in two general directions, viz., east and
west, and as most of the severe storms prevail from the north,
northwest, and northeast, the north side of most tracks is the
only one requiring protection from snow. At some excep-
tional points on the line, the topography of the country may
cause complex currents of air which may produce results at
variance with general rules. At all points, fences should be
built to meet the existing conditions. In general, snow fences
are built parallel to the track. For fences of ordinary height,
the following rule can be safely followed: Place the fence
75 feet from the nearest track rail, extending it parallel to
the track the entire length of the cut. Change the direction
of the fence at both ends of the cut, gradually approaching
the track until the ends of the fence are 100 feet from the
ends of the cut and 50 or 60 feet from the track.

If the cut ends abruptly at the beginning of a high embank-
ment, the turn in the fence must be made before the end of



1084 TRACK WORK.

the cut is reached, in order to protect the cut from head and
quartering winds. Cuts which are lined on the storm side
by brush or heavy timber do not require fencing, as the only
snow which reaches the track is that which falls directly
upon it. The brushwood and timber prevent the blowing of
the snow. Cuts made in a side hill where the ground slopes
off abruptly into a valley do not require fencing. But where
there is a long level or gently rolling stretch of ground on
the storm side of the track, the cut is liable to drift full un-
less properly fenced. When a fence becomes drifted full, its
height may be readily increased by adding a wall of blocks
of snow taken from the inside face of the drift. So long as
the weather remains cold a snow wall will serve the full
purpose of a fence.

A first-class snow fence, kept in perfect repair, will not
last above 10 years, and it becomes a question whether to
build a snow fence or grade down the cut so that it will not
hold snow. The items of cost to be considered are the first
cost of the fence, the annual repairs, the interest on each
charge for the time it is to serve in the fence, and if these
combined items equal or exceed the cost of grading down
the slopes so as to keep the cut clear of snow, the grading
should be done.

1663. Bucking Snow. The clearing of the track of
snow belongs to the Roadmaster's Department, but it is
essentially track work and at times of vital importance to a
railroad.

A man should be thoroughly familiar with the best
methods of bucking snow before taking charge of an outfit
to open up a road for traffic after a blockade.

Before starting out on the road, he should be as thoroughly
informed as possible as to the condition of the road, the
location, length, and depth of drifts. He should have strong,
live engines and willing engineers. The snow plow should
be of the best make and able to throw snow out of a 10-foot
cut. There should be two engines in the outfit. The
second engine follows closely, with a car, conductor, train



TRACK WORK. 1085

crew, and shoveling gang. When heavy drifts are encoun-
tered too deep for one engine to successfully buck, the
second engine is coupled to the first, and besides doubling
the momentum, serves to pull out the head engine and plow
in case they are stalled. The pilot should be removed from
the second engine, and the coupling made short and very
strong. No car or caboose should ever be placed between
the engines, as they are likely to cause a wreck. When the
drifts are more than 10 feet deep, the top of the drift must
be shoveled out down to that depth, and a space made
wide enough that effective work may be done by the plow.

When the snow is reported hard, each drift must first be
carefully examined and its length and height noted. If the
drift has not been faced by section men (that is, shoveled
out from the end of the drift to where its depth is from 15
to 18 inches), the gang of shovelers must do the work before
a run is made with the plow.

Unless the drifts are properly faced, the plow is liable to
mount the rails, especially on curved track, and often the
engine is derailed along with the plow. All cars attached
to the helper engine should be left behind while bucking
snow. If both engines are not necessary to buck a drift, it
is better to do the work with one. The helper engine should
only be used where necessary. If the snow is not too hard,
a good, heavy engine will clear a drift from 3 to 5 feet deep
and from 500 to 800 feet in length at one run. There is
comparatively no danger in bucking soft, deep snow with an
engine at top speed.

The engines with a snow-plow outfit should take fuel and
water to their utmost capacity at every point reached where
a supply can be obtained. Unforeseen delays and mishaps
may be encountered, and there must be no risk of a short
supply of fuel or water. When the road is badly blockaded,
the helper engine should carry an extra carload of coal.
The water supply can be readily replenished by shoveling
snow into the tank.

Each engine in the outfit should carry a piece of steam
hose, which can be attached to the siphon cock, and reach



1086 TRACK WORK.

from it to the water hole in the tender. When the water
supply needs replenishing, by shoveling snow into the tender
and turning on the steam, a tank full of water can be quickly
made. The steam hose can also be used to thaw the snow
and ice from the machinery and track rails.

In plowing snow the speed of the engine should always be
regulated by the length and depth of the drifts. When the
drift is deep and long, the engine should back up far enough
to attain full speed before striking the drift. An experienced
engineer will so regulate the speed of .his engine as to leave
but little work for the shovelers.

The engineer of the plow engine should always sound the
whistle when approaching a cut, in order that section men,
if working there, may be warned in time to get out of the
cut. Failure to sound the whistle has been a frequent cause
of accident. When it is necessary to buck a drift a second
time, the engineer must sound the whistle and be sure that
all hands are out of the cut before entering it. It is almost
impossible for men to climb up out of a snow cut when first
opened up.

When the snow drift is, of such depth and length that two
runs are likely to not clear it, it is the better policy to shovel
out from both ends until it is certain that two runs will leave
a clear track.

When the snow is both deep and very hard, the crust
should be broken up and shoveled out before any attempt is
made with the plow. Bucking deep, hard snow with the
crust unbroken is very severe work for a locomotive, and is
often attended with danger to trainmen. It is far better to
insure safety even at the price of delay. It is not advisable
to start out to clear a track of snow during a heavy storm,
but everything should be in readiness to start the moment
the storm abates.

The invention of the rotary snow plow has practically
solved the snow problem, especially for clearing the track of
hard snow. Many roads which suffer little from snow do
not yet possess rotary plows, and the old custom of bucking
snow is still practised when occasion requires it.



TRACK WORK. 1087

CURVED TRACK.

1664. Difference in Length of Inner and Outer
Rails of a Curve. It is evident that the radius of the
outer rail of a curve is greater than that of the inner rail,
and, consequently, its length is greater. This difference
may be taken at l^V inches per degree of curve per 100 feet,
for standard gauge track. The difference in length between
the inner and the outer rails of a curve may be found by
any of the three following rules:

Rule 1. Multiply the degree of the ciirve by the length
in stations of 100 feet, and this product by l-^-g- inches. The
result will be tJie difference in length between tJie inner and
outer rails in inches.

EXAMPLE. The degree of a curve is 4 ; its length 520 feet; what is
the difference in length between the inner and outer rails of the curvie ?

SOLUTION. 520 feet = 5.2 stations of 100 feet each. 4 X 5.2 = 20.8.
1 5 V in- -1-03125 in. 20.8 X 1-03125 = 21.45 in. = 1.7875 ft. Ans.

Rule 2. Multiply the distance between the center lines of
the rails by the length of the curve in feet and divide the
product by t/ie radius of tJie track curve.

EXAMPLE. A 4 curve is 520 feet in length; the distance between
the center lines of the rails is 4 ft. 104 in. ; what is the difference in
length between the inner and outer rails of the curve ?

SOLUTION. The radius of a 4 curve is 1432.69 ft. (See table of
Radii and Deflections.) 104 in. reduced to the decimal of a foot is



Rule 3. Multiply tlie excess for a wJiole circumference by
the total number of degrees in the curve, and divide the
product by 360. The excess of a whole circumference, no
matter what the degree of curve, is equal to twice the distance
between rail centers multiplied by 3. 1416.

EXAMPLE. A 4 curve is 520 feet in length ; the distance from center
to center of the rails is 4 ft. 10^ in. ; what is the difference in length
between the inner and outer rails of the curve ?

SOLUTION. The distance between rail centers is 4.875 ft. 4 875 X
2x3. 1416 = 30. 6306 ft. A 4' curve for 520 ft. contains 20.8. 30.6306 X
20.8 -H 360 = 1.77 ft. Ans,



1088 TRACK WORK.

For light curves laid to exact gauge, the first rule is the
simpler one, but for short curves where the gauge is widened
use either the second or the third method.

These rules should be applied in determining the number
of short rails for curves, when loading material at the sup-
ply yard for forwarding to the track layers. As previously
stated, a safe rule is one 29^-foot rail per 100 feet for each
6 degrees of curvature. In laying track with either even
or broken joints, the required number of short rails must be
laid in proper order if a first-class job is to be expected.

1665. Curving Rails. When laying track on curves,
in order to have a smooth line, the rails themselves must
conform to the curve of the center line. To accomplish
this the rails must be curved. The curving should be done
with a rail bender (see Fig. 495) or with a lever, as shown in
Fig. 497. The rail bender is preferable.

To guide those in charge of this work, a table of middle
and quarter ordinates for a 30-foot rail for all degrees of
curve should be prepared.

The accompanying table of middle ordinates for curving
rails is calculated by using the formula



in which m is the middle ordinate ; c, the chord, assumed to
be of the same length as the rail, and R, the radius of the
curve.

EXAMPLE. What is the middle ordinate m of a 30-foot rail for an
8 curve ?

SOLUTION. The radius of an 8 curve is 716.78 ft.
Applying the formula, we have

- = rxlu5=5^24= al57ft -= 1 * in - AnS '
The results obtained from this formula are not. theoreti-
cally correct, yet the error is so small that it may be ignored
in practical work. With a table of radii such as is given in
the table of Radii and Chord and Tangent Deflections, a
table of ordinates may be readily calculated by substituting
the known values in formula 112.



TRACK WORK.
TABLE 32.



1089



MIDDLE ORDIIVATES FOR CURVING RAILS.



Degree of



Lengths of Rails.



Curve.


30 Ft.


28 Ft.


.26 Ft.


24 Ft.


22 Ft.


20 Ft.




In


In.


In.


In.


In.


In.


1


i


OA


OA


OA


i


i


2


Oi


OA


Of


OA


i


Or 3 *


3


OH


0|


OA


OA


Of


OA


4


OH


OH


OH


Of


Oi


iV


5


iA


1A


oi


Of


Of


OA


6


1A


il


ITT


Oi


Of


Of


7


If


ITT


11


lyV


i


Of


8


14


if


ITT


IfV


1


Of


9


24


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If


If


H


OH


10


2f


2 T V


If


li


H


lyV


11


2f


21


Iff


Hi


If


1 i


12


2H


24


24


IT!


lyV


li


13


3iV


2H


2 T 5 -g-


Iff


lf


If


14


3A


2i


24


24


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li


15


8 A.


3A


2H


24


l|f


IA


16


3f


31


2||


2f


2yV


iH


17


4


34


3




2lT


if


18


4 T 3


3H


3 A


4i


2 T 5 -g-


1 1


19


4 T \-


3


3f


2|


2 T 7 T


2


20


*H


44


3 T V


3


2A


24



In curving rails, the ordinate is measured by stretching a
cord from end to end of the rail against the gauge side, as
shown in Fig. 517. Suppose the rail A B is 30 feet in length,
and the curve 8. Then, by the previous problem, the mid-
dle ordinate at a should be l inches. To insure a uniform
curve to the rails, the ordinates at the quarters b and b'
should be tested. In all cases the quarter ordinates should



1090



TRACK WORK.



be three-quarters of the middle ordinate. In Fig. 517, if
the rail has been properly curved, the quarter ordinates at
b and V will be f X l|in. = Iff, say If in.

With practice, a man having a good eye and good judg-



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