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THE

STENOGRAPHER'S AND

CORRESPONDENT'S

HANDBOOK

A REFERENCE WORK

ON

STENOGRAPHIC AND TYPEWRITING

METHODS, BUSINESS CORRE-

SPONDENCE, DICTION, MODERN

OFFICE PRACTICE, POSTAL

INFORMATION, AND

ALLIED SUBJECTS



BY . >
INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOLS



1st Edition, llth Thousand, 2d Impression



SCRANTON, PA.
INTERNATIONAL TEXTBOOK COMPANY



COPYRIGHT, 1910, BY

INTERNATIONAL TEXTBOOK COMPANY

ENTERED AT STATIONERS' HALL, LONDON

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED



PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES



2117C



PREFACE

The time spent in preparing for a stenographic
career is usually so short that the stenographer,
if ambitious to advance, should strive continually
to increase his store of useful knowledge, giving
special attention to those subjects that relate
directly to his work. This Handbook gives much
information of value to stenographers, and
should spur the reader to undertake compre-
hensive courses of study on various business
subjects.

The demand for the expert correspondent is
constantly increasing, and as the ambitious
stenographer has an unusual opportunity to
qualify himself as a correspondent, a large sec-
tion is devoted to modern business letter writing.

The publishers acknowledge, with their thanks,
the permission of The Phonographic Magazine,
the Business Educator, and the Selling Magazine
to reprint some extracts from the writings of
S. Roland Hall, under whose supervision this
handbook is prepared.

INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOLS
January 1, 1910 SCR ANTON, PA.

255083



INDEX



Abbreviations, 221.

Additions and enclosures
in foreign mail, 278.

Address on letter, how ar-
ranged, 210-211.
on letter sheet, 204.

Addressing of envelopes,
236.

Advertising terms, 33.

Affidavit, 352.

All-finger system of type-
writing, 198.

Alphabetical list of ar-
ticles in domestic
mails, 254.

Apostrophe, Use of, 98.

Application, Letters of,
How to write, 8.

Architectural terms, 36.

Argument in letter wri-
ting, 162.

Arithmetic, 400.

Assignments, 352.

Automobile terms, 41.



Backing, 234.
Balance, how secured, 204.
Bank discount, 407.
draft, 387.
loans, 398.
statement, Form for,

336.
Banking, Hints on, 393.

terms,- 77.
Bargain offer, Value of,

173.

Beginners, Advice to, 1.
Beginning of letter, How
to make interesting,
163.



Ben Franklin method of
improving in compo-
sition, 141.

Bill of fare, Form for, 338.
of sale, 365.

Billing, Form for type-
written, 295.

Bills of exchange, 358.

Bond, 355.

Bookkeeping, Value of
knowledge of, 14.

Book typewriter and type-
writing, 292-293.

Brokerage terms, 77.

Building terms, 36.

Business correspondence,

141.

phonograph system, 330.
terms, 43.
C

Cables, 245.

Calendar for 200 years.
241.

Canadian mails, 272.

Canal Zone stamps, 286.

Capitalization, 99.

Carbon copying, 289.

Card systems, 310.

Cards, Typewriting on,
201.

Carpentry terms, 36.

Certificate of deposit, 396.

Certified check, 387-396.

Charges for shorthand and
typewriting work, 332.

Chattel mortgage, 356.

Checks and drafts, 386.
How to draw, 394.
Indorsements on, 394.

C. I. F., Quoting, 190.

Civil service examinations
and positions, 376-
385.



vi



INDEX



Clauses, modifying, Excess
of, in letters, 146.

Clearness, How to attain,
144.

Closing phrases of letters,
156.

Coins, Value of foreign,
421.

Collecting letter, How to
write a, 183.

Collection of negotiable
paper, 397.

Colon, Use of, 94.

Comma, Use of, 88.

Commercial paper, Forms

for, 356.
papers in foreign mail,

276.
terms, 43.

Complaint, How to settle
a, 179.

Composition, Correct and

faulty, 101.
How to improve in, 138.

Compound interest, 403.
interest tables, 404-405.

Compounding of words,
216.

Confidence, Value of, in
letter writing, 167.

Contract and agreement,
358.

Conversational style in let-
ter writing, 150.

Cooking terms of foreign
extraction, 87.

Copying machine, 297.
Methods of, 289.

Correct and faulty diction,
101.

Correspondence, Business,
141.

Correspondent, How to
become a, 13.

Correspondents, Miscella-
neous suggestions to,
191.

Court-reporter appoint-
ments, 367.
reporting, 366.

Courtesy in correspond-
ence, 157.



Cuban mail, 272.

Culinary terms, 87.

Customs duties on parcels-
post packages, 283.
regulations, Importance
of regarding, 191.

D

Dash, Use of, 96.

Date, Method of writing,
210.

Department-store type-
written bills, 295.

Dictated matter, Editing

of, 27.

Use of word, on form
letters, 172.

Dictating in speed prac-
tice, Methods of, 22.

Dictation, Business-office,
30.

Diction, Correct and faulty
(arranged alphabetic-
ally), 101.

Direct-command idea in
letter writing, 168.

Discount, 407.

Distances and time by
postal route, 287.

Division of words, 215.

Domestic mail, 249.

mail, Classified list of,
254.

Draft on bank, 387.

Drafts on slow debtors,
186.

Drop letters, 285.

Duplicating and triplica-
ting, 292.
work, 347.

Duty on parcels-post pack-
ages, 283.

E

Editing of dictated matter,

27.

Electrical terms, 46.
Employment bureaus, 5.
contract, 359.
How to find, 5.
Enclosures in foreign mail,
278.



INDEX



English, Correct and
faulty, 101.

Engraving terms, 3.

Envelopes, Addressing of,
236.

Esquire, Use of, 153.

Exchange, 396.
Bills of, 358.

Exclamation point, Use of,
96.

Experience, How stenog-
rapher can get, 2.

Express money orders,
387.

Expressage, 247.

Extravagance in letter
writing, 151.



Faulty diction, 101.
File for follow-up corre-
spondence, 305.
Filing, 297.

by Shannon method,

307.

by vertical method, 297.
in flat files, 309.
Files, Organization and

care of, 325.
Financial terms, 77.
Fingering of typewriter

keyboard, 199.
Fire-insurance terms, 51.
Firm, Addressing, instead

of individual, 160.
First-class mail, 249.
Flat files, 309.
Folders, Filing, 298.
Folding, 232.
Follow-up card file, 317.
-up correspondence, File

for, 305.
-up systems of letters,

171-172-173.
Foreign coins, Value of,

421.

correspondence, 188.
languages, Value of, 189.
postage rates, 273.
words and phrases com-
monly used, 80.
Forgery, 399.



Form and style in type-
writing, 203.
letters, Use of, 171.
paragraphs, Use of, 191.
Forms for letters, Exam-
ples of good, 202-209.
for typewritten docu-
ments, 336-346.
Forwarding of mail, Rules

about, 265.

Fourth-class mail, 253.
Franklin method of im-
proving in composi-
tion, 141.

G

;raphical indexing,



Government printed en-
velopes, 286.

Grammar, Alphabetical
list of errors in, 101.

Guide cards, 311.

H

Hackneyed style in letter

writing, 149.
Honorable, Use of, 153.
Hyphen, Use of, 97.



Identification of persons
presenting checks,
398.

Incorporation articles,
Forms for, 342.

Indention, Question of,
212.

Indexing files, Methods of,
299.

Individuality in letter
writing, 148.

Indorsements on checks,
394.

Inquiring letter, 159.

Inquiry, How to reply to
an, 176.

Insurance terms, 51-61-63.

Interest, Method of com-
puting, 400.



INDEX



Interrogation point, Use

of, 95.
Investment terms, 77.



Joint-and -several note,

357.
Judgment notes, 357.

K

Keyboard, diagram show-
ing fingering, 199.



Ladies, Use of word in

salutation, 155.
Landlord's notice to leave,

360.
Languages, foreign, Value

of, 189.
Law forms, 352.

paper backing, 236.
papers, Forms for type-
writing, 344-345.
Lease, Form for, 361.
Legal cap, how folded,

233.
papers, Forms for, 344-

345.

phrases 52.
terms (English), 58.
terms of foreign extrac-
tion, 83.
Length of letters, Question

of, 143.
Letter, collecting, How to

write, 183.
forms, Examples of

good, 202-209.
of credit, 391.
sales or soliciting, How

to write, 183.

Letters, business, General
requirements of, 141.
by telegraph, 246.
Foreign, 188.
General suggestions to

correspondents, 194.
How to fold, 232.
How to refer, 193.
in foreign mail, 274.



Letters, of application,

How to write, 8.
of application, Models

of, 11-12.
Ordering or inquiring,

159.

Question of length of,
143.

Life-insurance terms, 61.

List showing classification
of various kinds of
domestic mail, 254.

Lists of names, Postmaster
not allowed to fur-
nish, 285.

Logic in letter writing,
162.

Loose-leaf records, 320.

M

Madam, Use of, 153.
Mail-distributing depart-
ment, Value of, 331.
domestic, 249.
First-class, 249.
Foreign, 271.
Fourth-class, 253.
matter, Wrapping of,

268.
Rule about return of,

266.
Rules about forwarding,

265.

Second-class, 250.
Third-class, 251.
Mailing, 241.

lists, 170.

Manuscript for publica-
tion, Copying of, 333.
Marginal effect, How to

secure proper, 206.
Marine -insurance terms,

63.

Measures of capacity, 414.
of extension, 411.
of volume, 416.
of weight, 412.
Mechanical terms, 64.
Merchandise, samples of,
in foreign mail, 276.
Messrs., Use of, 153.
Mexico, Mail for, 272.



INDEX



ix



Mimeograph work, 347.
Ministers, How to address,

153.
Modern office methods,

288.
Modifying clauses, Excess

of, in letters, 146.
Money, Methods of sending

and carrying, 386.
orders, 387.
tables of value, 418.
Multigraph, 351.

N

Name and address on letter,

210-211
Method of indexing, 301.

Names, lists of, Post-
masters not allowed
to furnish, 285.

Neatness, Importance of, in
letter-writing, 142.

Negative method of reason-
ing, 168.

Numbering machine, 327.

Numerical method of filing
and indexing, 303.

O

Ocean lines of steamships,
248.

Office for stenographic and
typewriting work,
332.
methods, Modern, 288.

Operating, Methods of,
typewriter, 198.

Ordering letters, 159.

Overdrawing bank ac-
count, 398.



Pages, second and third,

of letters, Method of

treating, 204.
Panama, Mail for, 272.
Paragraphs, form, Use of,

191.

Parcels post, 280.
Parenthesis, marks of, Use

of, 97.
Partial payments, 409.



Partnership agreement,
361.

Period, Use of, 95.

Philippine stamps, 286.

Phonograph in letter

writing, 330.
method of transcribing,

369.
Speed practice with, 23.

Phrasing, Methods of, 24.

Position, How to find a,
5.

Positions, Methods of ap-
plying for, 7.

Post cards, 262.

Postal cards, 261.
distances, 287.
information, 249.
matters, Miscellaneous

information on, 283.
money order, 388.

Postage due, Rules about,

267.

for foreign mail, 273.
Prepayment of, 264.

Power of attorney, 362.

Practice, Kind of, for
beginners, 1.

Practicing for speed, Meth-
ods of, 18.

Printed matter, how regu-
lated in foreign mails,
275.

Printers, Marks for, on
manuscript, 334.

Printing terms, 33.

Promissory note, 357.

Promotion, How stenog-
rapher may win, 13.

Promptness, Importance
of, in letter writing,
142.

Prohibited articles in U. S.
mails, 272.

Property list on cards, 319.

Protest, 397.

of promissory note, 363.

Proxy, 364.

Public stenographic office,.
Conducting a, 332.

Publishers' postage rate on
periodicals, 250.



INDEX



Publishing terms, 33.
Punctuation, 88.



Quotation marks, Use of,
97.



Railroad officials, titles

and abbreviations, 73.
terms, 68.
Ratings on correspondents,

183.
Real -estate records on

cards, 319.
-estate terms, 74.
Reasoning, Examples of,

in letter writing, 166.
Recommendations, 6.
References in applying for

position, 9.
Referring letters, 193.
Registered foreign mail,

280.

mail, 257.
Report of meeting, Form

for, 337.
Reporting, Early attempts

at, 26.

of court testimony, 366.
Return of mail, Rules for,

266.

Revising of dictated mat-
ter, 27.



Salary, Question of, in
applying, 9.

Sales and soliciting letters,
169.

Salesman as collector, 184.

Salutations, Choice of, 152.
for distinguished per-
sons, 154.

.Samples in foreign mail,
276.

Second-class mail, 250.

Semicolon, Use of, 92.

Shannon filing, 307.

Shorthand speed, How to
acquire, 17.



Shorthand systems, 17.

Simplicity in letter com-
position, 147.

Single-spaced letters, 209.

Soliciting letters, 169.

Spacing and miscellaneous

points, 230.
out of letter, 205.

Special delivery mail, 260.

Specifications, Forms for,

340-341.

title page for document,
339.

Speed, How to acquire, 17.
practice with phono-
graph, 23.

Stamped envelope, Enclo-
sing, in an inquiring
letter, 160.

Stamps, Deciding between
1-cent or 2-cent, 171.

Stationery, Kind of, to
have, 141.

Steamship lines, Principal,
248.

Stenographers, Common

mistakes of, 4.
General advice to, 1.

Stenographic experience,

how acquired, 2.
office, Conducting a,

332.

work, Centralization of,
330.

Stock certificate, 356.
quotations, Form for,

346.

supplies, Record of, 327.
terms, 77.

Straight-canvass letter,
178.

Style in typewriting, 203.
Miscellaneous points of,
211.

Subject method of index-
ing, 300.

Subscription-card list, 318.

Symbols in checking
records, 326.

Synonyms, Importance of
knowledge of, 139.

Systems of shorthand, 17.



INDEX



Tab cards, 314.

Tables, 411.

Tabulating typewriters,
200.

Technical terms, 32.

Telegrams, 245.

Telegraph letters, 246.

Telephone system, Inter-
departmental, 330.

Telephoning, 247.

Tenants' notice to leave,
360.

Terms, Lists of technical,
32.

Testimonials in letters,
175.

Testimony, examples of

notes, 371-372.
Forms for transcript of,
373-375.

Third-class mail, 251.

Tickler systems, 306-322.

Time difference between
New York and other
parts of world, 417.

Tone of letters, 148.

Touch typewriting, 198.

Transcribing of court and
public work, 369.

Transferring filed matter,
359.

Travelers' checks, 392.

Triplicating, Method of,
292.

Two-hundred year calen-
dar, 241.



Type cleaning, 197.
Typewriter, Diagram of
standard, keyboard,
199.

Typewriting, 197.
by touch, 198.
Forms for, 336-346.
General suggestions on,

201.

machines, Care of, 197.
on cards, 201.
Tabulating, 200.

U

Unmailable matter, 264.

Useful tables, 411.

U. S. postal cards, 261.



Verbatim reporting, Early
attempts at, 26.

Vertical filing, 297.

Vocabulary, How to im-
prove the, 138.

TV

Wall Street terms, 77.
Weights, Measures of, 412.
Wills, 365.

Wireless messages, 245.
Women, Opportunities for,

as stenographers, 15.
Words, Division of, 215.
Wrapping of mail matter,



Written orders better than
oral orders, 192.



The Stenographer's and Corre-
spondent's Handbook



STENOGRAPHY



ADVICE TO BEGINNERS

PREPARATION FOR THE WORK

Final Practice Work. It is better for the young or
inexperienced stenographer to spend an extra month in
preparation than to take a position too soon. Get your
father, mother, brother, sister, or any one, to dictate to you ;
ana, when possible, transcribe your notes on a typewriter.
This transcribing practice is important, for many who can
read their notes offhand fairly well cannot read them rapidly
when typewriting.

If circumstances compel you to take a position before you
are competent to do high-grade work, do not neglect to give
yourself the needed additional training. Books on English,
punctuation, letter writing, etc. are too easily obtainable
for the stenographer to have an excuse for being deficient.
Above all, be proficient in typewriting before undertaking
work in a busy office. Most employers will overlook some
lack of shorthand speed if the typewriting is rapid and fault-
less. An employment bureau that places thousands of
stenographers in positions every year reports that four-fifths
of the applicants fail to attain a satisfactory rating on the
typewriting tests. Business men care little about shorthand
systems; they usually judge of the ability of a stenographer



2 ADVICE TO BEGINNERS

by the speed oi the typswitmg and che neatness and accuracy
of the transcript.

The value of shorthand speed is often over-emphasized.
There are employers who want very rapid stenographers,
but the stenographer of moderate speed 90 to 100 words
a minute can get along well with four employers out of
five, and those four employers want, first of all, the stenog-
rapher who can turn out neat, correct, well-arranged letters
that will be creditable to the man whose name appears at
the bottom.

Just before taking a position, have some business acquaint-
ance dictate several dozen real letters to you; transcribe
them and ask him tp criticize your work. You cannot
practice too much in transcribing letters from shorthand
notes.

How to Get Experience. Beginners often neglect opportu-
nities to gain experience that would do much toward fitting
them for* salaried positions. A little soliciting among
acquaintances and others will usually secure both type-
writing and shorthand work that can be done in odd hours.
Ministers, lawyers, doctors, architects, engineers, literary
people, and others have work that may be secured. Such
work may not bring large returns sometimes it may be
done free of charge but the varied experience will prove to
be very helpful, particularly if those for whom the work is
done are urged to be critical. There is something about real
work that makes it yield better experience than any kind of
practice exercise. Beginners in small towns who expect to
go eventually to cities should follow this plan and get some
experience before leaving for the larger field. Competition
in large centers is much stronger than it is in small places,
and one entering the large field needs all the experience that
can be acquired. Therefore, look around for the piecework
that can be had in the local field. See whether one of the
lawyers in your town would like to have an hour or more
of your time every day. The apparent lack of work is often
accounted for by the fact that no one has tried to develop
it. Stenographers in mere villages have, by soliciting work,
earned enough to pay the rent of a typewriter, or to pay



ADVICE TO BEGINNERS 3

for a typewriter bought on the instalment plan or with
borrowed money, and at the same time have gained experi-
ence that proved to be of great assistance.

Importance of Increasing Ability. Become familiar with
common quotations and with the phrases from foreign
languages that are frequently used. Many stenographers
are bewildered when a dictator uses such Anglicized phrases
as vice versa, bona fide, etc. Every good dictionary con-
tains a glossary of foreign words and phrases commonly used
in English. A good dictionary, a book of synonyms, and a
volume of familiar and classical quotations form a valuable
part of a stenographer's equipment.

Unless the transcriber of dictation has a proper conception
of the language used by educated people, he will not be able
to reproduce it with fidelity. The education of the ideal
stenographer is never complete. By reading the best litera-
ture, he can make the language of good writers his own.
Through the best newspapers and magazines, he can be
conversant with the topics of the day. That stenographer
who decides that he has no time for good reading does not
realize the injustice he is doing himself. He cannot know
too much about the English language or be too well informed
on general subjects.

The beginner anxious about employment may feel assured
that, no matter how great the number of stenographers, there
is now, and probably always will be, employment for the good
stenographer at a salary commensurate with his ability.
While it is true that the poor stenographer will always have
more or less difficulty in securing employment, no attention
need be paid to statements about the stenographic field being
overcrowded. The field is not crowded, and it is not likely
that it will ever be crowded, with good stenographers; nor
is it likely that any machine will ever make the trained
stenographer less necessary than he is today, for machines
have no brairs.

In the natural order of things, preparation must come first.
Do not be worried about a position. Be concerned about
your preparation. Your opportunity will come when you
are ready for it; of this, there is no doubt whatever.



4 ADVICE TO BEGINNERS

Common Mistakes of Stenographers. The chief difficulty
in obtaining employment arises from the fact that four-fifths
of the stenographers are not prepared to do good work. They
think they are, but this thinking merely makes matters
worse. The typical stenographer and this term includes a
great many with a year or two of so-called experience is
able to take down in heavy, scrawly notes most of what is
dictated and to transcribe about nine-tenths of it accurately;
but he goes wrong on the other tenth, and, having little
foundation in the way of English education, inserts words
that make no sense. This typical stenographer has a passion
for abbreviating in the transcribing, but no idea of how to
balance the typewriting on the sheet. The writing will
begin too close to the printing on the letterhead or too far
away; it will run too close to the side of the sheet and too
close to the bottom. He does not understand that the blank
margin should constitute a neat frame for the typewriting,
nor that typewriting is only printing with one size of type
and is, therefore, subject to many of the principles of form
and style that govern good printing. The first line of a new
paragraph will be left at the bottom of the sheet, and the
final short line of a paragraph will be carried over to a new
sheet. The typewriting will be single spaced without the
needed extra space between paragraphs. Punctuation marks
will be distributed without reason, whenever there is a pause
in the transcribing; and a single hyphen instead of two
hyphens will be used to represent a dash. Words will be left
misspelled when there is a big dictionary right at the elbow.
Words will be capitalized that should not be capitalized;
words that should be compounded will be left unconnected;
and as for dividing words properly at the ends of lines, few
stenographers seem to know that there is a proper way of
doing this. The typical stenographer will leave a syllable
of a single letter at the end of a line or carry over to a new
line two letters that do not constitute a syllable. In addition
to containing a variety of errors of capitalization, punctua-
tion, and style, the work of this typical stenographer will
often be spoiled by finger marks and slovenly erasures. Yet
such a stenographer will feel that he is very unfortunate in



HOW TO FIND A POSITION 5

getting and holding employment, that it is a hard world,
when some careful, scholarly business man will not take him
into his office and work the raw material into finished product.
It seemingly does not occur to such stenographers that
business men, as a rule, do not care to make schoolrooms of
their offices, that their time is far too valuable to be wasted
in correcting and explaining simple things to incompetents.
The stenographer who will master the information con-
tained in this Handbook will have a great deal in his favor,
but even the mastery of all that is taught here is only a
good start in the right direction.

HOW TO FIND A POSITION

Choice of Field. Whether or not a stenographer should
leave his home town to go to the large city is a question to
which no general answer can be given. It depends on the
stenographer and his town. Undoubtedly there are many
towns too small to afford the proper permanent field for the
first-class stenographer. To such a stenographer the large
city offers a tempting opportunity.

The Large City. Living expenses are much greater in the
large city, but if a young man lives sensibly in the large city
he can meet the greater expense and still save more than he
could in the small town. But, of course, it would not do
for all stenographers to go to the large cities. The large
city is a field for the expert rather than for the mediocre
worker.

Towns and Small Cities. The typewriting machine has
made its way gradually from large cities into the business
offices of small towns and villages. Where not many years
ago the typewriter was a curiosity, there are now dozens of
business men owning machines, and this has, of course,
greatly broadened the stenographer's field. There are a
great many good opportunities in small towns, and such
opportunities are sure to increase.

Methods of Applying for Positions. Assuming that the
stenographer has the right kind of ability, supplemented by
the proper amount of experience, how shall he proceed to
market his ability?



6 HOW TO FIND A POSITION

If he is in a small town he is not likely to accomplish much



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