International Engineering Congress (1901 : Glasgow.

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which the trigger is dispensed with, and air is admitted by a throttle

Riveter with Tail Piece. In a riveting hammer with tail piece,
largely used in shipyards for beam knees, the length of the tail
piece is suited to the spacing of the frames, so that when air is
admitted, the hammer jams itself between the rivet and the adjacent
beam during the percussive riveting operation, the pneumatic
holder-up exerting pressure in a similar manner on the rivet head
from the other side.

Deck Riveting. These tools have been in longer use in the
American yards than here, but they are now being gradually intro-
duced, and already on the Clyde a very considerable amount of
rivets have been put in with pneumatic tools. Samples of riveting
done with pneumatic riveters were exhibited. From the fact that

* Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 1900, page 119.



a longer rivet is required than that used by hand, it follows that the
hole must be more thoroughly filled.

Bridge Work. For this description of work pneumatic tools are
eminently adapted, inasmuch as a satisfactory plant for riveting
in situ, easily moved from one place to another, has long been
wanted. At the construction of the Godaveri Bridge at
Rajahmundry, Mr. T. F. G. Walton used pneumatic tools.

Mr. A. B. Manning (Missouri, Kansas, and Texas Railway), in a
report to the Committee of the Association of Railway Superinten-
dents of Bridges and Buildings at the Annual Convention, St. Louis,
1 6th October, 1900, gives the following interesting figures compar-
ing hand and pneumatic riveting :

" Men with pneumatic riveter will average 500 rivets per d^y
for 8.12 dollars = 33s. 3d., or 1.62 dollars 6s. yd. per hundred.

" Men with hand power average 250 rivets per day for 9.20
dollars = 37s. 8d., or 3.68 dollars=i5s. per hundred."

In England the cost of J-inch rivets with pneumatic hammer is
45. 6d. per 100, as against IDS. 6d. by hand. An ingenious
arrangement for carrying a drill, used on the Great Eastern Railway,
was referred to; and the same arrangement would be
equally useful for drilling holes in the long girders of bridges which
cannot be drilled under the ordinary machine.

Locomotive Work. One of the most recent developments in
pneumatic tools is a motor with tube cutter, which is similar to the
ordinary drill, but having in addition an air cylinder and piston
which forces out a taper mandril, thus pressing the cutting edge
of the tool against the tube. By the use of this tool 2 f -inch
diameter steel tubes can be cut through in five seconds. The
reversible drill with the ordinary tube expander is now also largely-
used for tube expanding. Pneumatic drills are employed foi
drilling out stay bolts and re-tapping the holes, and give every
satisfaction, a saving of ^7 per boiler having been effected in the
cost of re-staying the fireboxes at one of the principal yards.
Railway wagon floors are riveted pneumatically, a saving of 153. per
wagon being effected. A report from the shops of one of the
French railways states the 1 6-inch manhole doors are cut in the
locomotive boilers in fifteen minutes, the plate being 7-1 6th inch
thick, and if inch tubes are rolled in twenty-seven seconds each.

General Boiler Work. The long-stroke hammer is used for
riveting up the end circumferential seams of Lancashire, Cornish,
and vertical boilers, air receivers and super-heaters of water-tube
boilers where the hydraulic riveter cannot be used ; also on manhole
rings, Galloway tubes, combustion chambers and rivets connecting
furnace tubes to the front plate, and one firm is employing a gap
riveter for the furnaces themselves. These are also used in making
large tanks.


With the extension of the use of pneumatic tools the sizes of
compressors employed has been materially increased, and many
works which have started with either a Westinghouse air pump
giving 40 cubic feet of air per minute, or an oscillating compressor
giving 60 cubic feet per minute, have now compressors giving 300
to 350.

The fullest advantages in increased output and economy have not
yet been reached in this country, owing to the Trades Unions not
having, up to the present, allowed rates to be made sufficiently
remunerative to the masters, but the enormous saving effected in
other countries, particularly by pneumatic riveting, must soon have
its effect in this country.

The paper is illustrated by three plates, and accompanied, by
two appendices.

The Chairman, Mr. T. Harry Riches, Mr. Bell, and Mr. Chester
B. Albree, took part in the Discussion.

The author replied, and on the motion of the Chairman a vote
of thanks was accorded to him.

A communication was received from Mr. Ewart C. Amos, and
Mr. Taite has replied.




AGRICULTURE was originated as an art in Egypt, whence it spread
through Greece and Rome to Europe. Until the commencement
of the last century, agricultural implements were in much the same
state as they were a thousand or more years ago; but the develop-
ment of the American Continent gave rise to the necessity for
labour-saving machinery for farm work, and, as the vast area of
arable land in Canada became opened up for cultivation, the
manufacture of implements was entered into at home. In the
perfection of this class of machinery, Canada has for the past
half century held an important position, and is to-day the second
largest producing country in the world. There are in Canada
about a dozen factories making implements, representing the em-
ployment, in all branches, of over 6000 men. In the Canadian
pavilion at the G.I.E. six of the largest factories are represented,
viz. : the Massey-Harris Co., Ltd. ; the Frost & Wood Co., Ltd. ;
the Noxon Co., Ltd.; David Maxwell & Sons; the Cockshutt
Plow Co. ; and the Verity Plow Co. Implements for all purposes
are shown, which may be divided into the following classes :

1. For preparing the ground for seed ploughs and harrows.

2. For sowing the seed broadcast seeders and drillers.

3. For cultivation and care of the growing crop cultivators.

4. For harvesting the crop mowers, tedders, rakes and loaders
for hay, and binders and reapers for grains.

The ploughs are a selection of those made to suit the require-
ments of Great Britain, and are adapted to meet all the local
conditions of the country. They are light, strong, and easily

There are several varieties of harrows shown, viz. the spring-
tooth, spike-tooth, and disc. The first two are made up of inde-
pendent sections, which may be connected in any number. They
are of steel throughout, the former with curved spring teeth, the
latter with solid spike teeth. The disc harrow is made of concave
discs arranged in two sections, running on frictionless ball bearings,
and independently adjustable to any angle. Each section is pro-
vided with a section of scrapers to keep the discs clean. This


is used for pulverising and levelling the ground, and also for
breaking it after the corn crop has been harvested.

For distributing the seed, two different implements are shown
the broadcast seeder and the drill. The former scatters the seed
over the ground, covering it by means of cultivator teeth attached
to the rear. The latter distributes the seed through tubes, at the
bottom of which are either hoes or shoes to cut the furrow in
the ground. The amount of seed sown is regulated by shifting
the feed wheel to permit a greater or less quantity of seed to pass
from the seed box to the tubes. The hoes are attached without
the use of bolts or pins, allowing them to be removed and replaced
by cultivator teeth. They may be lifted from the ground either
all together or separately.

Of cultivators, only the spring-tooth variety is shown. The teeth
are made up in sections pivoted at the front, the depth of cultiva-
tion being regulated by spring pressure applied to the sections by
a hand lever, which also serves to lift the teeth from the ground.

For harvesting the hay crop, the mower, tedder, rake, and
loader are used. The mower cuts the grass, and is made so that
the cutting apparatus will follow all irregularities of the ground
without interfering with the action of the knife. Frictionless roller
bearings are used in the drive wheels and for the intermediate
gearing and wearing brass bushings on the cross shaft, where the
constant jarring caused by the rapid vibratory motion of the knife
renders the use of rollers impracticable. A ball bearing is used
to take up the end thrust due to bevel gearing.

The tedder turns the grass, and will do the work of about ten
people. It is strongly constructed of steel, and is drawn by one
horse. The horse rake is used to gather the hay in rows after
it is dried, and then the loader picks up the hay and delivers it
on the wagon, where it is placed by hand labour. Cr.e of the
chief values of the loader is in its ability to save a crop of hay
after it has been properly dried in case of a change of weather,
when it would be ruined if left to be dealt with by hand.

For harvesting the grain crop, only cutting and tying in bundles
are necessary. The reaper performs only one of these operations.
The binder performs both, cutting the grain and delivering it in
compact bundles of any size desired; but it does not in any \vav
alter the condition or form of the grain itself. There are six
distinct operations in the working of the binder reeling, cutting,
elevating, packing, tying, and discharging. The mechanism for
each of the first four forms a complete machine in itself, and the
last two are operated together. The entire machine is driven
from the main drive wheel through a sprocket and chain driving
the main gear shaft, thence the power is communicated throughout
the machine by means of chain and toothed gearing. The reel


picks up the grain, and lays it evenly against the knife, and when
cut, on to the moving platform canvas, which carries it to the foot
of the elevators. Here it is taken between the upper and the
lower elevator canvases and carried to the top, and over a free
running roller on to the binder deck. The butter evens the
butts and forces the grain down on the deck to within reach of
two constantly-moving packers, which pack it tightly against one
side of the encircling twine. When the required amount is packed,
a trip is pressed throwing the binding mechanism into gear. The
needle arm rises through the deck, carrying the twine that com-
pletes the circle of the bundle, and laying a double strand across
the tying hook. This is given a rapid revolution, which makes
a loop, the twine is cut, and a stripping hoop strips off the loop
while the ends are held back and drawn through, thereby com-
pleting the knot. The bundle is then discharged, the needle arm
returns to its place below the deck, and allows the grain that has
accumulated behind it to be brought down to the packers.

The reel may be adjusted to pick up grain of all kinds, long,
short, or tangled. The binding mechanism may be shifted to place
the twine always about the centre of the bundle. The machine
may be tilted to cut within an inch of the ground. The size of
the bundle may be regulated, and the entire machine may be raised
and lowered as desired. Local conditions are met with the open
rear, the folding dividers, platform springs, and other arrange-
ments. Roller bearings are used where practicable, and on the
crank shaft a wearing bushing is used. The main framework,
the wheels, platform, braces, and shafting are all made of steel,
making the machine rigid and strong, as well as light.

The self-delivery and the manual-delivery reapers are used on
farms where the grain acreage would not warrant the purchase of
a binder. On the former, the rakes are driven through a gearing
from the main drive wheel, and on the latter the rake and platform
are operated by hand.

All farm machinery must be strong and of great capacity, light in
weight and in draught, simple in construction and operation, and
reasonable in price. Canadian manufacturers have met all these
and other requirements, and their goods are sent to all parts of the
world, and have everywhere achieved a high reputation for
superiority in material, construction, finish, and wearing power.

The Chairman and Mr. Frank S. Courtney took part in the

The author replied, and on the motion of the Chairman a vote
of thanks was accorded to him.


Paper by E. C. DE SEGUNDO.


THE production of power by the impact of a jet of water under a
high head upon buckets atttached to the periphery of a wheel or disc
has assumed large dimensions in many parts of the world notably
in Europe and in the United States of America. A number of
firms are engaged in the manufacture of this type of water motor
with conspicuous success commercially; the capital of these com-
panies is not less than ^500,000, and the profits already earned
very considerable.

The field for a good water motor is practically unlimited ; and it
may not be generally known that the energy of falling water has
already been employed in Europe to quite a considerable extent.
From the statements made in consular reports it appears that at
the present day water power is utilised to the following extent :

France ... ... ... ... 1,000,000 horse-power.

Italy 600,000

Switzerland ... ... ... 600,000

Germany ... ... ... 630,000

Sweden and Norway 270,000

Austria, Hungary ... ... 300,000

Spain, Portugal, Greece, Turkey,

Russia, and Belgium, about... 500,000

making a total of about four million horse-power.

The great drawback to the rapid extension of the production of
power by falling water is the unreliability of ever}* form of speed
governor which has hitherto been placed before the public. The
best known example of the impact system is the Pelton wheel.
During the last fifteen years a very large number of these wheels
have been sold, and the demand shows no sign of diminishing.
This type of motor is, under suitable conditions, the cheapest and
most efficient power producer known. Experiments at the United
States Naval School have demonstrated that the mechanical
efficiency at full load can rise as high as 92 per cent., and that at
half load to about 85 per cent. Many attempts have been made
from time to time to improve the governing of the speed of these


wheels under variation of head or load, but such attempts have not
as yet been attended with any marked degree of success.

Water being practically an incompressible fluid possessed of con-
siderable inertia, the variation of the supply of water to the nozzle
proportionately to the variations in the load is quite a different
problem to that presented under similar circumstances in the steam
engine, where an elastic compressible fluid is the motive agent;
and it is no exaggeration to say that hitherto all attempts to govern
the speed of impact water wheels within small limits have not been
satisfactory from a practical point of view. The author made a
number of experiments about six years ago with a Pelton wheel
directly connected to a dynamo, and driven by water obtained from
mains of the London Hydraulic Power Co. at 750 Ibs. per square
inch; but, owing to the inefficient action of the governing arrange-
ments supplied with the wheel, it was ultimately decided that this
form of wheel, when driven in the manner described above, did
not form a suitable source of power for electric lighting purposes
in cases where any variation of load was likely to occur. Although
it is claimed that some improvement has since been made in the
method of governing, the result in practice does not appear to show
any marked advance.

The author was recently asked to report upon a new system of
construction of water motor, which is the invention of Mr. Elmer
F. Cassel, of Seattle, Washington, U.S.A., and for the purposes of
his investigations he erected a water wheel on this system, and
connected it with the supply mains of the London Hydraulic Power
Co., thus repeating the type of experiments which he had previously
made in this direction. Many speed regulation trials have been
made, and Mr. Cassel's system of construction has proved itself to-
be reliable, and to effect an almost perfect regulation of the speed
under variations of load or head of water which are far greater
than any which would ever occur in practice.

The construction of the wheel is extremely simple. Two figures
accompanying the paper show the arrangement of the wheel at the
author's office in London. By judiciously manipulating the water
valve, the pressure at the nozzle can be varied to any extent up to
about 600 Ibs. per square inch. The particular wheel in question is
adjusted to acquire a normal speed, when running light, equivalent
to the proper proportion of the spouting velocity of a jet of water
at 40 Ibs. per square inch. Any variation between 40 Ibs. per
square inch and 400 Ibs. per square inch (the maximum pressure
registered by the gauge used) did not cause any but a momentary
variation of the speed, even when a change of head over the whole
range was made as rapidly as possible.

The following trial shows the degree of precision which has been
attained in this form of wheel :


An 1 8-inch Cassel was erected by the author, and arranged to
drive a dynamo, the output of which was taken up by a bank of
incandescent electric lamps. Successive variations of 20 per cent.
in the load from full load (4.6 E.H.P.) to no load produced no
appreciable variation of speed. When the whole load was thrown
on or off suddenly, a variation of 1.7 per cent, to 1.8 per cent,
from normal took place, but the speed returned to normal in about
three seconds. The variation was therefore but momentary.

It will be easily seen that the automatic regulation of speed
without reference to the flow of water renders the automatic
governing of the water supply a comparatively simple matter.

The Cassel system of water power regulation consists in treating
the question as two separate and distinct problems, namely, that
the speed of the wheel must be quickly controlled to prevent racing
or running away; and secondly, the flow of the water in the pipe
line must be slowly controlled in order to prevent damage by shock
to the pipe line, and to avoid detriment to the driven machinery.

Professor Archibald Barr, Professor John Goodman, and Mr.
Bryan Donkin took part in the Discussion.

The author replied, and on the motion of the Chairman a vote
of thanks was accorded to him.

A communication was received from Mr. Murray Morrison, to
which the author has replied.

On the motion of the Chairman a vote of thanks was accorded
to the Glasgow University Students' Union for the use of their
hall during the meeting, and to all who had helped in the manage-
ment of the Congress.

The proceedings then terminated, and the business of the Section
was brought to a close.



Section IY. Naval Architecture and
Marine Engineering,*


The Right Hon. the EARL OF GLASGOW, LL.D., G.C.M.G.,
in the Chair.

The Chairman opened the proceedings of the Section with a
few words of welcome to the many eminent naval architects from
foreign countries who had honoured the meeting with their presence.




THE century through which we have passed will be known to
future generations as the age of steam. During the century, men
have passed from the speeds on the water which have endured
for long ages without change, to speeds considerably more than
twice as great as the highest which had been reached before;
and, connected with these steam speeds and with the independence
of the elements which steam gave to the navigator, roads have been
opened for commerce by new waterways connecting separated

It may possibly be known also as the age of steel. It was
the abandonment of wood as a building material which made it
possible to give to ships great length and gigantic propelling
machinery. With wood as the building material, neither great
dimensions nor high speed could have been given to screw-
propelled ocean steamships. But it is proposed to direct
attention to some less marked characteristics. They are

* The Proceedings of this Section have not been published in full. Reports
appear in Engineering of September 6th, and in other technical papers.


1. The separation and differentiation in the types of ships for
commerce and for war were the principal notes of the last
half of the century. During the earlier half of the century and
for all time before that, ships for commerce and for war were
built of the same materials, were subject to the same injuries, and
were capable of being as successfully defended as ships of war.

It was the use of iron in the construction of the merchant ship
which created the first ground of distrust on the part of the Lords
of War. They held that iron-built ships would never be able to
fight, and all provision for arming the mail ships and putting them
under military control therefore ceased.

The use of side armour on the fighting ship put the merchant
ship more completely out of court, so that the naval war
authorities ceased to take any interest in the way in which the
merchant ship was built or manned; and the two classes drifted
so far apart that there really was, in the end, no fighting power
in even the largest merchant ships of any country.

2. The century has, however, seen, during the last five and
twenty years, distinct signs of a tendency to suppress this new
feature and raise the position of the merchant ship. So we
see again the ships for war and for commerce built of the same
materials, with equal speeds, and capable of being alike efficiently
armed and defended. The merchant ship will more easily reach
high speeds and wide ranges of operations than the war cruiser,
and will always be adopting for its own purposes devices for
increasing both these advantages. It will always have, moreover,
this great feature in its favour, that, as the march of events
gradually forces slower ships out from the front rank, they will be
able to find satisfactory employment in inferior ranks. But the
regular war cruiser must be first or nowhere. It is clear, therefore,
that the war navies must incorporate these fast merchant ships.

During the last session of the Institution of Naval Architects
and Marine Engineers, held in this city in June, it was resolved
that a committee of Admiralty officials, shipowners, and ship-
builders ought to be formed to discuss the best method of con-
structing a combined naval and mercantile marine. Steps will be
taken by the Council of the Institution to give effect to this, and
it will be obvious that it may be efficiently helped by expressions
of sympathy in this matter on the part of other Institutions of

3. Another characteristic is the appearance of a desire, and
of measures for giving effect to it, that war should be rendered
as little onerous as possible to the Powers with which the
belligerents remain at peace, and that the operations of war should
be confined to the regularly organised forces of the belligerents.


This desire led to the rule, " Free ships, free goods," and to the
abolishment of privateering, rules which now so widely prevail.
It led further to the acceptance by several of the foremost maritime
Powers that " the private property of subjects or citizens of a
belligerent on the high seas should be exempted from seizure by
the public armed vessels of the other belligerent, except it be

Although this has not advanced beyond a pious opinion strongly
held, it is apparently ripe for International acceptance.

4. The century has been marked by the rise of new naval Powers,
which have either achieved or are destined to greatness.

5. It ha,s been marked by the influence of international co-
operation upon naval development, as, for example, by the

Online LibraryInternational Engineering Congress (1901 : GlasgowReport of the proceedings and abstracts of the papers read → online text (page 13 of 37)