as much as the graving dock of similar size to construct; it is
but very little, if any, more expensive to keep up, and its main-
A MEMORANDUM ON FLOATING DOCKS. 161
tenance expenses amount to but ij per cent, per annum on its
prime cost; it may be constructed and delivered in a year with
certainty; it may be towed and moved, with or without a ship
on board, as required in smooth water; it can adapt itself to any
condition of list or strain in which a wounded ship might find
herself; its total lifting power, by which alone it is limited, may
always be exercised upon any vessel to the full; the contract for
it since there is nothing unforeseen to be allowed for is certain
to be be adhered to ; and it will berth and dock a ship quicker and
more advantageously (except only in case she required the serious
disturbance of her heaviest weights) than a graving dock of equal
Mr. Lyonel Clark, Admiral Sir Gerard Noel, K.C.M.G., Mr.
E. H. Tennyson d'Eyncourt, and Mr. R. T. Napier took part in
On the motion of the Chairman a vote of thanks was accorded
to the author.
The meeting was then adjourned.
THURSDAY, 5th SEPTEMBER, 19O1.
Mr. JOHN INGLIS, LL.D., Vice-Chairman, in the Chair.
"THE MODERN STEAMBOAT EQUIPMENT
Paper by E. C. CARNT.
IN order that the development of the present steamboat equipment
of warships may be followed, it seems necessary to refer back to
the time when steam was in its infancy in our navy. Up to the
years 1865-66, steam launches in use in the British Navy were few,
and those few slow and heavy. They were 42 feet long, about
ii feet beam, and had a speed of y-J to 8 knots; the hulls were
built in the Royal Dockyards, and the machinery by firms of the
standing of John Penn, Maudslay & Field, J & G. Rennie, etc.
The rowing and sailing boats which formed the equipment of
war vessels had, in the meantime, been brought to a high pitch of
perfection, particularly as regards the small sailing lifeboats which
were attached to nearly every ship in the Navy.
The application of steam machinery to these hulls was
the next step in the development of the modern boat, and,
as a result of experiments made in 1864 to 1866, by Mr.
John Samuel White, at Cowes, the first 27-foot steam
cutter was constructed and tried by the Admiralty, with a
view to use for the special boat work required in connection
with surveying service. This boat was successful, and a larger
one, 36 feet long, built on the same principle, was ordered, and
tried in 1867. She, also, was satisfactory, with a speed of Si-
knots, and became the standard boat until 1878. In that year
greater speed was required; the 48-foot vedette boat was evolved,
and a speed of 13 knots obtained.
Further developments led to the patent turnabout, double rudder
boat, and in 1882 a 42-foot boat on this principle was completed
and put on service. In 1883 the dimensions further increased to
56 feet length, and the speed to 15^ knots under certain conditions,
the turnabout principle being retained.
From then onward there have been gradual changes, and the
adoption of water-tube boilers, with the result that a speed of
1 6 knots can now be attained with a service 56-foot vedette boat
under trial conditions.
MODERN STEAMBOAT EQUIPMENT OF WARSHIPS. 163
In foreign navies, a greater desire for speed has led to further
developments, and the Japanese Navy now possesses four of the
finest vedette boats in the world, 56 feet long, 9 feet 6 inches
broad, with a speed, under specified official conditions, of 18^
knots per hour.
This represents a record of 37 years' work on the same class of
vessel, and gives us the development from a 27-foot cutter with a
speed of 7^ knots, to a 56-foot vedette boat with a speed of 18^
Col. N. Soliani, Professor J. H. Biles, Mr. Corner, and the Chair-
man took part in the Discussion.
The author replied, and on the motion of the Chairman a vote
-of thanks was accorded to him.
"SOME GRAPHIC ANALYSES OF PROPELLOR
Paper by J. MILLEN ADAM.
THE paper concentrates attention on the propellor and the fluid
which passes through it as a conservative system, and describes a
rotating screw as an instrument to induce from the surrounding
element on one side, and to produce distinct from the surrounding
element on the other side, a homogeneous current relative to itself,
flowing parallel with the axis of rotation, and receiving therefrom
The difference between the screw pitch in relation to the pool
within which the propellor is found and the resultant ship speed,
provides the angle of incidence without which no useful energy
would be employed, and a probable explanation of apparent
negative slip is given. Reasons were also* adduced for the non-
success of attempts to adopt gaining pitches, and it is shown that
a non-gaining pitch is an essential feature of the helical screw.
With the assistance of a series of geometrical diagrams, the
evolution was traced from the inclined plane with its simple
reactions to the twisted rotating vane, and the gradual but complete
divergence of its system of reaction from the type ; and the necessity
was shown for a modification of the surfaces to meet the various
The angles of incidence over the whole superficies of the blade
must be such in relation to the attacking fluid that the acceleration
shall be normal to the disc area, and it is not so upon the helical
screw. The angle of incidence has an outward radial component,
which was graphically described ; also any line of tangential escape
was shown to be a convex curve. Although the water of the race
does not disperse much because there is nothing to take its place,
an instantaneous deflection or tendency to deflect indicates loss of
energy, which can be as surely dissipated by concussion^ as by
translation of matter. Propulsive thrust is upon the propellor and
nowhere else, and the direction of the resistances bearing thereon
is of primary importance.
A further series of diagrams and models traced the evolution of
an ideal vane from a curve whose entering tangent is parallel
with the attack, and rises on vertical equidistant ordinates whose
SOME GRAPHIC ANALYSES OF PROPELLER REACTIONS. 165
successive lengths are as the squares of units in arithmetical pro-
gression, giving equal acceleration, at right angles to the force,
in unit of time. Such a vane is found only on the surface of a
cone rotated on an axis passing through the apex of the cone, but
inclined to the conic axis. Besides possessing this ideal gaining
pitch, the vane described was shown to have a constant centripetal
component in every angle of incidence, corresponding to a moving
force directed towards the centre of rotation, altering the accelera-
tion in direction but not in magnitude, and therefore dissipating no
power. Such a vane was also shown to yield a total acceleration
equal between parallel edges, or with practically constant width from
root to tip. The simplicity of the conic form for geometrical
computations, also the flexibility of the figure in respect of generat-
ing angle and angle of inclination, were also shown to be features
Mr. E. Hall Brown, Mr. E. C. Thrupp, Col. John Scott. C.B.,
and Mr. E. R. Mumford took part in the Discussion.
The author replied, and on the motion of the Chairman a vote
of thanks was accorded to him.
"A NEW PROPELLER.
Paper by JOHANN SCHUTTE.
THE purpose of the paper was to put before those interested in
shipbuilding matters a description of a new propeller of rather
a novel design.
With regard to the ordinary type of screw propeller, no definite
decision has, as yet, been arrived at as to the best form, nor
whether it is advisable to have constant or variable pitch.
Designers of propellers probably give more attention to the form
of blade. It is well known that the portions of the blades adjoin-
ing the bo'ss contribute little to the propelling power of the screw.
The propeller in question is designed with the object of reducing
those parts and is the invention of Graf von Westphalen, of Vienna.
The inventor's work is based on ideas which will be best understood
from his own statements in the following letter:
"Vienna, 20th August, 1900.
" Dear Mr. Schiitte,
" This propeller has been evolved by means of numerous
trials of various forms suggested by the following considerations.
Propeller blades of the usual form, and with constant pitch, have
the greater part of their surface at angles of 45 degrees and over.
Such portions are not very efficient as regards propulsion, as they
tend to drive the water away from the centre; and the more so
the larger the angle and the greater the speed of rotation. With
a screw having its blades in one plane and fixed directly on the
boss in the usual way a retarding action is set up, owing to the
comparatively greater thickness of the blade at the root, such
thickness being necessary for purposes of strength. This part cf
the blade (assuming the face to be a plane surface), not having
the same pitch as the tip, must set up a resistance in proportion
to its thickness. Various trials with a propeller having a plane
surface have shown that the water is drawn in spirally towards
the centre; therefore the blades should decrease in width from
tip to root. The proposed propeller embodies this idea. The
arms fixed to the boss join the blades at the centre of gravity of
hydraulic pressure. This construction allows the water free access
A NEW PROPELLER. 167
to each part of the blade and thus prevents a vacuum from form-
ing, the consequence being that the propeller works evenly and
free from vibration. As the radiating arms revolve in the same
direction as the water in which they work they experience very
I am, yours sincerely,
(Signed) Rudolph Graf von Westphalen zu Furstenberg. ;
A series of experiments was carried out with models of the
new propeller in the North German Lloyd Company's tank at
Bremerhaven. principally with the object of determining the most
suitable shape of blade.
Of the various forms tried, the best results were obtained with
a kite-shaped blade whose greatest width, which occurs at a dis-
tance of 72 per cent of the propeller radius measured from the
shaft centre-line, equals 0.3 of its length. From the widest part
inwards the blade tapers down to and terminates at a point a short
distance from the axis. All parts of the blade make the same
angle 36 degrees with an athwart-ship plane; so that the pitch
increases uniformly from the centre outwards. The arms which
carry the blades are inclined to the shaft at an angle of 52 degrees,
thus throwing the vertical plane containing the centre-lines of the
blade-faces a definite distance abaft the boss.
As a result of the model experiments the North German Lloyd
Company had the propellers of their T.S.S. " Seeadler " replaced
by a set of the Westphalen design.
The dimensions of the " Seeadler " are : Length between per-
pendiculars = 164.00 feet; extreme breadth = 26.24 feet; draught =
11.25 f^et; displacement =72 2 tons; wetted surf ace =55 75 square
Original propellers: Diameter =9.1 8 feet; pitch =13.61 feet;
surface (4 blades) = 36. 6 square feet.
Westphalen propellers: Diameter =9.1 8 feet; pitch (measured
at "centre of gravity of hydraulic pressure ")= 15.07 feet; surface
(3 blades) = 15. 5 square feet.
With Old With New
Revolutions ... ... ... 107 99
Speed ... ... ... 12.3 knots. 12.3 knots.
Slip ... ... ... ... 14.0 p. cent. 16. 6 p. cent.
I.H.P. 910 850
Besides figures and diagrams illustrating the design and geometry
of the propeller, the paper included a curve of E.H.P. for the
168 A NEW PROPELLER.
"Seeadler" at the given displacement (the E.H.P. at 12.3 knots =
420) and a diagram showing the vibrations experienced in the
engine room at practically the same revolutions with the old and
new propellers respectively. The curves indicate a marked reduc-
tion of vibrational disturbance in the latter case.
Col. G. Rota, Mr. R. T. Napier, and Mr. C. J. Davidson took
part in the Discussion; and the author replied.
On the motion of the Chairman a vote of thanks was accorded
to the author.
The proceedings of the Section were brought to a close by a
vote of thanks to the Chairman, proposed by Mr. R. T. Napier
and seconded by Mr. J. M. Adams, to which Col. John Scott,
SUMMARY OF PROCEEDINGS
Section Y. Iron and Steel.*
TUESDAY, 3rd SEPTEMBER, 19O1,
Mr. WILLIAM WHITWELL, Chairman, in the Chair.
THIS is the thiid time that the Iron and Steel Institute has been
privileged to enjoy the hospitality of the City of Glasgow. Re-
membering the great benefits derived from the previous visits in
1872 and 1885, the members have been looking forward with
satisfaction to the Institute's third meeting in Glasgow. Scotland
had always held a pre-eminent position in the metallurgy of iron;
and to Glasgow we owe the introduction of the first blowing
cylinders at Carron Ironworks, which some of us hope to visit,
the development of the mining of blackband iron ore, and
James Beaumont Neilson's invention of the hot blast, one of
the most important in the annals of metallurgy, well worthy of
being ranked with those of Henry Cort and Henry Bessemer.
It was at Carron that James Watt erected his first steam-engine,
the patent for which was secured in 1769. It is especially
pleasant to us that this meeting is held, by kind permission of
the University Court, in the magnificent buildings of this ancient
University, which for 450 years has been unflagging in its en-
deavours to benefit the world by scientific research. Glasgow
University discovered James Watt, and appointed him their
mathematical instrument maker. Glasgow University was the
first University to found an engineering school and professorship
of engineering. It was the first University to have a chemical
teaching laboratory for students, and it was here that the first
physical laboratory for the instruction of students in experimental
* The full Proceedings of Section V. form Volume LX., 1901, of the
Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute, published by The Iron and Steel
institute, 28 Victoria Street, London, S.W. Price i6s.
170 PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS.
work was established. In short, our debt to Glasgow University
can with difficulty be estimated. Long may it pursue its career
of useful work. Vivat, crescat, floreat!
Special interest attaches to this meeting, inasmuch as for the
first time in the history of the Iron and Steel Institute we meet
in conjunction with the Institution of Civil Engineers, the
Institution of Mechanical Engineers, the Institution of Naval
Architects, the Institution of Mining Engineers, the Institution
of Electrical Engineers, the Institution of Gas Engineers, and the
Incorporated Association of Municipal Engineers, forming one great
International Engineering Congress. Once in our history we held
a joint meeting in the United States with the American Institu-
tion of Mining Engineers and our German sister society, and the
benefits derived were far-reaching. Speaking of that meeting,
one of my distinguished predecessors in this chair wisely said :
" These expeditions, through which we meet eye to eye and
voice to voice our friendly competitors, to discuss the interests
and the scientific aspects of the industry which absorbs us, have
been of great personal and national benefit. It is thus we learn
how much has been accomplished by persistent and intelligent
labour, how much remains to be achieved, and how, by free
exchange of ideas and of production, friendly understanding is
promoted and personal acquaintance built up."
Animated by this spirit, the Iron and Steel Institute has
desired to participate in this great Congress for the advance of
common interests, and with the aim of widening our field of
investigation, of avoiding the duplication of work, and of ex-
tending the ever-increasing fund of technical knowledge. The
bulk of the progress in applied science can be traced to the
technical societies, and every branch of engineering and industry
shows the beneficial results of co-operation by workers in the
same field. Indeed, the homely saying I quoted in my address
to you last May is applicable to technical societies " It is a
wise farmer who looks over his neighbour's fence !"
At the present time, when the close of a century coincides
with the end of the Victorian era, attention is naturally turned
to the achievements of the nineteenth century. Conspicuous
among these has been the development of technical societies.
Organisations have been created and are active in every pro-
fession and in all branches of industry, science, and art. The
growth of such societies has been accompanied by a decrease
in the use of secret methods of manufacture. Manufacturing
supremacy is now decided by other factors, and it is impossible
to over-estimate the importance of professional and business men
assembling to interchange ideas, and contributing funds for the
publications of Transactions for the advancement of industry.
PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 171
The knowledge gained by practical experience recorded in the
Transactions of a technical society soon finds its way into the
text-books for the instruction of students that will presently
take our places and carry on our work. The mass of matter
published by such societies is vast, and increases year by
year. The eight Societies taking part in the Congress pub-
lished last year among them no less than 6805 pages,
distributed as follows :
Institution of Civil Engineers
Institution of Mechanical Engineers
Iron and Steel Institute -
Institution of Xaval Architects
Institution of Mining Engineers
Institution of Electrical Engineers -
Institution of Gas Engineers
Incorporated Association of Municipal Engineers - 253
Total - - - 6805
In this overwhelming mass of published matter there is a
certain amount of overlapping that this Conference may tend to
obviate in the future. Some of the papers, too, at first sight
appear to be of little practical importance. This criticism has
frequently been applied to many of the papers read before the
Iron and Steel Institute. It must be remembered, however, that
this has been from time immemorial the favourite objection to
the work of pioneers of thought. In this age of specialisation it
is peculiarly important that hypothesis and generalisation the
complementary factors in scientific progress should not be
lost sight of. Mr. Balfour in a recent address, summarising the
changes that have occurred in the nineteenth century, gives as
the dominant note the close connection between theoretical
knowledge and its utilitarian application. This is a startling
verification of the soundness of scientific methods and of their
capacity of indefinite perfectibility. With the development of
scientific research, hypothesis, and generalisations, the practical
applications of science become multiplied with rapidity and give
the student (to borrow a simile from a brilliant writer in the
Edinburgh Review] a satisfaction similar to that which a child
feels when he has reached the final stages of putting together a
puzzle-map of which the first steps were tentative and slow.
Everything at the last falls quickly into its place, he finds
nothing missing, and the map is complete and fit for use; yet,
accuracy or even approximate accuracy in the earlier stages was
a more important and difficult step towards ultimate success.
The thirty thousand pages published by the Iron and Steel
Institute since its inauguration in 1871 afford fruitful examples
172 PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS.
of the subsequent value of scientific researches, which, when
first presented, were received with coolness and suspicion by many
of our members and by the technical press. Numerous examples
might be cited. For instance, the microscopic method of investi-
gating the structure of steel, created by Sorby, Martens, Osmond,
Howe, and Stead, has become an indispensable auxiliary to chemical
analysis and physical tests in steelworks. The abstruse memoirs
on the heat treatment of steel, and on pyrometry, have led to im-
portant practical applications, and the phase rule enunciated by the
American professor, Gibbs, and applied by Sir William Roberts-
Austen, Baron Jiiptner, Le Chatelier, and Stansfield, will no doubt
eventually prove of extreme value in eludicating some of the more
intricate problems confronting the metallurgist.
In short, by its papers, its discussions, and its interchange of
ideas, the Iron and Steel Institute has advanced the science and
art of metallurgy. It has rendered services to the world by
assisting its progress, and is, I venture to think, not unworthy
to accept the welcome which the West of Scotland ironmasters
and the University of Glasgow are now so generously giving
"THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES OF THE
WEST OF SCOTLAND/'
I. PIG IRON.
BY HENRY BUMBY.
ON the previous occasions on which the Iron and Steel Institute
has honoured Glasgow with its presence, papers have been read
dealing so fully with the early history of ironmaking in Scotland
that I will not venture to occupy your time by repeating what has
already been so ably dealt with. I have, therefore, only added as
an appendix (Table I.) a table of some of the more notable dates
in the history of Scotch ironmaking, in the hope that others may
be able to supply those which I have been unable to obtain.
Your previous visits to Glasgow, in 1872 and 1885, have practi-
cally coincided with the general introduction of radical changes in
the Scotch pig iron industry.
When you first visited Scotland in 1872, the Scotch ironmasters
were just beginning to utilise the hitherto " waste " gas for boilers
and stoves, and to supplement their own native ores with ore from
Spain, and you were told in the descriptive paper read at that
meeting that " (at Coltness) ... it is now finally resolved to
go in for economical production by an application of the bell and
cone to at least two of the blast furnaces." Whilst it was also
told, as a remarkable fact, that at one works they had succeeded
in making haematite pig entirely from Spanish ore. When you
were here in 1885, the persistent efforts of Mr. M'Cosh and his
partners to utilise the tar and ammonia contained in the furnace
gas had just been crowned with success, and, encouraged by their
example, several other works had begun to put down by-product
plants, some of them of very remarkable design. Your Journal
for that year contains descriptions of most of these plants, and
most of us can remember the very great interest excited through-
out the iron trade at the time, and the rather wild talk about pig
iron " becoming an unimportant by-product," etc.
In the sixteen years which have elapsed since the last visit of
the Iron and Steel Institute, there have been no such radical
changes as marked the earlier periods. The period has been
chiefly marked by the gradual increase in the proportion of steel-
making pig, and by the improvement and extension of the works
for recovering by-products from the gas which were commenced in
the early eighties.
174 IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES OF THE WEST OF SCOTLAND.
Coal. The blast furnaces of Lanarkshire and Ayrshire have
now been at regular work for over a century, and during three-
quarters of that time they ha,ve worked mainly on the coal from
two or three not exceptionally thick seams; add to this that until
the last fifteen or twenty years both mining and smelting were
conducted in the most wasteful manner, and it will be no cause
for surprise that the best splint coals are showing signs of ex-
haustion.* Mining engineers have variously estimated the time
for the exhaustion of the good splint coals of Lanarkshire at from
ten to* twenty years, and already the scarcity is making itself felt
by those works which depend on the open market for their fuel
supplies. To meet this scarcity of splint coal, some works are
endeavouring to use in its place the softer semi-splint coals, with
results which, so far, do not conduce to the comfort of their furnace
managers. A more promising plan has been tried by one large
firm, who coke the coal from the lower seams in very fine by-
product ovens, and use a small proportion of coke with each barrow