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International Engineering Congress (1901 : Glasgow.

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of the mass of the people. The greater comfort, better feeding,
higher healthiness, freer movement of the people to outside con-
gested urban areas to-day, as contrasted with the state of the
populace of this and other countries a century ago, are chiefly
attributable to the triumphs of our professional work.

An alarm has been sounded in our ears of late, warning us that
we, the inhabitants of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and



14: ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT.

Ireland, have touched our high-water mark in respect to the
prosperity derivable from the prosecution of those manufacturing
industries which are based upon engineering, or are by it served with
the means of transport and communication. This may be so.
Our nation has no royal secret for arresting the revolution of
Fortune's wheel. When merchants first sought our shores to trade
with the aborigines, their attraction was the native tin. The
development of the country however was not arrested by the
substitution of iron for bronze implements and weapons. Wool
became in turn the staple product of the land, and carried its
diversified fortunes bravely down almost to within living memory.
We have long ceased to produce enough wool, or corn, or meat,
for our teeming population. It is almost as much as we can do to
find enough water to drink. The wisest man that graced the Court
of the British Solomon who first united the kingdoms of Scotland
and England would be sorely puzzled if he were to revisit this
realm to understand how we all contrive to live.

The industrial development of the world has proceeded along
the lines which one of the profoundest minds of the nineteenth
century Charles Darwin traced for the life history of the planet.
The course of economic progress is from the simple to the complex,
from sameness to infinite diversity. In the history of Britain, the
mining of a semi-precious metal for exportation was succeeded by
pastoral pursuits, and these again were followed by agriculture and
manufacturing enterprises. Good government kept order in the
land, and saved it from devastating invasions. Margins realised
over the cost of living formed capital, which went into fresh enter-
prises at home, and eventually overflowed into adventures for the
conquest of markets abroad. All the time engineering dogged the
way, making roads and inland waterways and harbours, and supply-
ing tools and mechanical motive powers. A vast multiplication and
diversification of employments for money, ingenuity, and toil, have
resulted from the free play of the national genius; and have been
carried to such a height by the indomitable spirit of the race, that
now the waxing and waning of particular trades and interests from



ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. 15

accidental influences do not alter the balance of the great account
which the nation has opened with Fate. An illustration in point
is spread before our eyes. Mark the difference between the con-
ditions governing the prosperity of, say, a mining camp, and those
prevailing over a vast and varied emporium, a manufacturing centre,
such as this noble city. Glasgow flourishes, not by reason of the
vogue of any particular trade that finds specially favourable situa-
tion on the banks of the Clyde, but because it is a microcosm of
the universal activities which yield wealth. Its engineers can
point with pardonable pride to the material framework and setting
of this community the artificially improved river, the systems of
railways and tramways, the magnificent water supply, which have
given Glasgow elbow room for her expansion as the gains of
engineering; but it is the peculiar diversity of Glasgow's energies
that have won for her the rating of " Second City of the Empire.' 7

The question of moment to Britishers is : Shall we maintain our
ground ? to say nothing of increasing our lead ? I cannot tell : but
this I do believe, that the character of the future of the country
and the fruitfulness of our common calling depend chiefly upon
the preservation of that freedom for the play of all the talents,
all the energies, all the force of human initiative for the subjugation
of the powers of nature and their direction to the service of
mankind, which has enabled us to do so much in this regard in
the past. Favoured simply by secured peace at home, and by the
confidence felt by the masters of accumulated capital, engineering
has hitherto showered its first fruits over our land. To-day these
advantages have become internationalised. Gold flows daily to
and from the capital cities of the earth for the smallest balance of
gain ; or as engineers would describe the movement of a mobile
fluid under the slightest head of a pressure that is ever shifting.
Brains are no peculiar possession of our nationality. The cosmic
forces are the same everywhere. Economic conditions tend to wear
down to a uniform level. Science knows no frontiers. The
engineer is the truest free trader. He goes whithersoever he is
wanted and finds most to do. Will he in future flourish best in
Britain or abroad ?



16 ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT.

We hear much talk nowadays about the British need of more
technical education for workers, and of better instruction in the
art of living for the people generally; and I am not disposed to
disparage this desire for more light. There cannot be too much of it.
Nevertheless I hold liberty to be more precious than learning. The
fullest freedom for the exercise of the inborn spirit of initiative,
enterprise, and adventure, is the next essential to the occurrence of
this spirit in the individual members of a race, for enabling the
whole to make headway in the universal struggle for life and for
a leading position. I fear that only too good a case could be made
out for the allegation that a mistaken statutory system has dis-
couraged in this country for the time being, at least the
naturalisation and development of electrical engineering on the
largest scale. In other words, the Electric Lighting Acts had the
broad result of chopping up the business of electricity supply in this
favoured land into morsels reduced to the parochial needs of local
authorities. There was no freedom in the business. Instead of
the electrical and mechanical development of lighting and power
being undertaken in this country upon a scale proportional to its
early promise, the work had to be done by " sample " every small
specimen differing from the others. Long years passed before any
English engineer was in a position to give out an electrical power
contract amounting to 100,000. Meanwhile our friends in
America and on the Continent of Europe were forging fast ahead.
So we lost our chance, and shall probably have to take other
people's electric plant for some time : instead of striking out our
own leading line, as did our less governed forefathers years ago
in railway work and shipbuilding.

I should like to remark here, in parenthesis, how much of the
real essence of economical engineering is contained in the work
of settling standard sections of important constructive materials.
This matter has been taken in hand by a joint committee of the
Institution of Civil Engineers, the Institution of Mechanical
Engineers, the Institution of Naval Architects, and the Iron and
Steel Institute. It is my privilege to be ex officio Chairman of this



ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. 17

Committee, and we have already taken the evidence of representa-
tive men among makers, merchants, and users of steel and iron
bars of all shapes and scantlings, and have received many written
communications, all of which go to prove the great desirability of
doing thoroughly the work of standardizing that the Committee
have taken up. Sir Benjamin Baker, with a specially selected Sub-
Committee, has charge of bridge and general building construction ;
Sir J. Wolfe Barry, with similar assistance, of railways; Colonel
Denny of shipbuilding; and Sir Douglas Fox of rolling stock. In
the hands of these eminent engineers you may rest assured the work
will be well carried out; but we desire earnestly the active and
cordial assistance and co-operation of all our brethren interested in
this important matter.

In all the various sections to which you will now go to perform
the real work of the Congress, you will, I think, find something that
will serve to focus your attention upon the great engineering
problems of our time.

I have no wish to discriminate among the papers ; but it is plain
that in Section I. Professor Carus-Wilson has undertaken the
treatment of a matter of extreme interest, in writing of the
" Economy of Electricity as a Motive Power on Railways at present
driven by Steam."

Some highly important papers are to be read in Section II. ; and
it is a matter cf peculiar gratification that we have been able to enlist
the help of so distinguished a band of engineers from the United
States of America and from the European Continent, for giving true
international importance to the deliberations of this Section.

I am pleased to find that one of the most interesting of all
inventions since the age of " Watt" in the domain of prime movers
the steam turbine is to be discussed in Section III.

It is impossible to overrate the value of the section of metallurgy:
and the number of papers promised testifies to the technical
interest of the questions which await answers in this sphere of

engineering energy.

In Section VII. two of the most pressing problems of municipal



18 ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT.

engineering the disposal of sewage, and the housing of the poor
will, I am sure, be adequately treated.

In Section VIII. gas engineering sufficient proof will be given
of the influence exerted on this industry by that invaluable invention
of incandescent lighting, to which the Exhibition of which our
hosts may justly be most proud owes so much of its evening
brilliancy.

The applications of electricity to various purposes will be
described in Section IX. ; among them the wonderful " three-
phase " system of power transmission, which promises so much in
this connection.

Time forbids my going further into the various matters that
crowd our minds on such an occasion as the present. I can there-
fore only commend you heartily and sincerely to the despatch of
the important business you have undertaken; and trust that the
fruit of increased knowledge which may be gathered from inter-
change of ideas will amply repay your trouble in coming here at
the invitation of our Glasgow friends and confreres.



M. Berrier-Fontaine, directeur du Genie Maritime, Paris. My
Lord Provost and Gentlemen I have no doubt one and all of the
foreign engineers who have come from so many distant countries to
attend the Congress and to take part in this unprecedented general
international engineering gathering, will join with me in according
our best thanks to the President who has been so fitly selected to
preside over our distinguished meeting to-day. I need not say.
sir, that we fully appreciate the very kind reception we are ex-
periencing at your hands. We are most sensible of it. Why ? Well,
sir, we expect to gain much additional technical knowledge during
this week of our stay with you in Scotland, and we greatly ap-
preciate the good will, and the better understanding, between
different nations which meetings such as these are so apt to develop.
It is, therefore, from the bottom of my heart that in the name of
all the foreign gentlemen here present I tender to you our most
sincere thanks for your kindness to you Sir, and to your colleagues,
the British Engineers.

The President, I thank you, gentlemen, for your kind apprecia-
tion of my remarks. I thank you particularly on behalf of the
leaders of this Congress, mostly our friends in Glasgow, and
especially must I thank M. Berrier-Fontaine for his kindly words.

The General Meeting then concluded.



MINUTES. 19

PROCEEDINGS OF SECTIONS.

At 11.30 a.m. the sections met in the Sectional Rooms as follows:

Section I. (Railways) Botany Lecture Theatre.

(For summary of proceedings and abstracts of papers, see
pp. 28 to 34.)

Section II. (Waterways and Maritime Works) Botany Labora-
tory.

(For summary of proceedings and abstracts of papers, see
pp. 56 to 64.)

Section III. (Mechanical) Debating Hall, Students' Union.
(For summary of proceedings and abstracts of papers, see
pp. 98 to 108.)

Section IV. (Naval Architecture) -Humanity Lecture Theatre.
(For summary of proceedings and abstracts of papers, see
pp. 146 to 153.)

Section V. (Iron and Steel) Chemistry Lecture Theatre.

(For summary of proceedings and abstracts of papers, see
pp. 169 to 194.)

Section VI. (Mining) Greek Lecture Theatre.

(For summary of proceedings and abstracts of papers, see
pp. 212 to 228.)

Section VII. (Municipal) Engineering Lecture Theatre.
(For summary of proceedings and abstracts of papers, see
pp. 251 to 258.)

Section VIII. (Gas) Natural History Lecture Theatre.
(For summary of proceedings and abstracts of papers, see
pp. 275 to. 291.)

Section IX. (Electrical) Natural Philosophy Lecture Theatre.
(For summary of proceedings and abstracts of paper j, see
pp. 310 to 316.)

The meetings concluded at i o'clock, and in the afternoon the
members took part in the following visits to works :

1. Messrs. Dubs & Co., Glasgow Locomotive Works, and

Messrs. Alley & MacLellan, Sentinel Engine Works,
Polmadie.

2. Prince's Dock, and the Weir on the Clyde.

3. Messrs. G. & J. Weir, Holm Foundry, Cathcart.

4. Messrs. The Fairfield Shipbuilding & Engineering

Co., Ltd., Govan.



20 MINUTES.

5. Messrs. W. Baird & Co., Gartsherrie Iron Works,

Coatbridge.

6. Messrs. The Waverley Iron & Steel Co., Coatbridge.

7. Messrs. The Steel Company of Scotland, Hallside

Steel Works, Newton.

8. Tidal Weir and Swanston Street Sewage Works.

9. Gas Works at Dawsholm, and new Gas Works at

Provan.

10. Organised Visit to the Electrical Exhibits in the
Exhibition.

11. Messrs. Robert Maclaren & Co, Eglinton Foundry.

Canal Street.



OPENING OF THE JAMES WATT ENGINEERING
LABORATORIES, GLASGOW UNIVERSITY.

At 3.30 p.m. a large number of members and citizens assembled
in the main Laboratory, on the invitation of the Engineering
Laboratory Committee, Sir William Arrol, Chairman of the Com-
mittee, presiding. The Chairman briefly introduced Professor Barr,
who made a statement regarding the history of the undertaking,
referring especially to the donation of ^12,500 towards the buildings
from the Bellahouston Trustees, and the numerous subscriptions in
money and apparatus received towards the equipment. Sir James
King acknowledged the reference to the Bellahouston Trustees.
Lord Kelvin (Honorary President of the Congress), then declared
the laboratories open, and referred to the growing need for labora-
tory instruction, and the desirability of a close connection being
maintained between the University and the engineering profession.
Mr. James Mansergh (President of the Congress), delivered a short
address on the scientific training of engineers, touching upon the
action that the Institution of Civil Engineers had taken in requiring
scientific knowledge as a qualification for associate-membership.
The Lord Provost of Glasgow (Samuel Chisholm, LL.D.), and
Mr. William Maw (President of the Institution of Mechanical
Engineers), also addressed the meeting. Principal Story expressed
his gratification in accepting this addition to the equipment of
the University, and conveyed the thanks of the meeting to Lord
Kelvin for the part his lordship had taken in the proceedings.



MINUTES. 21

RECEPTION.

In the evening at 8 p.m. a reception was held in the City
Chambers. The members were received by the Lord Provost
(Samuel Chisholm, LL.D.) and the Magistrates.

During the evening the company assembled in the Banqueting
Hall, and the Lord Provost, in the name of the Corporation,
welcomed alike those strangers from afar and near who were visiting
Glasgow in connection with the Congress, and welcomed also the
citizens of Glasgow who were present.

Lord Kelvin, as a burgess of the city, joined with the Lord
Provost and Town Council in giving all a hearty welcome to the
City Chambers; and as Honorary President of the Congress, he
thanked the Lord Provost for his hearty welcome to the Congress
members.

Sir John Wolfe Barry also acknowledged the welcome.

Dr. Caird, in name of the foreign delegates, the members of the
Congress, and the Local Committee, moved a vote of thanks to the
Lord Provost and Corporation for their hospitality. Principal
Story seconded the motion.

The Lord Provost replied briefly.



WEDNESDAY, 4th SEPTEMBER.



The Sections met as follows :

Section I. (Railways) Botany Lecture Theatre. 10-1.

(For summary of proceedings and abstracts of papers, see
pp. 35 to 46.)

Section II. (Waterways and Maritime Works) Botany Labora-
tory, i o- 1 .

(For summary of proceedings and abstracts of papers, see
pp. 65 to 76.)

Section III. (Mechanical) Debating Hall, Studencs' Union,

IO-I.

(For summary of proceedings and abstracts of papers, see
pp. 109 to 126.)

Section IV. (Naval Architecture) Humanity Lecture Theatre.
10.30-1.

(For summary of proceedings and abstracts of papers, see
pp. 154 to 1 6 1.)



22 MINUTES.

Section V. (Iron and Steel) Chemistry Lecture Theatre. 10-1.

(For summary of proceedings and abstracts of papers, see
pp. 195 to 211.)

Section VI. (Mining) Greek Lecture Theatre. 10-1.

(For summary of proceedings and abstracts of papers, see
pp. 229 to 250.)

Section VII. (Municipal) Engineering Lecture Theatre. 10-1.

(For summary of proceedings and abstracts of papers, see
pp. 259 to 265.)

Section VIII. (Gas) Natural History Lecture Theatre. 10-1.

(For summary of proceedings and abstracts of papers, see
pp. 292 to 299.)

Section IX. (Electrical) Natural Philosophy Lecture Theatre.

IO-I.

(For summary of proceedings and abstracts of papers, see
pp. 317 to 330.)

In the afternoon the members took part in the following visits to
works and excursions:

VISITS TO WORKS.

12. Messrs. Neilson, Reid & Co., Hydepark Locomotive
Works, Springburn; Messrs. Sharp, Stewart & Co.,
Ltd., Atlas Loco. Works.

13. Messrs. The Singer Manufacturing Co., Kiibowie.

14. Messrs. Babcock & Wilcox, Ltd., Renfrew.

15. Messrs. John Brown & Co., Ltd., Ciydebank.

1 6. A visit to Messrs. David Colville & Sons, Steel Works,

Motherwell, had been arranged but was cancelled
owing to the death of Mr. John Colville, M.P.

17. Messrs. The Steel Company of Scotland, Blochairn
Works.

1 8. Messrs. Edward Chester & Co.'s Engineering Works,

Renfrew.

19. Fire Station in Ingram Street, and Hydraulic Power
Station.

20. Messrs. The Furnace Gases Co., Ltd., Works,

Carnbroe.

21. Messrs. Kelvin & James White, Ltd.

Glasgow Corporation Telephone Exchange.

22. Messrs. Mavor & Coulson, Ltd., Dynamo Factory,

47 King Street, Mile-End, and Messrs. Duncan,
Stewart & Co., Ltd., Engineers, Bridgeton.



MINUTES. 23

EXCURSIONS.
I. -Excursion to Aberfbyte and Loch Ard.

Train to Aberfoyle, drive round Loch Ard and back to
Aberfoyle, and train from Aberfoyle to Glasgow (Via
Killearn).

II. Excursion to Lanark antf Falls of Clyde.

Train to Lanark, drive to Falls of Clyde, Cartland Crags,
Crossford, Tillietudlem, and train from Tillietudlem
to Glasgow.



THURSDAY, 5th SEPTEMBER.

The Sections met as follows :

Section I. (Railways) Botany Lecture Theatre. 10-1.

(For summary of proceedings and abstracts of papers see

PP- 47 to 55.)

Section II. (Waterways and Maritime Works) Botany Labora-
tory. 10-1.

(For summary of proceedings and abstracts of papers see
pp. 77 to 97.)

Section III. (Mechanical) Debating Hall, Students' Union.



IO-I.



(For summary of proceedings and abstracts of papers, see
pp. 127 to 145.)

Section IV. (Naval Architecture) Humanitv Lecture Theatre
10.301.

(For summary of proceedings and abstracts of papers, see
pp. 162 to 168.)

Section V. (Iron and Steel) Did not meet for the reading of
papers.

Section VI. (Mining) Did not meet for the reading of papers.
Section VII. (Municipal) Engineering Lecture Theatre. 10-1.
(For summary of proceedings and abstracts of papers, see
pp. 266 to 274.)

Section VIII. (Gas) Natural History Lecture Theatre. 10-1.
(For summary of proceedings and ' abstracts of papers, see
pp. 300 to 309.)

Section IX. (Electrical) Natural Philosophy Lecture Theatre.

IO-I.

(For summary of proceedings and abstracts of papers, see
PP- 331 to 340.)



24 MINUTES.

VISITS TO WORKS.

During the day a visit, No. 26, was made to Collieries in the
Hamilton District : the Priory Pits of Messrs. Wm. Baird and Co.,
Ltd. ; the Whistleberry Colliery of Mr. Archibald Russell ; and the
Palace Colliery of the Bent Colliery Co., Ltd.

Visit No. 27 was also made to Broxburn Oil Works.

In the afternoon the members took part in the following visits
to works and excursions :

23. The Caledonian Railway Locomotive Works, St.

Rollox, and the North British Railway Locomotive
Works, Cowlairs.

24. Messrs. Glenfield & Kennedy, Kilmarnock.

25. Messrs. Wm. Denny & Bros., Dumbarton.

28. Pinkston Tramway Power Station and Port Dundas
Electric Lighting Station.

29. Port Dundas Electric Lighting Station and Pinkston
Tramway Power Station.

30. Organised Visit to the Gas Exhibits in the Exhibition.

EXCURSIONS.
III. Excursion to Loch Lomond.

Train to Dumbarton and Ardlui by West Highland Rail-
way, steamer to Balloch, and train from Balloch to
Glasgow.

BALL.

In the evening at 9 p.m. a Ball was held in the St. Andrew's Halls.



FRIDAY, 6th SEPTEMBER.

The members took part in the following visits to works and
excursions :
Visits to works:

31. Leith Docks and Excursion to the Forth Bridge.

EXCURSIONS.
IV. -Excursion Through the Kyles of Bute.

Train from Gasgow to Fairlie ; sail from Fairlie in turbine
steamer " King Edward," through the Kyles of Bute,
and back to Fairlie between the Cumbraes.



MINUTES. 25

V. Excursion to Edinburgh and Forth Bridge.

Train from Glasgow to Edinburgh, drive to Forth Bridge,
through Lord Rosebery's grounds, sail from Forth
Bridge for an hour on the Forth, and train from
Dalmeny to Glasgow.

VI. Excursion from Broomielaw to Arrochar.

Steamer " Duchess of Hamilton," from Broomielaw down
River Clyde, past the Cumbraes, round south end of
Bute, through Kyles of Bute to Arrochar, via
Rothesay, Dunoon, and Loch Long; drive to Tarbet
(Loch Lomond), steamer " Prince George " to
Balloch, and train to Glasgow.



26 MINUTES.

DURING THE CONGRESS WEEK THE FOLLOWING
WORKS, SHIPBUILDING YARDS, ETC., WERE OPEN
TO CONGRESS MEMBERS BETWEEN THE HOURS OF
10 A.M. AND 5 P.M., EXCEPT WHERE OTHERWISE
NOTED, ON PRODUCTION OF THEIR MEMBERSHIP
CARD.



Arrol, Sir Wm., & Co., Ltd., Dalmarnock Iron Works, 85

Preston Street, Bridgeton (10-4).
Barclay, Curie & Co., Ltd., Engineering Works, Finnieston ;

Boiler Works, Kelvinhaugh ; and Shipyard, Whiteinch.
Barr & Stroud, Scientific Instrument Makers, 46 Ashton Lane

(closed 12.30 to 1.30 daily).

Beardmore, Wm., & Co., Engine Works, Lancefield Street.
Blackie & Son, Printers and Publishers, 17 Stanhope Street

(closed 2-3 daily).

British Hydraulic Foundry Co., South Street (3rd Sept. only).
Caird & Co., Ltd., Shipbuilders, Greenock.
Carron Co., Carron Iron Works, Stirlingshire (3rd or 4th Sept.).
City Improvement Schemes.

Clyde Shipbuilding & Engineering Co., Ltd., Port-Glasgow.
Collins, Wm., Sons & Co., Printers and Publishers, 139 Stirling

Road.

Coltness Iron Co., Newmains.
Connell, Chas., & Co., Shipbuilders, Whiteinch.
Craig, A. F. & Co., Engineers, Paisley.
Dixon, William, Ltd., Govan Iron Works, Glasgow.
Dixon, William, Ltd., Calder Iron Works, Coatbridge.
Duncan, Robert, & Co., Shipbuilders, Port-Glasgow.
Dunlop, D. J., Shipbuilders, Port-Glasgow.
Dunlop, James, & Co., Clyde Iron Works, Tollcross.
Dunlop, James, & Co., Calderbank Steel Works.
Edinburgh & District Tramways Company, Ltd., Cable Power

Station, Tollcross, Edinburgh.
Etna Iron and Steel Co., Motherwell.
Fullerton, Hodgert & Barclay, Ltd., Engineers, Vulcan Works,

Paisley.
Glasgow Central Station Extension and Plans, Resident

Engineer's Office^ Central Station.
Glasgow District Subway Co. Power Station, 173 Scotland

Street.
Glasgow & South-Western Railway Locomotive Works, Kil-

marnock.

" Glasgow Herald " Printing Office, 65 Buchanan Street.
Glasgow Harbour Tunnel Co., Hoists, etc., Plantation Quay.



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