city; an intercepting sewer to collect the drainage of the lower
levels of Partick; and a third intercepting sewer to convey to
Dalmuir the drainage of the Burgh of Clydebank. The Glasgow
and Partick intercepting sewers are pumped into the outfall sewer
at Partick bridge, the lift being 35 feet. The Clydebank inter-
cepting sewer is pumped at Dalmuir. the lift being 15 feet.
More than one-half of the Glasgow sewage is carried to Dalmuir
without pumping. The whole combined sewage is delivered at
Dalmuir above tidal level into the precipitation tanks.
Sewers on the south side of the river: The pumping station
at Pollokshields raises the low-level sewage 35 feet. There is
another pump at Braehead, where the lift is 25 feet. The sewage of
Paisley and Renfrew will require to be pumped at Braehead. The
Braehead works, like those at Dalmuir. have the great advantage
of river frontage.
The treatment adopted at Dalmarnock is chemical precipitation
by means of under-surface continuous flow. The sewage is complex
and most intractable, the suspended matters varying from 20 to
250 grains per gallon. The chemicals employed are hydrate of lime
and sulphate of alumina.
The Sewage Committee intend to adopt at Dalmuir and Braehead
the same method, except that sludge presses are to be dispensed
with and the liquid sludge with greater economy carried out to sea.
The working result at Dalmarnock is that every trace of sus-
pended matter is removed and 30 per cent, of purification attained,
calculated on the basis of oxygen absorbed in four hours at 27
degrees Cent. The sewage at Dalmarnock is discharged into a
tidal stream of vastly superior volume, exceeding by forty times
the quantity of sewage. At Braehead and at Dalmuir 94 million
gallons of sewage will come in contact with 3000 million gallons
of tidal water.
264 DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE.
The works at Dalmarnock, originally designed by the late Mr.
G. V. Alsing, were at first arranged for intermittent precipitation
in connection with coke filters. Recently it has been found
desirable to extend and convert the Dalmarnock works. The pre-
cipitation tanks are now worked in continuous flow and filters
abandoned, as the process has deteriorated the effluent instead
of improving it.
The precipitation tanks at Dalmuir are to be worked on the
under-surface continuous-flow system. They are more favourably
situated than those at Dalmarnock. Each is about 750 feet in
length, allowing opportunity for more complete precipitation than
at Dalmarnock and effecting a saving in the reduced proportion of
Last year the author was instructed to report upon the extent
to which bacterial methods might be adopted at Dalmiur, with a
statement of the relative cost, and entered upon a joint investi-
gation with the late Mr. W. Santo Crimp, M.Inst.C.E. The in-
vestigation showed that the capital expenditure alone at Dalmuir
would be at least ten times greater than the outlay for ordinary
precipitation works, without taking any account of the cost of renew-
ing the filtering plant.
Careful observation has been made of the working of an experi-
mental plant at Dalmarnock for bacterial treatment of sewage, the
cost being ^1000, exclusive of the original charge for the con-
struction of the tanks.
The plant consists of one open septic tank and four first- and
four second-contact beds.
One of the large precipitation tanks (superficial area 426.94
square yards, capacity 200,000 gallons) was utilised as a septic tank.
The result of the tests made in working this experimental plant
exhibit the surface required for this method of sewage treatment;
Acres per Million Gallons.
Test No. i ... ... ... 5 acres for one filling.
Test No. 2 8.3
Test No. 3 9.4
Test No. 4 7.7
Test No. 5 8.1
The paper gives tables and figures relating to the working of the
system in use and the experimental plant.
The Discussion on this paper was taken with that on Mr.
Weaver's paper (see p. 265).
The author replied, and a vote of thanks was accorded to Him.
Paper by WILLIAM WEAVER.
INTRODUCTORY remarks upon the general character of the paper.
The author does not confine himself to specialities and details.
Sewerage and Drainage. Advance in sewer systems during the
past fifty years. Sewers, adequate size, good flow, non-nuisance
outfall. Surface water. Ventilation. House drainage. Super-
vision bye-laws. Intercepting traps. Simplicity of construction.
Costly details increase rent and the housing difficulty.
Water Supply. Pure, free, and unstinted. Public and private
ownership of supply. Proposed new (London) bye-laws.
Habitations and their Occupants. Rules as to building construc-
tion; space; water supply; sanitation; increased cost of building;
trade union limitation of output ; migration from country ; crowding
into towns. Workers can help themselves to a large extent.
Municipal efforts to retard national decadence. Crowding in
relation to rent. Sanitary defects of dwellings can be dealt with.
Sanitary shortcomings of occupier are not dealt with. Verminous
Persons Act. Sanitary nuisance, whether man or matter, should
be dealt with. Parks and open spaces. General power to acquire
land should be vested in the Local Authority.
Highways. Formation and laying-out generally. Impervious
road pavements. Scavenging. Watering. Motor traction.
Refuse. Street refuse. House and trade refuse. Destructors.
General observations. Baths and wash-houses. Abattoirs. Dis-
infecting chambers. Infectious hospitals. Municipal lodging houses.
Public libraries. Technical schools. Public conveniences. Health
The Discussions on this paper and on Mr. McDonald's paper
were combined, and were taken part in by Mr. Midgley Taylor
and Mr. George Chatterton.
The authors replied, and a vote of thanks was accorded to them.
The meeting was then adjourned.
THURSDAY, 5th SEPTEMBER, 19O1.
Mr. E. GEORGE MAWBEY, Chairman, in the Chair.
"RECENT TRAMWAY PRACTICE."
Paper by JAMES MORE, Jun.
IN dealing with this subject, one has some difficulty in deciding
what the term " recent " may mean. It may mean recent as
compared with practice 20 years ago, which period covers many
different systems of traction; or it may mean recent as compared
with five years ago, which practically means electric traction, with
a small amount of cable traction.
Electric traction in this country can hardly be considered of much
practical value any longer back than five years, but it has greatly
developed and matured in that time. The writer will, therefore,
confine himself to a review of this method of traction, with a brief
observation on the few cable lines in this country.
Regarding the permanent way, however, it is worth considering
over a longer period, as it applies to all methods of traction in
principle, only differing in degree as to stability under the different
During the last twenty years there has been a considerable
change in the section, chemical composition, and physical qualities
of these. Until about 1885 there were many built-up systems
used. Some of these were fairly successful with the light cars
used for horse traction, but failed completely when steam loco-
motives were used. About 1880 light sections of girder rails were
used to some extent, about 581bs. to the yard.
In 1883 the girder rail was generally adopted, to the exclusion
of most others, and the weight was increased to> from 80 to 100 Ibs.
per yard. The fish-plates, however, were as a rule much too
light The usual standard lengths of rails at that time were 24 ft.
At the present time 45 ft. may be called the standard, although
some have been rolled 60 ft. long. The sections have also much
RECENT TRAMWAY PRACTICE. 267
Ten years ago the common percentage of carbon was 0.35. At
the present time the steel used for tramway rails contains from 0.55
to 0.65 per cent, of carbon.
There has been great improvement in fish-plates and in joints
generally. . There are also numerous different designs of sole-
plates etc., all meant to minimise the pounding at the rail joint
when the cars pass over.
POINTS AND CROSSINGS.
There has not been any important improvement in these except-
ing that at the present time the cast steel is somewhat harder by
the addition of manganese. This was first adopted by Mr. R. A.
Hadfield, M.Inst.C.E., of Sheffield.
Chilled iron points and crossings are becoming rarer every day
for tramway purposes, but the writer thinks this is only due to
the makers not making their patterns to suit the heavy electric cars.
As regards the electric traction of the present day, the writer
thinks it is unnecessary to discuss any other than the overhead
system, as this is the only system that has shown good financial
results. The conduit system may become a financial success, but
it is doubtful. The heavy initial cost is almost prohibitive, being
more than that of the cable system.
At the present day we may take it that the 500 volts continuous
current is the standard. Recently, however, there has been high
potential alternating current tried on the Continent, with alternating
motors on the cars. It cannot be said, however, that this has
yet proved to be a success.
In the modern power house there are several kinds of different
boilers adopted, some of the tubular marine type, and others of
the water tube type, such as the Stirling and Babcock & Wilcox
These latter are specially useful where space is restricted, and
where a lighting circuit is used in the same station as the traction
circuit. There are, however, numerous engineers who will, if it
is at all possible, adopt the old-fashioned Lancashire boiler with
Galloway tubes. The writer is among that number.
Of course it is advisable in all installations to use an economiser,
so as to raise the temperature of the feed water. These or exhaust
268 RECENT TRAMWAY PRACTICE.
steam heaters are generally adopted now, and effect a very sub-
The type and speed of the engine vary to a great extent, but
the practice is almost invariable to have direct-driven generators
that is, to have the generators fixed on the crank shaft of the
Conveyors, stokers, piping, injectors, feed pumps, generators, etc.,
The feeder insulataion adopted is generally paper or bituminous
insulation. Sometimes they are laid in ducts or conduits, and
threaded after the conduits are completed. In other cases they
are laid in iron troughs and run in with solid bitumen. Both
methods have their advantages, which, however, are dependent on
The trolley wires are usually divided by section insulators into
half-mile sections, any half-mile of which can therefore be cut out
at the section boxes, which are placed in pillars on the footpath
or underground pits.
Where the road is very wide there is no doubt the central pole
with short arms is the correct thing. There are cases, however,
where roads are too narrow for this, and too wide for the side pole
system. In this case, sometimes there are span wires fixed by
rosettes to buildings on each side of the street, and in other cases
poles are put up with a span wire between. Again, there is
the side trolley system, where, in no case, the trolley wire is over
the centre of the track. This is advisable where it is practicable,
as there is less danger of accident to the trolley pole.
The poles are made of steel tubing, tapered in some cases,
and in other cases made to three different diameters shrunk one
on another. The latter are somewhat cheaper, but there is
no doubt that the tapered pole has a better appearance.
As to the cars, there is no doubt that the bogie car with the
maximum traction truck is easier on itself and on the road, and
more suitable for fast running. The four-wheeled car, however,
is more generally used, as it has been found that the smaller cars
with a fast service pay better than large cars with a slow service.
RECENT TRAMWAY PRACTICE. 269
It is usual only to have two motors either on a bogie or a four-
wheeled car, but in many cases, where the district is hilly and the
bogie type is adopted, it is advisable to have a motor on each axle
that is, four motors in all.
In the working of tramways, the modern, up-to-date manager
fully realises that an essential factor to . good financial
results is to get the highest mileage per day out of his cars, of
course with due time being allowed for dropping and picking up
passengers. There are towns in this country where, in the writer's
opinion, pick-up passengers are sacrificed for the sake of high
mileage, and numerous accidents are caused which might be
avoided. To facilitate this high mileage, it is becoming customary
to fix stopping places at different parts of the route, and there
is no doubt that this has tended towards the increasing of the
mileage of the cars, but in the writer's opinion it is at the expense
of the receipts in so far as pick-up passengers are concerned,
especially where Jd. fares are charged for short distances.
The paper contains numerous specifications and particulars of
materials and plant.
The following members took part in the Discussion : Mr.
Thomas Hewson, Mr. J. Price, Mr. A. H. Campbell, Mr. Fowler,
Mr. Brodie, the Chairman, Mr. Harpur, Mr. J. Lobley, Mr. Kenway,
and Mr. Broome.
The author replied, and a vote of thanks was accorded to him.
"THE PROBLEM OF THE HOUSING OF THE LABOUR-
ING CLASSES; WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO
Paper by A. H. CAMPBELL.
The subject was dealt with under the following heads:
i. THAT this is a pressing problem is evident from the great
attention it is receiving at the hands of legislators, local authorities,
and private companies.
2. That, by reason of the growth of population in urban areas,
the clearance of insanitary areas, and the tendency to congregate,
the problem will not disappear, but, like the poor, be ever present
with us, and in an increasing measure.
3. That the problem deals not merely with the erection of houses,
but is four-fold:
(a) It is a social and economic problem.
(b) It is a transport problem.
(c) It is a structural problem.
(d) It is a financial and legislative problem.
4. To satisfy the four-fold demand set up by these four sets of
circumstances, the following conditions are necessary :
(a) The co-operation of private philanthropy and the municipal
powers and authorities.
(b) Greatly increased facilities by road and rail for conveyance
from the " heart " to the circumference of our great
circles of population.
(c) Dwellings erected should be upon perfectly approved
plans, so that each house or single tenement does not
in itself become an overcrowded " unit."
Referring to this last condition the author makes the following
statements and conclusions:
(1) That the accommodation offered by each unit should be
sufficient to house a family without being cribbed,
cabined, and confined.
(2) That such accommodation can best be provided by the
self-contained house or single tenement design (as shown
in drawings accompanying the paper.
HOUSING OF THE LABOURING CLASSES. 271
(3) That it is impossible, however, to erect a house on this
plan to let at such a rent as the occupier can afford
to pay, and as will repay all the outgoings and charges
upon the property.
(4) These charges consisting inter alia of repayment of capital
and interest thereon, local taxation, embracing sanitary,,
educational, police, and poor law, are exceedingly and
unjustly heavy, and should be readjusted by fresh legis-
(5) That such legislation should be upon broad and well-
conceived lines, suited to the circumstances created by
the attempt of local authorities to solve this problem.
(6) Any fresh legislation should provide
(a) For extension of the periods of repayment and for reduced
rate of interest on moneys borrowed for this purpose.
(b) Nationalisation of the following charges :
(1) Poor law administration.
(c) Enlarged powers for Local Authorities, entitling them,
under proper safeguards, to purchase, hold, lay out, and
develop land, so that the object aimed at may be more
7. To sum up, the great object is
The provision of healthy homes for the labouring classes.
To let such homes at remunerative rents, that the low and
uncertain wage-earner with a family can afford to pay.
The efforts of Local Authorities should be directed towards
providing such dwellings at rents suited to the local conditions,
but in every case this provision should be for the poorer class only,
unable to afford the rent of the better or larger-sized dwelling
provided by private enterprise.
To secure the foregoing, unity of action is needed by Local
Statistics and drawings bearing upon the subject were submitted.
The Discussion was taken part in by the following members:
the Chairman. Mr. Lobley, Mr. Cooper, Mr. Munce, and Mr. Price.
The author replied, and a vote of thanks was accorded to him.
COAL-MINING SUBSIDENCES IN RELATION TO
Paper by F. W. MAGER.
THE object of this paper is to direct attention to the anomalous
nature of the protection against subsidences, from mining opera-
tions, of sewerage works as compared with the protection afforded
by the law to the highways which they underlie.
Alterations in gradients and cross-levels of highways are com-
paratively of minor importance, and in most cases when they
occur they may be easily remedied ; yet a subsidence of a highway
constitutes technically a public nuisance. Against the person
causing such subsidence an indictment will lie, and he makes good
the subsidence at his own expense.
Alterations in the gradients of sewers virtually terminate the
existence of the section affected, and give rise to actual nuisance,
with serious results from a sanitary point of view. That being
so, it would be imagined that a similar legal remedy would be
provided; but no such remedy is open, and reconstruction must
be done at the sole cost of the authority.
The Public Health (Support of Sewers) Act, 1883, might, be
thought from its title to have been framed for the purpose;
but, in the first place, a district could not afford to put the Act
into operation, and, if it could afford to do< so, what might be
left of the collieries would not be worth working.
The cost depends upon the amount of support necessary. In
the author's district it would entail the purchase of seams known
as the ' yard," the " seven-foot," the " shallow," and the " deep,"
having a combined thickness of 24 feet. Other coal seams and
ironstone bands exist but are not worked.
The amount of lateral support required is not so readily arrived
at. The angle of dip, direction of strike, the nature of the " bottom
stone " and depth from the surface all affect the result ; and
unless a sufficient width be provided the sewer will be " pulled,"
that is, will subside from insufficient lateral support,
Where the other conditions are favourable, for a mine 300 yards
deep a minimum width of 50 yards is requisite. Thus, for each
yard run of sewer, minerals possessing a superficial area of 50
square yards and a thickness of 24 feet, equal to about 250 tons
COAL-MINING SUBSIDENCES 273
weight, would be purchased. The value of the royalty, adding
the usual allowance for interference and compulsory sale on a
moderate valuation, would work out at ^4 to ^5 per yard run
of sewer. Such a sum is evidently quite prohibitory.
Undue interference with a vital national industry would also
be a fatal objection to the Act, if there was the least likelihood
of any Council putting it into effect.
That being the case, the remedy for subsidence is clearly not
purchase of support; but its more serious effects may be guarded
against by designing sewerage schemes with regard to the levels
which will obtain when subsidence has ultimately taken place,
and in such a way that main points of outfall will not be affected.
This having been done, tie cost of modifications of level of
particular sections consequent upon subsidence posterior to the
execution of the works should, by analogy with the law as to
highway surfaces, be thrown upon the coal owners.
A reference to works recently designed by the author will
illustrate this. A certain low-lying district which was being entirely
undermined had to be sewered, but the sewer had to cross a fault
and discharge to works constructed on land beneath the surface
of which coal did not exist. The upper end of the system con-
sequently subsided, while the lower end or outfall did not On
reaching the outfall the sewage had to be pumped four feet as
the levels then stood, and the author determined to fix the site
of the pump on the side of the fault not liable to subsidence
and to put in the floor of sump at such a level that after every
seam of mineral had been won and after the workings had settled
down solid any point of the sewer would still be at a higher level
than the inlet to the sump and thus an adequate fall be still
On the coal measures side of the fault the workings were in
the hands of two separate owners and were broken up by two
minor faults. Subsidences will, as a result, be irregular for some
time, and the levels of individual sections of the sewer may have
to be modified more than once. To avoid fracture of the pipes
from movements of the ground they were shallow socketed and
jointed in clay, and to keep them water-tight, should the joints
become drawn, they were surrounded with puddle. This method
will also allow the pipes to be readily taken up and relaid when
modifications of the level become necessary. These modifications
should evidently, and in spite of the law as it now stands, be
carried out at the cost of the coal owner.
What is required is that the law should be so amended that
after such works as the author has indicated have been carried
out any subsequent modification of level, such as could not be
274 IN RELATION TO SEWERAGE WORKS.
avoided in the original construction of the sewerage system, should
be done at the cost of the coal owner.
To call upon a coal owner to provide mineral support at his
own cost, and thus maintain sewerage works at their original level,
would be to force him to sacrifice valuable property, and to interfere
with the working of his mine in such a way as would not be toler-
ated and has been shown to be unnecessary ; but to call upon him
to reconstruct public works laid down in public highways which
have been damaged by him for his profit does not appear to* the
author to be unreasonable where such reconstruction may be done
without excessive cost.
This argument holds good for damage to all public services
beneath roads and streets, but obviously not for works constructed
by agreement or under powers of a provisional order on private
lands. The author suggests, in conclusion, that the subject of
the foregoing notes is one deserving of more attention than it has
Details of the work alluded to were shown on drawings accom-
panying the paper. The special method of construction of the
sump was necessary owing to the ground being of a most unstable
nature. A driving chain, instead of belting, was adopted for power
transmission to economise buildings. This has proved highly
On the motion of the Chairman a vote of thanks was accorded
to the author.
The proceedings then terminated, and the business of the Section
was brought to a close.
SUMMARY OF PROCEEDINGS
Section YIIL- Gas.*
TUESDAY, 3rd SEPTEMBER, 19O1.
Mr. GEORGE LIVESEY, Chairman, in the Chair.
By GEORGE LIVESEY.
THE Chairman, in declaring the Section open, gave a short address,
in the course of which he traced the progress of gas lighting from
the days when, one hundred years ago, Murdoch introduced a
system of gas lighting into the factory of Boulton & Watt, at Bir-
mingham ; and a few years later the first gas company was estab-
lished to light London. From the early days of gas there has
been, and still is, a general desire to reduce the price. At first
in almost every place of importance rival gas companies competed
with each other for custom during the first half of the century.