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International Engineering Congress (1901 : Glasgow.

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merely the wants of our home demand but that of our colonies as
well.

Two important factors cost and promptitude of delivery attend
successful competition in manufacture. Inspired with confidence
in the future of electrical work, with, as it were, a prescience of those
demands which must arise, and unencumbered with many of those
restrictions and regulations which attend similar undertakings in
England, other nations have seen and have seized their opportunity,
gained experience, standardised their productions, aud have thus, in
advance of this country, prepared to meet any ordinary demand
that may arise.

Cost depends much upon our labour conditions. Within a very
short period rivalry in manufacture will be far more acute than is
even now the case, and in it labour will play the chief part.
America, as well as England, has her labour troubles. Trade Unions
exist there as well as here, but the principles which govern them
differ from those which prevail here. There the man works un-
restricted, with all his might. Of what avail is education to the
child if manhood fails to take full advantage of it ? In the following
comment of the New York Sun we have an expression of opinion
that may well be laid to heart : " When the British workman is
willing really to work for his wages, then, and not till then, Great
Britain may hope to survive in the great revolution which has
begun to sweep through the modern economic world. There is no
indication that that willingness will be shown until the bitterness of
dire adversity has wrung it from the misguided Labour Unions of
Great Britain."

The artisan should not lose sight of the fact that this question
of cost is one which affects the employe as well as the employer.
In the long run the master may be thrust to the wall. He may



INTRODUCTORY ADDRESS. 313

spend his last penny in keeping his works going, but when he closes
those works the workman's means of livelihood are also, so far as
the industry there dealt with affects him, closed. Unhappily,
identity of interest, so necessary to both master and man, is more
frequently marked by its absence than its presence. Until the
employe can be induced to recognise in a practical manner the fact
that his employer's interest is also his interest, those labour regula-
tions which have been fruitful of so much harm to the manufacturing
interests of this country, and which must in the end prove disastrous
to the workman, will continue. So long as the production of a
certain commodity is peculiar to a given locality, the question of
cost is not so material; but where its production is world-wide,
labour conditions must subscribe to those obtaining elsewhere, other-
wise the market for that commodity will be lost.

We are speedily approaching a condition in the industrial pro-
gress of the world that will test to the utmost, not merely our means
of production and our skill, but our position as a nation; for the
pre-eminence of a nation will in future be largely determined by its
progress in manufacture, and from it mainly shall we have to look
for the means by which the nation's power will be maintained. A
people may trade. Articles may be bought and sold, but food for
the worker lies not there. The wealth of a land is to be found in
that which it produces whether from the soil or by the handicraft
of its citizens."



On the motion of Professor M. Maclean the Chairman was
thanked - for his address, and on the motion of the Chairman
Professor Gray was thanked for placing his rooms at the disposal
of the Section.



22



"NOTES ON SOME OF THE CHIEF OBJECTS OF
INTEREST TO ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS IN THE
GLASGOW INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1901."

Paper by W. B. SAYERS.



Abstract.
THE paper deals with the plant, etc., under the following heads :

i. GENERATING AND TRANSFORMING PLANT AND INSTRUMENTS
IN USE THEREWITH.

The Generating Station of the Exhibition.

The plant in the Machinery Section constituting the generating
station for the supply of electricity to the Exhibition on the 500-
volt continuous-current three-wire system (250 volts a side) was
situated at the south end of the machinery hall and consisted of
the following:

Six Water Tube Boilers :

Two of 1000 I.H.P. Babcock land type with chain grates.

One of 800 ,, ,, Marine type hand-fired.

Two of 1000 ,, Stirling type, one with Vickers stokers

and the other gas- or hand-fired.
One of 600 ,, Davey Paxman, with special super-heater.

One of the Stirling boilers was fitted for either coal or gas firing,
and was at that time gas-fired, the gas being supplied from a
Mason's gas-producer situated at the back of the boiler-house.
Weir's and Worthington's pumps were feeding the boilers through
Royal's and Berriman's heaters and Kennedy's water meters, the
boiler steam-pressure being 175 Ibs.

THE GENERATING SETS WERE AS FOLLOWS:
NO. I.H.P. ENGINE. GENERATOR.

1. Willans and Cromp-

ton ... 1200 Multipolar compound, 1350 amps, at 500 v.

2. British Schuckert ... ,, ,,

3. Robey & Mavor &

Coulson ... ... 500 ,, shunt ... 700 ,,

4. Davey Paxman &

E.C.C. 500 compound, 570 ,,

5. Belliss & Bruce

Peebles 400 3 8o

6. Ernest Scott & Moun-

tain ... ... ... 250 ,, shunt ... 760 ,, 250 v.



OBJECTS OF INTEREST TO ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS. 315

7. Alley & Maclellan & 400 Multipolar shunt ... 680 amps, at 250 v.
Mavor & Coulson

8. Browett Lindley &

Ediswan 250 525

9. Sisson & Clark Chap-

man ... 150 Two-pole shunt ... 320 ,, ,,

10. Robey, & Scott &

Mountain 150 Multipolar shunt ... 250 ,, ,,

11. Ruston Procter ... 150 Two-pole compound ... 370 ,, ,,

12. Robey, & Scott &

Mountain 150 Two-pole shunt ... 200 ,, ,,

Other plant included a balancer by Messrs. Bruce Peebles, and
a three-phase plant by The Lancashire Dynamo and Motor Co.
and Messrs. Hick Hargreaves.

The main switchboard was connected by telephones with all sub-
boards.

The conductors for arc lights in the grounds were of aluminium.

Descriptions are given of the Olivetti direct-reading recording
Wattmeter, Kelvin & James White " feeder log," and the Fer-
guson automatic overload switch.

Descriptions are also given of some of the Private Exhibits in
Group L, including:

Transforming plant by the British Schuckert Co. ; generating set
by Bruce Peebles & Co., with Belliss engine; plant for 5ooo-volt
three-phase transmission by Hick Hargreaves & Co. and the
Lancashire Dynamo and Motor Co., Limited; 8oo-kw. dynamo
by Mather & Platt, Limited ; and a 35o-kw. slow-speed generator
by Mavor & Coulson, Limited, with a Robey horizontal slow-speed
engine.

2. GAS, On, AND COAL-DUST ENGINES.

The author describes the Westinghouse three-cylinder gas engine
(125 B.H.P., 260 revolutions per minute) exhibited by the British
Westinghouse Co. ; a 20-B.H.p. Diesel oil engine made by Messrs.
Scott & Hodgson; and a M'Callum's coal-dust burning engine
made by Messrs. D. Stewart & Co.

3. ELECTRIC TRACTION.

Reference is made to the exhibits of the British Schuckert Co.,
including a surface-contact tramcar system and electric locomotives ;
to a railway circuit-breaker and an electric tramcar exhibited by
the British Westinghouse Co. ; and to Messrs. Dick Kerr & Co.'s
exhibits, including a tramcar generator and controllers.

4. CONTROLLERS, STARTING SWITCHES, AND STARTING

RHEOSTATS.

Messrs. Lahmeyer & Co. showed a controller for overhead
travellers; and among the exhibits of the Sturtevant Engineering



316 OBJECTS OF INTEREST TO ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS.

Co. were motor starting switches, a multipole-switch starting rheo-
stat, and a self-starting switch for motors. These are described.

5. SUNDRY APPLICATIONS OF ELECTRICITY.

The apparatus described in the paper included

(a) Electric clocks by Messrs. Barr & Stroud.

(b) Drilling machines with magnetic adhesive foot by

Mather & Platt, Limited.

(c) Mining machinery, electric haulage, and rock drills by

the British Schuckert Co. ; coal cutting machine by
Clark Stevenson & Co. ; Kurd's coal cutter and a ship
deck planer by Mavor & Coulson, Limited.

(d) Motors. Selig Sonnenthal & Co. showed the Stow

Manufacturing Co.'s motor with flexible shaft.

(e) Overhead conveyor for goods or luggage in railway

stations by Mather & Platt, Limited.

(f) A Hoe printing press, electrically-driven, exhibited by

The " Glasgow Herald."

(g) Pumping. 6T5-H.P. pumping plant by the British

Schuckert Co. ; an electrically-driven feed pump by
Mather & Platt, Limited; and a centrifugal pump by
Mavor & Coulson, Limited.

(h) A search light (150 amperes) by the British Schuckert
Co.

6. TELEPHONES.

The Glasgow Corporation showed a switchboard adapted for 400
metallic circuit lines (made by the Telegraph Manufacturing Co.)
and operating 969 subscribers and 15 junction lines. The system
of switching is the " Bennett M'Lean."

The National Telephone Co. also exhibited an exchange con-
necting no exhibitors.

7. MISCELLANEOUS.

R. G. Ross & Sons showed Ross's speed reduction gear, and the
British Westinghouse Co. showed experiments with a revolving
(two-phase) field.



On the motion of the Chairman a vote of thanks was accorded
to Mr. Sayers.

The meeting was then adjourned.



WEDNESDAY, 4th SEPTEMBER, 19O1.

W. LANGDON, Chairman, in the Chair.



"HIGH SPEED RAILWAY CAR OF THE ALLGEMEINE

ELECTRICITATS GESELLSCHAFT. BERLIN."

Paper by O. LASCHE.



Abstract.

THE car described in the paper is now finished, and, so far as trials
and tests in the factory can give an indication of its behaviour
under working conditions, has answered all expectations. It was
tested at a peripheral speed of the wheels of about 56 metres per
second, corresponding to a car speed of 200 to 210 kilometres per
hour, and has been shown to the technical experts of the Studien-
gesellschaft fur Elektrische Schnellbahnen prior to its transference
to the experimental line.

I. EXPERIMENTAL LINE.

The Studiengesellschaft was formed for the purpose of studying
the technical and economical requirements of electric driving on
long distance railways. The maximum limit of speed for the
trials determined upon was 200 km. per hour. After careful
consideration, it was decided to use an existing military line from
Berlin to Zossen, placed by the German Military Department at
the disposal of the Association, as the construction of a special
experimental line would have involved a serious loss of time and
much extra expense. The line selected is specially suitable, as
it can be used for tests of the relative merits of different types of
permanent way, track beds, rail profiles, and rail joints.

The present paper relates exclusively to the construction and
testing of the car, and to investigations and experiments in con-
nection therewith. The running tests on the line will shortly
commence, and will, it is hoped, form the basis for future practice
in two completely different senses.

(a) Attainment of a Speed of 80 to 100 km. per hour. In the
first instance, it is necessary to ascertain what speed is attainable
without necessitating alterations in the existing line. Then the
extent of the diminution in the wear and tear of the track must be
determined when electric cars are used, as compared with that
caused by steam locomotives running at the same speed. In many
cases it is probable that the electrical working of a line with single



318 HIGH SPEED RAILWAY CAR.

motor-cars will enable existing bridges and tracks to meet the
requirements of rapidly increasing traffic, whereas the use of heavier
steam locomotives or longer trains would necessitate alterations.
The attainment of these speeds would, in itself, be regarded as
satisfactory, for distances would be covered in a reasonable time,
and the public would have a more frequent train service, with
shorter trains, instead of being provided with a few long trains in
the day. The absence of smoke is a point in favour of electric
trains. The construction of motor cars presents no difficulty, and
no special alterations, either of the track, or signalling arrangement,
or of the ordinary working conditions, are required for an electrical
service. It is not, however, necessary, that electric traction should
be more economical than steam traction; it will in many cases be
sufficient to ensure its adoption to prove that the public will find
it more agreeable, and that the general arrangements meet the
requirements of the age.

(b) 'Attainment of a Speed of 200 km. per hour. The experi-
ments will be continued in the direction of determining the best
working conditions for running at high speeds, the limits of which
can only be ascertained by trial. For such high speeds as are
here contemplated, the present systems of signalling might have
to be altered, and the crossings and switches abandoned. It
will be absolutely necessary to establish all high speed service on
a separate track, with special lines in either direction, exclusively
for this service. Lines for local and goods traffic must be built
separately. The investigations to be made relate to the motor
cars, the construction of the track, and the necessity for ensuring
safety.

II. THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE MOTOR CAR.

The motors are attached to the car itself, and no separate
locomotive is used. Each car will accommodate about 50 pas-
sengers. The motors have in all a normal output of 1000 H.P.,
and a maximum output of 3000 H.P. The tests will show whether
so much power is really necessary, and will indicate the consump-
tion of power at different speeds, and under the influence of head
or side winds.

For the working of long distance railways, the three-phase
alternate current system could alone be considered. The generation
and transmission of three-phase currents at from 40,000 to 50,000
volts pressure present no difficulty, but on the experimental line
the pressure will be only 12,000 volts, the current being supplied
from the central generating station of the Berlin Electricity Works,
which is situated at a distance of 12 J km. from the commencement
of the line. The length of the line is 24 km.

At present, transformers are placed on the car itself to transform
the current down from 12,000 to 400 volts; but it is still undecided



HIGH SPEED RAILWAY CAR. 319*

whether, in practice, it may not be better to use motors of medium
voltage, say of 3000 volts, taking the current at this pressure from
the line, to which it is supplied through transformers placed in
transformer houses at definite intervals along the track. In this
case the transformers would reduce the pressure from 50,000 to
3000 volts. It is well known that static transformers require no
attendance as compared with rotary transformers.

The car is provided with a driver's platform at either end, from
which the control is effected. All parts carrying current are placed
in a special apparatus compartment, which is separated from the
rest of the car by a double sheet-iron partition, so that passengers
and attendants cannot come into contact with current at dangerous
pressures. . The total length of the car is about 22 m., and in
cross-section it conforms to the standard structure of the German
State Railway carriages. The car body is carried by two bogies,
each with three axles, of which the centre is only a running axle,
whilst each of the others carries a 250 H.P. motor, capable of
developing a maximum of 750 H.P. The diameter of the car
wheels is 1250 mm., and the speed about 960 revolutions per
minute.

III. INVESTIGATIONS WITH REFERENCE TO THE CONSTRUCTION

OF THE MOTOR CAR.

The problem before the designer was the creation of some-
thing altogether new namely, the construction of an experimental
motor car, without reference to any existing type either of low
speed electric locomotive or of street railway cars. The sole
aim in the investigation was the construction of a motor car to
run long distances at the highest possible speed.

The weight of the Electrical Equipment was, in the first instance,
not less than 50 tons for the required output of 3000 H.P., but,
by modifying the construction of the starting apparatus, motors, and
transformers, the weight was reduced to 30 tons ; but of this weight
a large proportion was due to the transformers, which may possibly
be dispensed with altogether hereafter.

The mechanical connection between the motors and the axles of
the wheels was a matter of the greatest importance, the use of
intermediate gearing being out of the question on account of the
wear and tear to which it would be subjected. Although from
the first the object was to obtain an elastic coupling, various designs
and devices were tried, in some of which the motor was rigidly
attached to the axle, whilst in others springs were introduced.
The designing of a spring attachment for use at about 1000
revolutions per minute, and with an output of 750 H.P. per motor,
was a difficult task. The problem was solved by connecting the
motor to the wheel by an elastic coupling, and providing an



320 HIGH SPEED RAILWAY CAR.

elastic suspension for the motor, the springs being arranged so as
to have increasing rigidity as the load increases. The motors are
accordingly mounted on a hollow shaft, of which the surface speed
in the bearings is nearly 15 m. per second. Experiments and
observations have been made as to the friction both at this speed,
and at others up to 25 and 30 m. per second, and under very great
bearing pressures.

Starting Resistances for motors of 250 to 750 H.P. have already
been used in practice, but the problem of arranging them
in a confined space, for continuous use in current regula-
tion in connection with a power of 4 x 750 H.P., has
never before been contemplated. The relative advantages of
liquid and metal resistances were considered in detail. The use
of the former at first seemed out of the question, whilst the latter
involved the employment of a large number of contacts, brushes,
connecting cables, and resistance material, making them too heavy
and cumbersome.

Four motors, each with three armature circuits, give a total of
twelve phases, in each of which was inserted a resistance divided
into twelve steps; but in spite of this sub-division, the regulation
was found to be too jerky to be satisfactory. Ultimately a liquid
starting device, that could be equally well used for large winding
engines, was designed. The resistance material was a solution
of soda, but the apparatus had nothing in common with the
ordinary liquid starting resistance.

Taking into account the fact that a speed of 200 km. per hour
was contemplated, it was arranged to provide, in addition to the
Westinghouse air-brake, an Electrical Brake, which could be used
either in connection with, or independently of, the source of current.
The brake was so designed that it could be applied either gently
or powerfully at will.

Other investigations were made besides those above referred to,
and from the results obtained in the preliminary trials, there is
every reason to hope that the motor car will meet all requirements,
and enable the Association to deal with the questions relating to
the running of the car on the track.

The paper contained full details, and many illustrations and
plates.



The following members took part in the Discussion : the Chair-
man, Sir William H. Preece, Herr E. Rathenau, Professor S. P.
Thompson,, Mr. A. Siemens, Professor Zipernowsky, Herr E.
Kolben, Mr. Gisbert Kapp, Professor H. S. Carhart, and Professor
C. A. Carus-Wilson.

The author replied by correspondence.

On the motion of the Chairman a vote of thanks was accorded
to the author.



DANGERS FROM TROLLEY WIRES AND THEIR
PREVENTION."

Paper by Professor ANDREW JAMIESON.



Abstract.

THIS paper was treated under the following headings, and contained
eight figures showing different kinds of trolley wire guards.
Specimens and tests of the Glasgow Tramway trolley, guard, span,
and tension wires, together with their various mechanical and
electrical fittings; Post Office aerial lines and underground cables;
as well as the National Telephone Coy.'s bare bronze wires and
their overhead multiple wire cables, were shown and remarked
upon by the author.

HEADINGS.

1. Recent accidents, and the necessity of keeping trolley wires
free from contact with other overhead conductors.

2. Methods which have been adopted and proposed for protec-
tion against contacts with trolley wires.

3. Board of Trade and Post Office regulations.

4. Contacts between, and the breaking of, guard, span, and
trolley wires.

5. Freeing, earthing, and other safety devices.

6. Aerial telephone and telegraph cables versus underground
wires or cables.

Under the last heading the author stated, that there were now
in Glasgow three authorities dealing with telephone wires, viz. :

1. The Government Postal Engineering Department, who aimed
at placing underground all their principal city wires which at
present cross tramway routes.

2. The National Telephone Co., who had hitherto been pre-
vented from opening the streets, and had until recently used bare,
thin, bronze aerial wires, but who were now supplanting these
(along the main routes which cross tramway lines) by multiple wire
cables, each containing about 100 fine insulated wires. They
employ two of these wires for each telephone circuit, upon the
" closed circuit principle," in order to prevent inductive and earth
interferences. These insulated cables were much safer than the
bare wires.

3. The Glasgow Corporation, who, having full authority over
their streets, had taken the precaution to place all their main
telephone cables in underground cast-iron pipes.



322 DANGERS FROM TROLLEY WIRES.

He said : " There cannot be the slightest doubt, that the only
sure and safe plan is, to place all non-tramway conductors, of what-
ever kind, underground. If this were done, then there would be
no necessity for guard wires, thereby leaving the trolley wires free
from extraneous contacts, and minimising the aforementioned
dangers."



Mr. M. B. Field, M. Ernest Gerard, and Mr. G. R. Blackburn
took part in the Discussion.

The author replied, and a vote of thanks was accorded to him.



"ELECTRICITY SUPPLY METERS OF THE
ELECTROLYTIC TYPE."

Paper by J. R. DICK.

Abstract.

THE author first directs attention to the attractiveness of meters of
the electrolytic type on account of their inherent simplicity. In
the case of electrolytic decomposition, where no secondary actions
take place, the amount of electrolyte decomposed per second is
directly proportionate to the strength of the current passing. Such
a cell used as a meter will, therefore, register ampere hours per-
fectly. With motor meters it is necessary to find a special brake,
the retarding effect of which corresponds to the driving torque,
in order to get a straight line registration.

From the engineer's point of view the electrolytic meter has not
had a permanent popularity. It has earned a bad reputation for
various reasons, chiefly because it is " messy " and requires atten-
tion for the renewal of electrodes or electrolyte, and because of
the great drop of pressure with the unshunted types. The
simplest design of the latter character ever suggested was that of
the water decomposing meter of S. D. Mott, described in the
American " Electrical World " of March 4th, 1893, where the
volume of water remaining after a current had passed through a
known volume of water was used to measure the quantity of elec-
tricity which had passed through it. Attention was again redirected
to this method of constructing an electricity meter in Mr. Gibbing's
paper before the Inst of Elect. Engrs. in 1898.

A short resume is then given of the faults which proved fatal to
the older forms of electrolytic meters, such as Edison's, and an
explanation is given, illustrated with many diagrams, showing how
impossible it was to obtain accuracy at low loads when shunts were
employed. There was always a certain amount of polarization,
which made the ratio between the main and shunt currents not
strictly constant. There are several methods of compensating for
this E.M.F. of polarization, and thus obtaining a registration which
is a linear function of the current. The best solution of the
problem of a shunted electrolytic meter, however, is to find a form
which gives no appreciable polarization. Such a meter can be
devised where a volume of mercury deposited from a solution of
mercurous nitrate measures the number of coulombs. Various



Online LibraryInternational Engineering Congress (1901 : GlasgowReport of the proceedings and abstracts of the papers read → online text (page 28 of 37)