International Engineering Congress (1901 : Glasgow.

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the cradle carrying the trough, and are simultaneously raised by
the turning of the spindles.

' The power is transmitted by electricity. There are two dynamos
in the central station, of 220 H.P. each. The tension is 220 volts,
and a current of 800 amperes is required for starting.

The principal posts along the canal are Dortmund, Herne,.
Munster, and Emden ; and , there are also about seventy smaller
ports or landing places, which are distributed over the whole
length of the canal.

At Emden, there is an open harbour outside the lock, in addition
to the inner harbour, for the accommodation of sea-going vessels
up to 6.5 metres (21^ feet) draught. At average tide, there is a
depth of water of 10 metres (33 feet) in the sea channel. The
range of the tide is 2.90 metres (9^ feet). The outer harbour is
most completely equipped with cranes, warehouses, railway lines,
and an electric coal tip, and has already been opened for traffic.
The port at Dortmund has been built by the town at a cost of 5.5
million marks (.275,000).

The total cost of the canal amounts to 79.43 million marks
(3,971,500), or to about 316,000 marks per kilometre (^25,438
per mile).

The canal lift at Henrichenburg cost 2.6 million marks
(^130,000). A lock, built in masonry, of 165 metres (572 feet)
available length, cost 500,000 marks (^25,000); one of 67 metres
(220 feet) length, 310,000 marks Gi5>5oo); a needle weir 170,000
marks (.8,500) ; the aqueduct across the River Lippe 650,000
marks (,32,500) ; and a small steel-girder bridge 25,000 marks

The barges are drawn along the canal by tugboats, or are
towed by a rope from the towing path. All establishments are
ready for the adoption of electric towage, which is to be introduced
so soon as the volume of traffic has increased sufficiently to make
it a matter of necessity to adopt a systematic and properly regulated
traffic of barges. The speed of navigation has been fixed at 5
kilometres (3 miles) an hour for vessels drawing 1.75 metre (5! feet).
and at 4 kilometres (2-^ miles) an hour for vessels drawing 2 metres.


(6 feet 7 inches). The screws of steamers must remain 0.75 metre
(2\ feet) above canal bottom.

The volume of traffic on the canal is considerably increased by
the sea-going lighters of from 400 to 800 tons carrying capacity,
which frequent it from all parts of the Baltic and the North Sea.
They are towed from Hamburg, Bremen, and elsewhere, to Emden,.
and most frequently go up the canal without unloading any part
of their cargoes.

The canal tolls are at present levied upon goods divided into
three classes, and amount to 10, 25, and 50 pfennig (id, 2d, ^d, and
6d) per metric ton for the whole canal length, and less in pro-
portion for shorter distances).

The principal goods imported are Swedish ores from Lulea and
Oxelsund, corn, and timber. The bulk of the export goods consists
of coal and iron.

The canal was completed in 1899. Last year half a million
tons were carried along it. .For the current year a substantial
increase may be reckoned upon in the tonnage.

The following members took part in the Discussion: Prof. V.
E. De Timonoff, Mr. W. H. Hunter, M. Mendes Guerreiro, Mr.
Wilfrid Stokes, and the Chairman. The author replied, and on
the motion of the Chairman a vote of thanks was accorded to him.





THE paper gives an account of the sanitary history of Chicago up
to the appointment in 1889 of the first Board of Trustees of the
Sanitary District. To improve the sanitation, it was decided to
cut a channel across the divide which separated the watershed
of the Chicago basin from that of the Desplaines and Illinois
valleys, whose slope is towards the Mississippi River.

The channel, as now in use, is described under three divisions :
The first division extends through a clay formation for 7.8 miles,
and has a bottom width of no feet, with side slopes of two to one,
giving, with the minimum depth of 22 feet, a width at the waterline
of 198 feet. This section is to be widened by dredging, to afford
the full flow of 600,000 cubic feet per minute, and the bridges are
all built of a span to admit of this enlargement.

The second division is through glacial drift for 5.3 miles; it i?
202 feet wide at the bottom, has side slopes of two to one, and
with the minimum depth of 22 feet, has a width of 290 feet at the
waterline. The gradient through these two divisions, 13^ miles
long, is i in 40,000.

The third division, beginning at Willow Springs, is through rock-,
or rock overlaid with glacial drift. The length is 14-95 miles,
about seven of which are through rock-cuttings of an average depth
of 36 feet; it is 160 feet wide at the bottom, and has vertical sides,
with two offsets of 6 inches each on each side, giving a resulting
width of 162 feet at the water surface. The gradient through this
division is i in 20,000 feet, and the total length of the main
channel proper is 28.05 miles. It discharges into the Desplaines
River at Lockport, and the overflow is controlled by regulating
works, consisting of seven steel lifting gates of the Stoney free-roller
type, each 32 feet wide, and one bear-trap dam, 160 feet wide,
having an oscillation of 17 feet.

The volume of material excavated from the main channel, and
for the diversion and enlargement of the Desplaines River, amounts
to 29,246,838 cubic yards of glacial drift, 13,106,586 cubic yards


of solid rock, and 1,382,195 cubic yards of earth or a total of
43>736.379 cubic yards. The work, for convenience in designating
the several contracts, was divided into sections, each approximately
one mile in length (there were 29 sections in 28.05 miles). On this
work there were seventeen contractors. The main channel is
spanned by thirteen bridges, all movable structures, six of which
are for highways and seven for railways. The cost of all this work,
including 7000 acres of land, interest account to January ist, 190.1,
administration, and all other items, amounted to .7,329,633.

The dredgers used for excavating the Chicago River on the first
section west of it were of the ordinary type, the only novelty about
them being the substitution of wire cable for chain cable on the
cranes. The dippers of some had a capacity of six cubic yards.
Most of the sections were excavated by dry methods. Hydraulic
dredgers, one of which cost 8333, were used for two of the
sections. These dredgers were equipped with four 100 H.P.
horizontal boilers, a 250 H.P. Westinghouse engine, a 6-foot centri-
fugal pump, with a 20-inch suction pipe and an 8-inch steel
discharge pipe. The suction pipe had flexible joints, and at its
-extremity a revolving cage with knives to erode the material to be
excavated. The material eroded by the revolving knives at the
end of the suction pipe was drawn in with the water and discharged
into settling basins, some of which were situated a mile away.
The best performance of either dredger was 11,000 cubic yards in
24 hours.

Ploughs and scrapers drawn by horses, and steam shovels of
various types, were used for removing top soils. The " New Era "
grader was employed by some of the contractors. It is a great
breaking plough, drawn by 12 to 16 horses, and will excavate about
/oo cubic yards per hour in friable soils.

The Heidenreich Incline Conveyor was among the most successful
devices used for delivering the excavated material on to the spoil
area. Its best record was 968 cubic yards per shift of ten hours.
This device consists of a framework, mounted upon trucks, which
travels on tracks parallel with the channel. In elevation the frame-
work is a triangle with one side as the base, which carries engine,
boiler, dynamo, and hoisting machinery. The other side points
upwards, and projects beyond the base, and the third side forms
the roadway which carries two standard gauge tracks, on which the
cars for loading and dumping alternately are moved. The top
section of the track, for a length of about ten feet, is pivoted, and
forms a tipple, so that when the loaded car is drawn up from the
pit, as soon as its centre of gravity passes the axis on the tipple,
it is thrown forward and its contents dumped. As soon as it is
empty, the counter-weighting of the tipple causes it to right itself,
and the empty car is returned to the pit. Meanwhile the car on the


other track has been loaded, and is being hauled up. The Christie
& Lowe Conveyor, also used on this work, is a modification of the

Mason & Hoover's Conveyor is a bridge spanning the channel,
with a cantilever arm extending over the spoil area ; it is carried
on trucks which travel on tracks parallel to the channel. The
bridge carries a steel belt, 1300 feet long, made in 4-foot sections,
interlocking and hinged with 2-inch axles, carrying 1 2-inch flanged
wheels. This belt works in a metal trough with rails on each side,
on which the pan wheels travel. A separate car carries two boilers,
which supply steam for running the conveyor, and also for pro-
pelling the plough which loads it. The latter can be drawn back
and forth across the channel without turning, and cuts a furrow
each way. The conveyor is driven at the rate of 120 feet per
minute; the plough is started at the top of the cut, and the
successive furrows are lower and lower, until the bottom is reached,
and the material thrown from the ploughshare rolls down the side
of the cut on to the conveyor; its best record achievement for any
month was 509 cubic yards per lo-hour shift.

Bates' Conveyor consists of a car with boiler and necessary
gearing for driving the conveying belt. The car moves parallel
with the channel; a frame extends down from the car into and
across the channel excavation, carrying at short intervals concave
rollers, on which a roller belt, 22 inches wide, travels. This belt
passes under a hopper, in which a pair of cylinders set with great
steel knives, which intermesh, revolve, and break up the clay which
is dropped into the hopper by the steam shovel. The granulated
material is delivered on the belt, and carried up over the power
car, where it is delivered on to another similar belt, carried on a
bridge which spans the spoil area; its best average for one month
was 920 cubic yards per shift.

In the rock sections, the sides were cut do\vn vertically l jv
channelling machines. These consist of boiler and engine and
channeller, or large Z-shaped chisel made fast to the end of the
steam piston-rod. Each machine will cut about 100 superficial
feet per ic-hour shift.

The Lidgerwood Cableway proved a very efficient conveyor. The
carrying cable is stretched across the channel from the tops of
supporting towers, which span the channel and the spoil area.
The towers are mounted on wheeled platforms, which run parallel
to the channel. The cable carries a cage, and draws it back and
forth. When the skip has been loaded, lifted out of the pit, and
run out to the spoil bank, the dumping cable, which is wound on
the same drum with the hoisting cable, and travels at the same
speed, is, by means of a lever, thrown on to a drum of greater
diameter, which winds it up more rapidly than the lifting cable,


and tips the skip forward, discharging its load. The empty skip
is then returned to the pit, and a loaded one removed. The
average performance was about 400 cubic yards per day.

Brown's Cantilever Conveyor proved wonderfully efficient in
handling blasted rock, and had the best record of any device on
the work. It is essentially a platform, about 40 feet square,
carried on four sets of trucks, supporting the four corners, which
travel on two tracks parallel with the channel. The platform
carries the operating machinery. A steel tower, composed of four
braced and stayed corner posts, with sides of unequal height,
supports in equilibrium a bridge, 355 feet long, on an angle of
12 deg. 50 min. to the horizon. This bridge carries a track on
which a trolly car runs, which is hauled up and down its length of
travel by an endless cable. The time consumed in lifting a skip,
running it off, dumping it on to the spoil bank, and returning it
to the pit, is about 50 seconds. The excavation is made across
the channel, giving a working face corresponding with its width.
The skips or hods have a capacity of 75 cubic feet, or about 7500
pounds, of broken limestone.

The High Power Derricks used on one of the sections were very
ponderous and powerful. They are mounted on turntables self-
poised, and have double booms, which counterbalance each other.
They move on rollers and work in pairs, one on each side of the
channel, as the booms would not reach across the excavation.
Their performance did not fulfil expectations, their best record
being 372 cubic yards per shift of 10 hours.

This gigantic work is bound to exercise a wonderful influence
as an educator, and embolden men to undertake enterprises more
vast than were considered practicable before its success had been
demonstrated. The great array of mechanism brought into being
for its construction, which earned vastly more than it cost to
produce, was, most of it, without a sphere of usefulness after the
work was completed, and was dismantled and sold for the value
of the raw material.

As a corollary to the work already done, the Chicago River,
which is the main artery of supply for the Sanitary and Ship Canal,
is now being widened and deepened.

The following members took part in the Discussion: Mr. W.
H. Hunter, Mr. Andrew Brown, Mr. George Higgins, Mr. Charles
H. Whiting, Mr. A. W. Robinson, and the Chairman.

On the motion of the Chairman a vote of thanks was accorded
to the author.


Paper by W. WILLOCKS, C.M.G.


THE ancient basin irrigation of Egypt, which utilises the flood
waters of the Nile, is a system of irrigation eminently suited for
new countries whose permanent development depends on irrigation.
The history of the development of the basins in Egypt is here
traced. The work was successfully begun on the left bank of
the river in the time of King Menes, and extended to the right
bank by the great Pharaohs of the XHth. Dynasty, who converted
the Fayoum depression into Lake Moeris.

The value of subsoil water is next dealt with. It supplies the
link between basin and perennial irrigation. The foundation stone
of the conversion of the whole of the Egypt from basin to perennial
irrigation was laid by Mehemet Ali in 1833, when he began the
construction of the barrages across the Nile branches north of
Cairo. The accumulating of silt in the canals forms a serious
drawback, and the best method of dealing with it is considered.
The necessity of providing suitable manures is also dealt with.
The cost of the different schemes is fully given.

The modern irrigation works are the Cairo and Subsidiary
Barrages, the Assiout and Zifta Weirs, and the still more recent
reservoirs. The history of the Assuan reservoir and dam is
given from the inception of the scheme up to the present day.
The action of the Government with regard to Philae Temple is

The paper closes with outlines of schemes for irrigating the
whole of the Nile Valley, by possible reservoirs in Abyssinia and
Uganda; and the possible development of the Sudan, when Egypt
is perennially irrigated, is portrayed. Strong brigades of canal
engineers are required to work up projects in the Sudan, which,
although a poor country in itself, is of inestimable value to Egypt
as a highway for the waters of the great lakes.

Prof. Vernon Harcourt, Mr. Wilfrid Stokes, and the Chairman
took part in the Discussion. The author replied by correspond-

On the motion of the Chairman a vote of thanks was accorded
to the author.

The meeting was then adjourned.


Sir JOHN WOLFE BARRY, K.C.B., LL.D., F.R.S., in the Chair.


Paper by Professor V. E. DE TIMONOFF.


THE north-western territories of Russia can be compared with those
of the Great Lakes of North America. A glance at the map of
this region will show the similarity at once. Lakes Ladoga, Onega,
Saima, Ilmen, Peipous, and others, which receive the waters of
many important rivers, are situated in the principal low-lying
regions. Most of these lakes belong to the basin of the Neva,
and form an extensive navigable system. The superficial area of
the basin of the Neva is 288,972.5 square kilometres (111,572.4
square miles).

Lake Ladoga has an area of 18,129.6 square kilometres (7000
square miles), and a coast line of 1142 kilometres (709 miles).
Lake Onega has an area of 9751.1 square kilometres (3765 square
miles), with a coast line of 1300 kilometres (807 miles). Lake
Wygo, situated on the dividing ridge between the Baltic and White
Sea basins, is 80 kilometres (58 miles) long, by 5 to 32 kilometres
(3 to 20 miles) wide, and has an area of 929 square kilometres
(358.68 square miles).

These three lakes indicate the natural route from the Baltic to
the White Sea. The greater part of this route, even independently
of the lakes themselves, comprises very important natural navigable
waterways. Lake Ladoga is connected with the Baltic Sea by the
river Neva, and with Lake Onega by the river Svir. Again, the
upper reaches of the river Poventchanka, which flows into the
northern end of Lake Onega, are close to the basin of Lake Wygo,
which is itself connected with the White Sea by the river Wygo.
In fact, with the exception of less than 10 kilometres (6 miles),
which will have to be rendered navigable, the whole route from
St. Petersburg to the White Sea a distance of over 900 kilometres


(558 miles) is navigable. Two of the rivers in the above navigable
system have a very large discharge.

The depth of the Neva varies from 20 to 40 feet throughout the
greater portion of its length, and is as much as 59 feet near St.
Petersburg. There are very few natural obstacles to navigation.
The Svir is nowhere less than 1.6 metre (5.25 feet) deep, on a length
of 210 kilometres (130 miles). In order that vessels drawing 14
feet may be able to enter Lake Ladoga, a few hundred thousand
cubic metres must be dredged from the bed of the Neva and at
its outlet from the lake, involving an outlay of barely half a million
francs (^2 0,000). By increasing the expenditure to one million
francs (^40,000), the lake could probably be made navigable for
ships drawing 20 feet. For this small outlay, Lake Ladoga would
become, to all intents and purposes, a part of the Baltic Sea, though
it would only be accessible to ships able to pass the bridges at St.
Petersburg. The reconstruction of the navigable channels past
these bridges is, however, merely a question of time and money,
and it should be undertaken without delay, so that ships drawing
28 feet may enter the Neva, this increased depth being already
decided upon as regards the Kronstadt Ship-Canal. A few million
francs would cover the cost of the necessary works on the Neva,
and at the entrance to Lake Ladoga, to render the latter accessible
to ships of that draught. The results of opening Lake Ladoga to
maritime navigation would be of great importance and of immediate

The opening of Lake Ladoga to the mercantile marine, though
important in itself, would only be the first stage in carrying out
the great scheme of connecting the Baltic with the White Sea by-
means of an inland waterway. The two other stages would be
(a) to deepen the river Svir, and to open Lake Onega to maritime
navigation; (b) to connect Lake Onega with the White Sea by
means of a ship-canal.

The second stage presents much greater difficulties than the first.
It entails the construction of several weirs, with sea locks, on a
large and rapid river. But the advantages reaped by opening Lake
Onega to international traffic, and by making a seaport at the
mouth of the Vytegra, thus shortening the transit of goods by river
barges on the Volga by several hundred kilometres, would more than
compensate for the cost of the undertaking. Finally, in order to
establish maritime communication between Lake Onega and the
White Sea, it is necessary to carry out works of the magnitude of
those executed for the Manchester Ship-Canal, for the Kiel and
Corinth Canals, and to embark on a proportionate expenditure.
These works would, however, be the crowning achievement of the

These are the principal features of the scheme.


The project also includes the construction of maritime ports
on Lake Ladoga at the mouth of the Svir, and on Lake
Onega at the mouth of the canalised river Vytegra, which would be
the points of transhipment between the maritime traffic and the
river traffic of the immense basin of the Volga. The scheme also
includes the construction of a railway which would connect Moscow
with the seaports which it is proposed to build at the outlet of the
new canal on the White Sea and on the coast of the Arctic Ocean
near Norway, where the sea is always free from ice.

The author's scheme fulfils two important objects. In the first
place, it will give to the Russian Navy a freedom of action it does
not possess at present. The Russian Navy consists of five
squadrons, namely, the Pacific Ocean Squadron, the Black Sea
Squadron, the Baltic Squadron, the Caspian Sea Squadron, and
the Arctic Ocean Squadron. These squadrons would not generally
be able to join forces in time of war, as the outlets of the Black
Sea and the Baltic could be easily blockaded, and the principal
fleets reduced to inaction. This state of things is the more serious,
as all the naval and shipbuilding yards and arsenals, etc., are
actually situated on these inland seas namely, the Black Sea in
the south, and the Baltic in the north. If the author's scheme
is carried out, the Baltic fleet will be in a position to steam to any
part of the globe at a few days' notice, before any obstacle can
be placed in its way.

The other object which will be attained by the proposed waterway
is the industrial and commercial development of Northern Russia.
The new waterway will certainly be an important route for conveying
to Europe the wood, coal, naphtha, iron and other riches abounding
in the northern provinces of Russia.

In terminating this paper, the author states some of the general
conclusions which may be deduced from his paper:

(1) A seaport, situated at the entrance of an important inland
waterway, should not be designed and constructed in a manner which
may impede the development of the waterway. Furthermore, it is
desirable that all possible steps should be taken to avoid the
necessity of constructing fixed bridges, or, if these are indispensable,
the opening spans should be suitably situated, and should afford
ample width and depth between their piers so as to provide for all
possible future requirements of navigation.

(2) The development of inland waterways, with as great a depth
as practicable, should be promoted, so as to enable ships to pene-
trate into the heart of the country. To bring this about, it is
desirable that those great lakes near the sea, which have sufficient
depths for maritime navigation, should first be opened up.

(3) It is desirable that the seas on the coast of the same country


should be Connected by deep navigable waterways passing throug-
the country. The construction of those waterways, which serve the
double purpose of commerce and national defence, should especially
be undertaken.

(4) Any scheme for the formation of an inland waterway of
sufficient depth to enable shipping to penetrate into the interior,
should provide, as far as possible, for the work to be carried out
in sections, so that each section, as it is finished, may be capable ^f
being utilised for navigation, without waiting for the final com-
pletion of the undertaking.

(5) In Russia, the inland waterway which fulfils the above re-
quirements is the one which would connect the Baltic to the White
Sea by way of the great lakes of Ladoga and Onega. The work
might be carried out in three sections, the first being the opening
of Lake Ladoga to maritime navigation, the second the opening

Online LibraryInternational Engineering Congress (1901 : GlasgowReport of the proceedings and abstracts of the papers read → online text (page 6 of 37)