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use in conjunction with hanging these devices. Only the
most common of the many available types of this kind of
hardware, however, will be treated here.

The hinge illustrated in Fig. 26 may be classed among the
oldest types of shutter hinge. This hinge is made of cast



Fig. 26 Fig. 27

iron and is formed with a gravity-locking device intended to
hold the shutter in position when opened against the build-
ing. It is known as the Lull and Porter hinge, and is made
in various sizes that are designed to throw the shutter from
1 2 to 6a inches away from the casing, so as to clear all
obstructions consequent to the various constructions. A sill
catch must be used in conjunction with this hinge, in order
to hold the shutter in place when closed and to prevent it
from blowing open.

A similar type of hinge, known as the Clark hinge, is
illustrated in Fig. 27. This hinge is made of cast iron, and
in three sizes, which are arranged to throw the blind li, 3i,
or 4* inches from the casing. The hinge with the largest
throw is used on brick buildings. With this hinge, as with



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§55 BUILDERS' HARDWARE 39

the one just described, a sill catch must be used to keep the
shutter closed.

In specifying cast-iron hinges of the types just considered,
it is well to mention that they shall be extra heavy, from the
fact that there are so many in the market of such light
construction as to be practically worthless.

A type of the gravity-locking: hlug^e, which is better
than the cast-iron hinge, is illustrated in Fig. 28. This hinge
is made entirely of steel, and
is known as the Stanley gravity
blind hinge. There is only
one size of this hinge manu-
factured, and it is used for '
frame buildings. All of the
parts of this hinge are inter- ^'°- ^

changeable and reversible, so that it may be used for
either right- or left-hand blinds.

There is a wrought-steel hinge, known as the Stanley blind
hingCy which has not the gravity-locking device, but which
obtains a greater purchase on the shutter. This hinge is



Fig. 29

illustrated in Fig. 29; the hinge shown at (a) is for frame
buildings, while that shown at (b) is arranged for brick walls.
Another type of hinge made entirely of wrought steel, and
known as the New York bli7id hinge, is shown in Fig. 30.
This type of hinge has a long strap that extends on the top
and the bottom rail of the shutter and thus tends to prevent



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40



BUILDERS* HARDWARE



§55



the blind from drooping. This strap also strengthens the
shutter by relieving the mortise and tenon of the rail and
stile froip the strain. The New York blind hinges are made




Pig. so

in two styles. The hinge shown at (a) is intended for frame
buildings, while that at (d) is made with an offset to throw
the shutter clear of a brick jamb. These hinges are ordi-
narily used with blind adjusters, or fasteners, and for very
high blinds, a center, or auxiliary, hinge is used.

There is another type
of strap hinge similar to
those just described, the
butt of which consists of a
pin and staple, as shown
in Fig. 31. This staple is
secured by driving it into
wooden blocking in the brick joints. Hinges of this type
are used extensively in localities where brick buildings are
numerous.

31. Inside Blind, or Shutter, Hingfes. — The use of

inside blinds, or shutters, is general with the better class of




Fio. 31



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BUILDERS' HARDWARE



41



(a)



domestic buildings, and for hanging these shutters, three
kinds of hinges are used, depending on the number of folds
in the shutter and the
manner in which they
fold back on each
other. Usually, the
butt and the back flap,
as shown in Fig. 32
(a) and {b), are used.
Where the shutter
has three folds, how-
ever, a kfiuckle butty
as shown at (r), is
employed. The pur-
pose of the knuckle
butt is to cause the
folds to take such

relative positions as ^'°- ^

will enable them, when open, to close properly into a pocket,
or recess, formed in the window frame.

32. Invisible Butts, or Hlngres. — A secret, or Invis-
ible, lilni^e, known as the Soss hingCy has recently been




W



Fig. S3



placed on the market. This hinge, which is illustrated in
Fig. 33 (a), consists of a semicircular plate, which is attached



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42



BUILDERS' HARDWARE



§55




m



1 1






-^



W




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BUILDERS* HARDWARE



43



rigidly to the door section, and a movable semicircular
plate on the jamb leaf, which telescopes the section on the
door in closing. These hinges are invisible when the door
is closed. The disadvantage in the use of these hinges is due




Fig. 35

to the fact that they have only one wearing joint; they are
also somewhat complicated and expensive. As shown in
Fig. 33 (^), they have no throw, or offset, and consequently

1.7-23



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44 X BUILDERS' HARDWARE §65

the door does not clear the baseboard, or trim, in opening.
The larger size of hinge has a throw of 1 inch, which is not
ordinarily sufficient for doors. These hinges, however, have
their use for such mill work as seats, secret jambs, drop, or
folding, leaves, etc., and for this class of work are the best
in the market.

33. strap and Corner Hlng^e Plates. — Medieval hard-
ware was the product of the blacksmith and the whitesmith,
the former working with forge and hammer, and the latter
with chisel and file, the material being wrought iron. The
butt hinge was unknown, while the strap, or surface, hinge
was in universal use; and, as this was wholly in sight, it
naturally became the subject of decoration, chiefly in outline,
but occasionally in surface ornament also. With the adop-
tion of the butt hinge for general use, the opportunity of
utilizing the hinge to decorate the surface of the door dis-
appeared, but with the modern revival of decorative art the
use of constructive metal work as a feature of surface decora-
tion for important doors was restored. This was accom-
plished by combining with the modern butt a surface plate
that represents the strap hinge. Obviously, the width of the
butt of a hinge plate should correspond with the height
of the butt hinge with which it is to be used, and both should
be of the same metal and finish. The other dimensions are
governed by the size of the door and by taste, as is true also
in the case of corner plates. A varied and artistic selection
of typical strap hinges and corner plates is given in the
groups of designs shown in Figs. 34 and 35.



IjOCKS and their APPURTENANCES

34. Liocks in General. — In no other line of hardware
is there such a variety of grades and types as there is in
door locks. In general, locks may be designated as surface
and mortise locks, the former being secured to the surface of
the door and entirely exposed to view, while the latter are
let into a mortise cut in the edge of the stile. Besides these
two general kinds of locks, there are several special locks,



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§55



BUILDERS* HARDWARE



45



which will be fully explained,
classified in three grades;
namely, common^ medium, and
high grade.



As to quality, locks may be



Fig 86



35. Com in on -Grade

Rim and Mortise liOclis.

The rim locl^, as illustrated

in Fig. 36, is generally used

for buildings of the cheapest

class, such as tenements and

small houses. As cheapness

is the controlling factor in

such goods, especially the

goods made for speculative

building purposes, the quality

diminishes with the price. For cheap work, rim locks are

used on account of their low cost and because they are easily

applied. They also
require no trim, such
as escutcheon plates,
etc., and are complete
when the spindle and
the knob are fur-
nished with them.
Rim locks are made
in various sizes and
either square or rect-
angular in shape, the
long dimension being
placed either horizon-
tal or upright. They
may also be obtained
with either iron or
brass bolts, and are
furnished with iron,

tinned, or nickel-plated keys. The cheapest grades of rim

locks are made with two bolts and one tumbler, while the








Pio. 37



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46 BUILDERS* HARDWARE §55

better grades have an additional stop and a slide bolt with
three tumblers.

Rim locks are generally constructed of cast iron, and in
selecting them, a careful inspection should be made of the
internal mechanism, choosing only those rim locks in which
the bolts and the tumblers are constructed, of steel or brass.
Rim locks, however, are also made of all steel, and these are
coming into general use. They present a somewhat better
appearance than cast-iron locks, as may be seen from. Fig. 37.

The cast-iron rim lock may also be obtained with an orna-
mental case. These cast-iron cases, as a rule, are finished



Fig. 38

in imitation of bronze. Such rim locks, however, are not in
general use on account of their somewhat higher cost, and
from the fact that their appearance is not greatly improved
by the ornamentation.

Clieap mortise locks, or sets, are also largely used for
the more common grades of work. They are sold in sets,
that is, with escutcheon plates, etc. of steel or cast iron, both
in plain and ornamental designs, as illustrated in Fig. 38.



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§55 BUILDERS' HARDWARE 47

The cheapest lock sets are fitted with pottery knobs, and
the better grade, with metal knobs. All of these locks
described are of poor construction, as quality is ^ second-
ary consideration.

36. Medium-Grade Mortise Liocks. — The locks
grouped under the term * 'medium-grade** hardware have
been greatly improved in recent years and are adapted to a
large range of uses, but they are especially made for
residence work. In dwellings of the better class, the best
types of rim locks are
used for doors in attics,
and basements, and for
closet doors, but for all
other doors, the medl-
um-^rade mortise
locks are used. These
locks are provided with
cast- or wrought-bronze
lock fronts, are made with
from one to three lever
tumblers, and have drop-
forge steel cases. The
locks are constructed
with easy springs, which
allow the latch bolt to
retreat within the case on

-. , . . , Fig. 39

one light sprmg when

the door is closed, and when the knob is turned, to operate
the latch, both springs act jointly in order to overcome the
friction of the knob and to throw the bolt back to central
position. The mechanism of an easy-spring, mortise knob
lock is illustrated in Fig. 39.

In the group of locks embodying those of medium quality
are included the three-bolt locks used for chamber and
exterior doors, locks for communicating doors between
chambers, and twin, or two-bolt, locks for twin bathroom or
toilet-room doors, these being respectively illustrated in



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48 BUILDERS* HARDWARE §55



Fig. 40



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§55 BUILDERS* HARDWARE 49

Fig. 40 (a), (d)t and (c). All of these locks should be used
with wrought- or cast-bronze trim, either plain or in design,
and in finishes to suit. Locks for exterior doors, where
security is important, should be selected with this object in
view, and three-tumbler, or three-bolt, locks should be used.

37. High-Grade tiocks, — There are a number of high-
grade door locks and latches in the market for the equipment
of first-class buildings, and frequently these locks are
especially constructed to meet particular requirements.
Among such locks are
included, besides high-
grade, three-tumbler
locks, those that em-
body the cylinder prin-
ciple and those that
are equipped as master-
key locks.

The unit -cylinder
lock, illustrated in
Fig. 41, is made by
P. & F. Corbin. This
hardware specialty is a
new departure in lock
making. 'The mecha-
nism of the lock is con-
tracted into the smallest
possible space, occupy-
ing only about la in. '®' "
X 3i in. Instead of being mortised into the stile of the
door, as is usual with the mortise lock, a piece is cut entirely
from the stile, as illustrated in Fig. 42. In order to pre-
vent this operation from weakening the stile of the door,
the unit-cylinder lock is provided with heavy escutcheon
plates that are strongly ribbed on the back, so that when
these plates are secured to the stile at the top and bottom,
they supply the rigidity necessary to make up for the notch-
ing. As the name implies, these locks are made in a unit,



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50 BUILDERS' HARDWARE §55

and the keyhole to the cylinder lock is located in the knob.
The unit-cylinder lock is made in two styles — with dead-
locking latch bolt and with additional dead bolt.



Fig. 42

38, Higrh-Grade Interior Door Liocks. — In Fig. 43 is
shown a type of high-grade, mortise-locking: latch for
interior doors. These locks are of the heaviest construction,
and are fitted with either brass or bronze fronts. The bolts
are operated with two or more tumblers constructed on an



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§65 BUILDERS' HARDWARE 51

improved pattern, and are of fine workmanship. The trim
for a lock of this character should be of the very best grade,
with knobs of the screwless-spindle type, which will be
explained later.

The escutcheons should be of the high-collar or the bracket-
bearing type, and should
conform to the character
of the locks in quality and
finish. On the most im-
portant work, it is always
expedient and usually
feasible to obtain expert
advice from manufacturers
or from dealers represent-
ing the manufacturer,
whose intimate knowledge
of the product will be of
great assistance to the
architect or owner in ma-
king suitable selections.
The use of high-grade
hardware requires a con-
siderable expenditure, and
the necessity for expert

advice consequently becomes more imperative if the best
results are to be obtained.

39. Master-Key Lidcks. — The type of lock known as
the master-key lock is generally used for public or office
buildings, hotels, and occasionally in the better class of
residence work. These locks can be grouped into two classes;
namely, the Yale, or cylinder, and the lever-tumbler iypesy the
class first mentioned being the most desirable.

In the lever-tumbler type, illustrated in Fig. 39, the
tumblers, or wards, are so arranged that each lock can be
operated only by its particular key, the keys for all rooms
being different and non-changeable; all of the locks, how-
ever, can be operated by a key made for the purpose,



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52 BUILDERS* HARDWARE §55

termed a master key. Each lock of this type has two sets
of tumblers; one set is operated by its individual key, and
the other, being uniform in all locks of the series, is acted
on by the master key. Such locks may be obtained
either in the cheaper kind, with one tumbler and twelve

changes, or in the
most intricate styles
of hotel locks, with
five tumblers and
48,000 changes in one
set, and all operated
by one master key.
The cylinder lock of
this type is illustrated
in Fig. 44, which
shows a Yale &
Towne» mortise,
front-door lock.

40. Details of

the Yale Type of

Master-Key Locks.

The Yale type of

cylinder lock, which is

illustrated in Fig. 45

(a) and (^), is much

preferred, on account

of the great security

it gives and the small

P'G- ^^ key required by it.

This lock is made in three systems; namely, the regular,

the concentric, and the paracc7itric, or duplex.

In the regular system, one regular cylinder is controlled
by the change and master keys, the pin tumblers being cut
in two places, so that the change key brings one set of the
abutting planes of the tumbler in alinement with the surface
of the cylindrical plug. This plug is arranged so that a
separate key is required to operate each lock, the other



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§55



BUILDERS' HARDWARE



53





Pio. 45



Pio. 46



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54 BUILDERS' HARDWARE §55

line of cleavage through the blocks being the same with
all locks throughout the series, so that they may be opened
with the same key.

The concentric cylindrical arrangement of this type
of lock is shown in Fig. 46 (a) and (d). Here, there is a
larger cylinder encircling the key plug. This is known as the
master-ring, or larger, plug, and is indicated at a. When the
change key is inserted in the key plug d, the lower series of
breaks in the pins comes into alinement with the outer edge
of the plug, as shown at (a), and allows it to revolve in the

master ring, the cam
on the inner side at c
actuating the lock.
When the master key .
is inserted, the upper
series of breaks
comes into alinement
with the outer edge
of the master ring, as
shown at (^), allow-
ing the plug and the
ring to rotate to-
gether with the turn-
ing of the key, and
thus to produce the
same result as that
caused by the opera-
tion of the change
key.

The paracentric
system, sometimes
called the duplex sys-
tem, consists in hav-
ing two separate
cylinders to each lock,
as illustrated in Fig. 47. One of these cylinders, generally
the upper, one, is operated by the change key, and the
lower one, by the master key. The interior construction of



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855 BUILDERS' HARDWARE 55

the lock is so devised that each key performs the necessary
function of operating the same bolt, so that the individual
lock may always be opened by the change key, and all locks
of the series by the master key. This latter system of lock
construction is more expensive than the one-cylinder type,
but it possesses an advantage in that it provides greater
security when a limited number of locks are grouped in
one series.

41. Owners or officials of large office buildings and
industrial works now avail themselves of the master-key
system just explained. They are able to obtain mortise
locks, rim locks, and padlocks, all arranged to operate with
a master key, in one series. In fine residence work, this
system is also adopted. Such a system of locking is easily
recognized as convenient, especially where subordinates are
held responsible for certain rooms or departments to which
they, individually, have access, as all of the rooms or depart-
ments may be entered by the manager or superintendent by
the aid of the master key.

A series of master-key locks may also be **submaster-
keyed" by dividing it into subordinate groups. In such a
case, each group is operated by a master key of its own,
and all the subordinate groups are controlled by a grand
master key. For example, a six-story office building could
be furnished throughout with locks having non-changeable
keys; the doors of each floor could be operated separately by
a master key; and the doors of the entire building could be
operated by a grand master key. The convenience of such a
system is readily apparent in large buildings where each
janitor is responsible for a certain floor, and where the head
janitor, manager, or owner, has control of all the locks
through the grand master key.

In some instances, for additional security and for special
work, the corrugations in the keyway are changed in shape
so that the manufacturers' regular type of key will not enter
the keyway, or plug, thus allowing no chance for the regular
type of key to operate the lock.



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56 BUILDERS' HARDWARE §65

42. liocks for Residence Use. — The front-door lock

is distinctly a lock having: two bolts; namely, a dead bolt and
a latch bolt. The' latter is operated by the knob, and is so
arranged that, by means of stop- work in the lock front, the
outer knob may, at Will, be set so as not to operate the latch,
the latch bolt being operated only from the outside by a key.
The cylinder type of front-door lock illustrated in Fig. 44
is the best lock for this purpose, as it provides the greatest



Pio. 48

security. This lock is operated by a convenient key of the
Yale type, which throws both latch and dead bolt with one
insertion into the cylinder.

Three-tumbler, front-door locks and latches are to be had
at a low cost, and are used in the cheaper class of dwell-
ings. When the residence has an inner, or vestibule, door,
a similar lock is used without the dead bolt; this lock is



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§55 BUILDERS' HARDWARE 57

termed a vestibule latch. In all cases the vestibule lock
should **key-lock" with the front-door lock, so that one key
will operate both. The other exterior doors of a residence
should have either Yale locks master-keyed to the front door,
for the better class of work, or locks of the 5-inch, three-bolt
variety, that are furnished with an extra bolt in addition to
the dead bolt, the third bolt being operated by a thumb knob
on the inside. When a cheaper trim is wanted, a 4-inch, two-
bolt lock, supplemented by a separate mortise or rim bolt,
may be used.

For the first- or parlor-floor folding doors, 4- or 4i-inch,
two-bolt, mortise locks are ordinarily employed. Where the
doors are sliding, a 5i-inch, sliding-door lock with dead bolt
and pull, or handle, is provided. The pull, or handle, is
operated, or thrown out, when needed by pushing a button,
or stop, in the lock. This special type, of sliding-door lock
is illustrated in Fig. 48.

For bedroom doors, a lock similar to that used on the
minor exterior doors is usually employed. The lock for
these doors may be either a 5-inch, three-bolt lock, or a 4-inch,
two-bolt lock supplemented with a mortise bolt. For com-
municating doors, it is best to use a three-bolt, knob lock,
the latch bolt of which is operated by the knob from either
side. Arranged above or below this latch bolt are two dead
bolts, each being operated by its respective thumb piece on
opposite sides of the door. Locks of this character are made
for both swinging and sliding doors.

43. liocks for Twin-Closet and Other Interior
Doors. — Twin, or double, doors are sometimes used between
rooms in residences to deaden sound or to increase privacy.
Such doors should be fitted with the same type of lock as
other communicating doors, except that the lock should
be provided with two bolts, the same as the lock used for
bathroom doors. These locks are arranged with special
trim on the abutting face of each door, this trim having
only a slight projection, and knobs or lever handles project-
ing as little as possible, in order to avoid interference on



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58 BUILDERS' HARDWARE §56

account of the limited space between the doors. Bathroom
doors are best fitted with a thumb bolt, either combined
with a lock or separate.

In fitting closet doors, it is best to use a two-bolt lock
about 4 inches in size, with trim on both sides, so that the
door may be operated from inside in case it is accidentally
closed on a person in the closet. The possibility of this
happening is slight, and usually a saving is effected by using
a knob latch without a dead bolt and a pair of knobs with
roses.

For basement or attic doors, a cheap type of mortise lock
is appropriate, or a rim lock may be used, if cost is a con-
sideration. Where care is exercised in the selection of locks
in any one building, great convenience will result from having
all the different classes of locks about the building of the same
grade, so that they may be master-keyed in one set and thus
give the owner control, with one key, of all the locks. Each
lock, however, will have its own individual, or change, key,
and should be selected and ordered with this object in view.
Another convenience may be had by ordering each room and
closet door keyed alike throughout the house, or alike through-
out each floor, so that the loss of a key will cause little or no
inconvenience.

44. Hotel and Office Liocks. — The purpose and use of
master-keyed locks has already been explained, but the
employment of such locks in large groups, as in the equip-
ment of hotels and office buildings, requires further discus-
sion. The term corridor door designates the entrance from a
corridor or a hallway to a bedroom or an office, while communU
eating doors are those between adjoining rooms. Frequently,
these doors are double, and are then known as twin doors,
while the term closet doors is self-explanatory. Each' of these
doors requires a knob lock; that is, a lock having the latch
bolt operated by the knob and the dead bolt operated by a
key. Sometimes, in the case of locks on closet doors, the
dead bolt on communicating-door locks is omitted, and a
thumb bolt substituted. While all of the locks thus far



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