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Referring to the School records, I am enabled to make out the
following returns for the year 1854 : —

Highest number on the rolls, iacluding literaiy and industrial

pupils, 489

Average daily attendance, including do. do., . . . 334

Highest number of industrial pupils whose names appeared on

the rolls at any period during past year, . . . . 170

Average dally attendance of do. (about) .... 90

Separate records not having been kept for the Literary and Indus-
trial Departments, I can only point to the two last numbers as an
approximation of the truth, but as dose an approximation as could be
niade. If they be in any respect incorrect, it is in being nnfavourable
to the School. On the occasion of a visit of inspection in October last,
I found an attendance of 346 children (smaller than at some previous
inspections), who were thus distributed :—

Sewing, 100

Knitting, 78 J

Laoe-making, Ac., •«.... IM *

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1854.] nflfMkmal EduaatUm in Ireland. 9T

Bat rereFting to the retnnis given abore, I have to point to one Appsmbuc F.
remarkable featnre of IndoBtrial Schools which they exhibit^ vii., j. ""
the comparatively trifling difference between the highest number of of Sittrict
names on the rolls and the number of pupils in actual attendance at the Innwctonoii
School— a circamstance which shows the great regularity witli which sJu**!^*^

these Schools are attended. But this will be still more apparent, if we

bear in mind that, whereas the 457 in the return alluded to, only refers MidUum^
to the number of names on the rolls at the most /avouro^/e season of the Tf^^ ^
rear, the 334 takes account of the pupils in actual attendance during p^Sto^!
all the aeasons of the year.

Taniiug to the kinds of work which occupy the pupils' time and
attention, I find that they are various. Pillow or cushion lace,
limerick-lace, crochet, &ncy netting, meshwork, and fancy needle-work
are a few of the varieties. These, however, are not carried on eimuU
taDeoosly, but have a certain rotation, according to the season of the
year, and the demands of the market. Two of them— -cushion-lace and
Limerick-lace — ^may be said to be permanent. The former is sometimes
suspended to a greater or less extent— the latter not at all. But, as a
general mle, cushion-lace, as being more remunerative, attracts a greater
Diunber of hands, and for a longer time than any other branch. In the
manofactnre of Limerick-lace, twenty-three girls are constantly em-
ployed, bnt these are indentured to the Nuns. The permanent earnings
of the pupils vary from 1«. 6d, to 6«. per week — about twenty of the
cQfihion-lace makers being able to earn the latter sum. At times,
however, when there is a demand for some particular kind of work
(saeh as crochet), even 10<. per week has been earned, but, of course,
this can scarcely be included in the general order of business. A
correct idea of the gross and individual earnings of the pupils, and
of the proceeds of each kind of work may be formed from the following
returns : —

£ «. d.
Qnm amount paid during past year to the workers at

Pillow or Cushion lace, 301

Gross amount paid during past year to the workers at

Limerick-lace, 36 14 8

Netting, 20

Miacellaneoufl, 14

Valoeofwork in hand at the close of 1854, . . • 30

£401 14 8

which, for an average attendance of ninety pupils, allows a sum of about
^i 9i. 34if. to each. This seems small remuneration for the labour of
& j^r; bat we must remember that it is earned by mere children
(their ages generally ranging from about seven to sixteen years), and
that it is accompanied by the benefits of a good education, and of the
^ possible moral training.

No. 17. — YonQHAL Industbial National School.

This School, which is held in the same house as when last reported
ttpon, continues to progress satisfiEustorily. The attendance during the
7^r has been good (considering the circumstances and habits of the
population from which the pupils are drawn), and the pecuniary returns
ue most gratifying. The great exactness with which these latter have
been made out, refiects credit on the *' Sister" who Imd charge of
them, and enables me to o£Per precise and reliable information to the
Commissioners. The gross attendance of pupils is also very correctly
neorded, bdt leparate ** rolls" qot haying hwa kept for the literaij^

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Appendix F.

of District
Intpoctors on

Voughalf and

Appendix to Twentif-first Report of Commisnoners [1854.

and indastrial classes, I am unable to offer as precise information in
reference to the latter as I would wi8h. The following, however, may
be taken as a sufficiently accurate return : —

Highest number of pupils (literary and industrial) whose names

were on the rolls at any period during the past year, . 728

Average daily attendance of do. do., 337

Highest number of industrial pupils on the rolls at any period

of 1854, 160

Average daily attendance of do. do. 120

Of the pupils who form the industrial class, about one-third are
above the age of sixteen years. The majority of the^^o attend to
literary instruction for two hours daily ; some, however, only for one
hour, or even less, but these latter are not included in the number ou
which the Commissioners pay a per centage as salary. With such, the
Nuns exercise a discretionary power, instructing all who require it, and
who are capable of receiving it ; but, in many cases, they find it not
only impossible, but impolitic, to attempt to force any thing like even
the rudiments of an education into the minds of girls who have grown
up to nineteen or twenty years of age, without a knowledge of their
alphabet. Efforts for such a purpose would only drive such girls from
the Industrial Schools altogether, and thereby cast them back upon
society without knowledge of any kind — without hope of attainint^
it — and, possibly, without the opportunity of saving themselves from
vice. Every care, howeyer, is taken to instruct all who are capable of
being instructed in literary business. Accordingly, those under sixteen
years of age are made to attend to the principal branches taught in tho
Literary Department for three hours daily ; those over that age, who
can be induced to do so, for two hours daily ; while those who are too
old to learn, or whose education is considered sufficient, for (nie hour or
less. Those who receive literary instruction for so short a period as
one hour, are generally such as are anxious to learn only to read and
write; or who, having already obtained a fair education, wish to
improve themselves in some particular branch. The hours for in-
dustrial instruction vary inversely as those for literary business ; the
rule being that the pupils are to be engaged at one or other during the
whole of school time.

The majority of those receiving instruction in industrial pursuits
employ themselves at point-lace and crochet, these being the moat
remunerative branches. Many, however, are engaged at muslin
embroidery and flower-making ; and all, both literary and industrial
pupils, are instructed in knitting and plain work. The earnings,
though large in the aggregate, are individually small ; Zs, a-week may
be set down as a favourable average. A few, indeed, at " point-lace
making" can earn as much as 4«. a-week, but only by working about
twelve hours daily. Crochet would prove much more remunerative if
a constant market could be found for it.

The account for work done and money received by the pupils, stands
thus : —

£ <. d.

Plain Work, 13 17 2

Flowers, 735

Embroidery, 54 6 10}

Poiot-lace and Crochet, 614 16 6^

Value of work in hand, 50 O

Total, . £740 8 llf
For an avezage attendance of 120 pupils, we will thus have about
£% 3f; id, for each ; a pretty considtiable sum, all things considered.

Digitized by VjOOQIC

1654.] of Normal Educatian in Ireland. 89

No. 18 — Febmot InbustxiaIi National School. Apfbiwx F.

No material change bas taken place in the arrangement of this School R««oru
eince last reported upon. The indnstrial pupils still occupy the same y^ bi^triet
room with the literary classes — a defect which can be remedied only by in2!lSri2 *'
the erection of additional buildings. The monitress paid by the Com- Schools,
missioners of Education continues, under the guidance of the hidies of ^_T~'
the convent, to superintend the Industrial Department. The skill Xallow '
displayed by the pupils, the superior finish of the work, and the rou^,und
ele>^nce of its design, reflect considerable credit on her labours. Ftrmog,

The kinds of work are various, but the principal are *' imitation
point-lace," bead-work, netting, crochet, and muslin-embroidery. The
two last being the most remunerative, occupy the greatest number of
hands, and receive the greatest share of attention. Probably about
two-thirds of the entire number of industrial pupils are engaged in
these branches, their individual earnings averaging about 2f. 6<i. or 3<.
per week. But as no cash account has been kept, nor any separate
record of the attendance of literary and industrial pupils, I am not in a
position to submit to the Commissioners, sufficiently precise returns as
to the gross or iudividual earnings of the pupils in this School, or as to
the numbers who attend at it.

I am, Qentlemen, your obedient servant,

Thomas O'LouaRLiir,

District Inspeeter.

The Secretaries,

Education Office, Dublin.

No. 19. — Special Report of Mrs. Campbell, Superintendent of the C^^tral FtmaU
Female Training and Central Model Schools, on the Industrial t^Mm^
Education in those Schools. School^

Gentlemen, — In compliance with your directions that a Report on
the state of industrial progress in the Schools under my care should be
furnished, I beg to submit the following brief summary.

The numbers attending the Model School as daily pupils continue to
be about the same as during previous years, namely, a steady aggre-
gate of about 500 on the rolls, and to this number the attendance may
be said to be restricted by the accommodation, it being necessary to
reserve convenient space for seventy or eighty teachers usually in pro-
gress of training.

The system of instruction, and the general arrangements adopted for
industrial teaching, are of the same description and character as those
in use during several former years, and which, from the successful
results, appear to be much valued by both parents, children, and the
public generally. This conclusion is thought to be unavoidably arrived
at when it is considered that, notwithstanding the large numbers on
the rolls and in attendance, there are generally 200 to 300 appli-
cations in arrear from parents for the admission of their children,
which are, of course, attended to as vacancies arise, and always in the
strict order of the application.

This amount of public appreciation is not supposed to be ascribed
exclusively to the success of the industrial teaching, irrespective of the
literary value of the School ; at the same time it may be observed, that
the progress of the children in useful acquirements suited to domestic
purposes^ and in industrial tendencies, brings home to the onderstaading

Digitized by


so Appendix to Twenty-first Report of OmmUHoners [1854.

Appendix F. and to the comfort of the parents, very pleasing and practical proofs of
their diligence and success at school, and of the habits formed there,
and renders their acceptance as apprentices, or their employment as
assistants to respectable places of business a matter of easy accomplish-

The department for teaching plain work, the paramount importance
CfmtralFemaU of which is duly felt, continues to receive its usual amount of attention,
jt^^^^ and is in an equally prosperous state as heretofore ; i^mething very
S^S^ nearly approaching to perfection is aimed at in this department, con-

stituting, as it does, the foundation of excellence in every other branch
of needlework, but being infinitely superior to all in its general, or
rather indispensable, utility. In the course of the past year about £16
have been distributed as rewards among the several children of the
plain work and mending classes, capable of competing or producing^
good samples of work in the usual manner; and in various small sums,
according to proficiency, the highest premium not exceeding 6(£., and
thence down to an almost nominal sum, but which, however small, is
yet found to stimulate children to efforts consistent with their years
and capabilities.

In connexion with domestic works knitting may be mentioned as «
useful branch ; it continues to be practised as attentively as heretofore,
though now applied chiefly to making stockings for home use ; and in
the crochet kinds, to making warm winter-jackets, rather than to those
more fanciful sorts which were in much request during former years,
and by which respectable sums were earned by the pupils in supplying
shops during the prevalence of those tastes for &ncy knitting, and
hefore the introduction of imiUxtumi by the loom.

Netting and straw-platting may be noticed as forming sections of
the plain-work department ; the former is applicable to many and very
useful purposes, whether designed for fishing nets or as covering for
fruit trees ; or, in the finer kinds, for the more elegant accessories of
the apartments of the wealthy. The latter, straw-plattbg, including
a knowledge of Tuscan plat, is taught in a limited way on certain days,
as the art, though unlikely to be of much use to the children of a city,
may possibly become of value to the teachers of schools in the country.
Both these sections are designed chiefly as furnishing the Teachers in
Training with the means and the opportunity of making the acquire-

Of the continued success of the department for teaching cutting-ont,
and dressmaking, I am enabled to speak with satisfaction, there having
been during the year upwards of 2o8 dresses and garments of variolas
sorts cut-out and made-up by the pupils of the daily school.

The usual amount of success has attended the sewed-muslin or em-
broidery classes during the last year. The teachers are the same, and
the work is supplied by the same manufacturer as heretofore. About
£27 have been paid by him for work wrought in this department ;
while, at the same time, the pupils practising have lost none of the
literary advantages of the school ; and many have acquired proficiency
in a description of work most likely to hold its place in public use and
estimation for several years to come, and the present demand for which
appears rather on the increase than otherwise.

The practice of worsted or Berlin-wool work has been much discon-
tinued, in an extended way, during the past year, both from the high
price of the materials required for the work, but chiefly from the very
little real advantage to be gained from it, as an acquirement fbr the
. humbler classes. So lon^ as sampler work continues in use in school^
'^e foundation of worsted work will be laid in the knowledge acquired

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1854.] NatiMal Edueation in Ireland. SI

of crossHstitch and other stitches. Bat, until drawing is so £&r advanced Appendix P.
as to guide the practitioner in the grouping and colouring of flowers, j^^ ^ r^
she must adopt the present mechanical process of copying some pattern of District

stitch by stitch. Inspectors on

Most ladies practise this work as an amnsement, and, therefore, gJ^*|J^
render the sale to shops, or otherwise, too precarious a matter to engage J^
in^ considering the cost of the necessary outlay on materials. Cmtral Fmmd$

The Teachers in Training, of whom there were in the training estab- jyJ^^fT^
lishment during the year 91, have been instructed in these branches Scko^
also, in the tisnal manner. The encouragement aflbrded to the learners,
of obtaining any article cut-out and made-up by themselves, at an
abatement of the cost price, is still accorded by the Commissioners
to both the daily pupils and the Training Teachers, and has its value
in acting as a stimulant to the acquirements. The several teachers in*
the training establishment in the course of the year availed themselves
of these advantages, to the extent of 374 articles, cut-out and nmde-np
by themselves.

Drawing is still taught to both the Teachers in Training and the
advanced pupils of the school, and with equal success as heretofore.
In consequence of the departure of Mrs. Davitt to Melbourne, a change
of teachers has taken place in the department, and a lady and gentle-
man of high artistic capabilities have the direction, under whose united
and talented energies, and zeal for the diffusion of good, it will, doubt-
less, become productive of all the useful results anticipated, and of
whieh it can be rendered capable.

I have the honour to remain, Gentlemen, yours, &c,

JuuA Campbjell,

To tk« Stir^tarief, ifec., &c.

Ko. 30. — Special Beport of W. MaoDbbhott, Esq., District Inspe^- m, F§im'9.
tor, on the St. Pbtsb*s (Whitefriar-street) Industbul National

December, 1854.

GsBTuncsv, — Through the exertions of the Rev. Dr. Spratt, this
School was established in January, 1851, in order to diffuse a know-
ledge of the higher branches of needlework among the humbler classes
of females, not only of this School, but of such extems as chose to
resort hither for the acquirement of the above essential parts of fexnale

The School forms the attic story of the St. Peter's Female National
School It is sixty feet square, and well supplied with all the require-
ments necessary for its efficient working. Besides a good clock, its
furniture consists of seventeen work-tables, and thirty-four forms, equal
to accommodate a very considerable attendance.

The highest number on the books for the last twelve months, . 141
The aremge attendance for the same period, . . . . 106
Number of workers present, ..•.,,. 67

who were thus employed : —

Learning Plain-work, . ]5

Embroideiy ! ! 99

Lace or Tambour- work, [ [ 10

Knitting; . . . . . . • . *1 I 90

Digitized by



Appendix to Twenty-first Rqport of Commissioners £1854.

of District
Inspectors on

St. PeUf:

Appendix F. The accouDts consist of an ordinary National School Report Book,
and a large Register, containing the names of all who have become
pupils since its establishment.

The Mistress, Barbara Mulligan, has taught in Enniskerry and other
Industrial Schools. Her saUiry is £12 per annum, £8 of which is
paid by the Commissioners ; the correspondent contributes the re-

The supply of work is quite of a chance character ; it is supplied
by such persons as are in need of the skill or despatch of the workers ;
but the proceeds arising from that work is of a very small amount
indeed, being no more than £1 145. 3d. for the last eleven months, and
was the results of the labour, exclusively, of the plain and embroidery
workers. The highest sum which any of them received during that
period was 2a. 4}^d. ; the lowest, IJcf.

I cannot attribute such results to any migratory or restless disposi-
tion said to distinguish the children of the metropolis ; but perhaps
they can be traced to simpler causes. The time devoted here, and
almost in all the Metropolitan Schools, to the acquirement of needle-
work, is but one hour daily — a period quite too short for any real
or pleasing progress ; consequently, the children, seeing that they have
spent much time profitlessly, become at last indiifercnt, and produce
either bad work or none at all ; while the same class of pupils in the
provinces daily dedicate a much longer period to needlework than
those in Dublin ; consequently, the former sooner acquire both skill
and facility in the execution of their art, and receive a reward, at
least, somewhat commensurate with their ability and application.

Perhaps there is another cause that serves to retard the progress of
the industrial female pupils in the Dublin schools.

In the provinces, the ladies of the respective neighbourhoods are,
for the most part, regular and zealous in their visits to those schools,
creating attention alike on the part of the teacher and the pupil ; but
in the metropolis, excepting the Convent and a few other schools, thev
are almost abandoned by female visitors, who would take any interest
in the progress of the children. This neglect is the more to be
regretted, seeing that nothing is more estimable thaq to teach the
ignorant, especially when such teaching is calculated to elevate their
hunlbler sisters in the scale of female usefulness, self-respect, and per-
haps independence.

I have the honour to remain. Gentlemen, your obedient servant^

W. MacDebmott,
The Secretaries.

No. 21. — Special Report of W. MaoDeemott, Esq., District Inspector,
on the Baqqot-stbeet Female Industbial National School.

January, 185i5.

Qentlehen, — Agreeably to your directions, I forward to you, for
the information of the Board, my Special Report on the above School
for the past year.

This establishment is under the personal direction of the Sisters of
Mercy. The Industrial Department was opened in 1851, in a large
and spacious building, well supplied with all the requirements essential
to a combined literary and industrial establishment.

The latter branch is carried on in a cheerful and lightsome apart*
ment, measuring 40 feet by 25 feet ; there are five other rooms dedi-
cated exdosiyely to literary instruction.

Digitized by


1864.] ofNcOwfuU EducaUcn in Ireland. SSi

In the Industrial Department there were present 110> ^^^jg AotndixP^

Average attendance, ISO J —^

Present in the Literary School, .... 4451 ^KlSict

of whom more tban two-thirds, or about 300, likewise receive inatruc- J"?*^? ^

...111 ' ' Indttstnai

tion m needlework. Schoob.

Begtdatioru. — The Industrial Department commences business at

half-past eight o'clock each morning ;* it closes in summer at six, and ^•W^*-*''^-
four iu winter. During this period, the adults, or those who are not
attached to the National School, are engaged in shirt and dress making,
knitting, and plain work in general ; but no fancy work, the latter
being found quite unproductive.

The pupils of the National School enter the Industrial Department,
bv chisses, at half-past eight o'clock in the morning, where they remain
until half-past eleven, when they pass back to the Literary School, in
which they continue until half-past two o'clock, when the more grown
girls return to the Industrial Department, and there remain until four
o'clock in the evening, employed in the various sorts of needlework
already mentioned.

The Teachers are the ladies of the Convent ; no paid teachers are at
present employed.

The Accounts are merely a register, containing each pupil's name,
age, residence, together with the occupation of her parents.

There is no remuneration given to the pupils ; the proceeds of the
work are applied to the purchase of fresh materials ; besides, it forms
a part of the funds for the support of the more necessitous pupils^ and
those adult interns, who receive food, clothing, and shelter, from the

Judging from my own experience, I believe I am correct in forming
the opinion that the Literary Department of this School is inferior to
none other in Ireland. I find that the children who have been uniform
in their attendance evince a knowledge of their business, which reflects
credit on themselves, and their benevolent and highly qualified teachers.

I have the honour to remain. Gentlemen, your obedient servant,

W. MacDebmott, District Inspector.
The Secretaries.

No. 22. — Spicial Rbpobt of W. MaoDe&m orr, Esq., District Inspector, Kv^fdom.
on the Kingstown Female Industrial School.

January, 1855.

Gentlemen, — Agreeably to your directions, I lay before you, for
the information of the Commissioners, my Report on the Industrial
Pemale School of Kingstown for the last year.

This School is carried on in the same building in which the Female
National School is conducted, but not in the same apartment. It is
lightsome, properly ventiUted, and well suited for the purpose to which
it is dedicated.

There were present at my last visit here . • . 10^

Number on the hooks, 45 V Adults.

Average attendance, . 303

Besides these, there were present in the Literary Department 267,

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