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any other ever formed in one life time, or by a private person, and the one
which for the last twenty years has contributed more than any other to the
advancement of the science. For almost 20 years the Hookerian herbari um
— even more than the Royal Gardens — has made Kew the head-quarters
of botany, rivalling the imperial establishment on the other side of the
channel, and more useful as well as more freely accessible to botanists from
every part of the world than the national herbaria at the British Museum.
As to accessibility, indeed, no fault is to be found with the latter ; the
Banksian and other herbaria of historical importance could always be
consulted under proper regulations. But it must be said that, with the
greatest botanist of the age as their curator, these national collections for a
quarter of a century have not contributed to the advancement of botany
to any thing like the extent which the Hookerian herbarium, and its do-
voted, generous-spirited, and disinterested founder have done. 'How such
a vast herbarium can have been collected and maintained, in perfect
working order, by a private individual of very moderate means, it is not
easy to conceive. Certainly it is too large and too important for science
long to remain in private hands. It must in any case be acquired by the
British Government; when this and the Benthamian herbarium, with
adequate provision for their increase, — supplemented by the Banksian and
other special collections now at the British museum ^which should be kept
distinct) — will form an unrivalled scientific botanical museum, a. o.

2. On the Coiling of Tendrils ; by Prof. Gray. — ^As much as twenty
years ago, Mohl suggested that the coiling of tendrils * resulted from an
irritability excited by contact.* In 1850 he remarked that this view has
had no particular approval to boast of, yet that nothing better has been
put in its place. And in another paragraph of his admirable little treat-
ise on the Vegetable Cell (contributed to Wagner's Cyclopaedia of Fhys-
iology), he briefly says : * in my opinion, a dull irritability exists in the

fiBCOND SERIES. Vol XXVII, No. SO.-MARCH, 1869.

30



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978 Scientific Intelligence.

stems of twining plants and in tendrils.' In other words, he snggesta
that the phenomenon is of the same nature, and owns the same cause
(whatever that may be) as the dosing of the leaves of the SensitiYe-plaDt
at the touch, and a variefy of similar movementB observed in plants.
The object of this note is to remark that the correctness of this view may
be readily demonstrated.

For the tendrils in several common plants will coil up more or less
promptly after being touched, or brought with a slight force into contact
with a forei^ bo^, and in some plants the movement of coiling is
rajpid enough to be directly seen bv the eye ; indeed, is consideri3)lT
quicker than is Deedfnl for being visible, ioid, to complete the parallel,
as the leaves of the Sensitive-plant, and the like, after closing by irrita-
tion, resume after a while their ordinary expanded position, so the ten-
drils, in two species of the Cucurhitacem^ or Squash £Eunily, experimented
upon, after coiling in consequence of a touch, will uncoil into a straight
position in the coarse of an hour ; then they will coil up at a second
touch, often more qnickly than before ; and this may be repeated three
or four times in the course of six or seven hours.

My cursory observations have been principally made upon the Bur-
Cucumber (Sicyoi angulattui). To see the movement well, fuU-growii
and outstretched tendrils, which have not reached any support, should be
selected, and a warm day ; 11^ Fahr. is hi^h enough.

A tendril which was straight, except a slight hook at the tip, on being
gently touched once or twice with a piece of wood on the upper side,
coiled at the end into 2^-3 turns within a minute and a halt The mo-
tion began after an interval of several seconds, and fully half of the coil-
ing was quick enough to be very distinctly seen. Aii;er a little more
than an hour had elapsed, it was found to be straight a^ain. The con-
tact was repeated, timing the result by the second-hand of a watch. The
coiling beg^ within four seconds, and made one circle and a quarts in
about four seconds. It had straightened again in an hour and five min-
utes (perhaps sooner, but it was then observed) ; and it coiled the third
time on being touched rather firmlv, but not so quickly as before, viz. 1^
turns in half a minute. I have mdications of the same movement in
the tendrils of the grape-vine ; but a favorable dav has not occurred for
the experiment since my attention was accidentally directed to the sub-
ject. I have reason to think that the movement is caused by a contrac-
tion of the cells on the concave side of the coil, but I have not had an
opportunity for making a decisive experiment. — Extr.from Proceedinge
of the American Academy of Arts ana Sciences^ vol. iv, p. 08, Aug. 1 858.

8. An Essay on the Tape Worms of Man, giving a full account of their
Nature, Organization, and embxyonic development, the pathological symp-
toms th^ produce, and the remedies which have proved successful m
modem practice, by D. F. Wbinland, PhJ)., — to which is added an
Appendix containing a catalogue of all species of Helminths hitherto
found in man. 94 pp., 8vo. ilTustrated with original wood cuts. Cam-
bridge, Mass., 1858. Metcalf is Co. — Dr. Weinland is high authority on
all subjects connected with Intestinal worms, and especially the species that
infest man, of which 32 are now known. This pamphlet is valuable
both patholpgicallj and xoologicaUy. Nothing in the whole range of



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Baiany and Zoohgy. S70

nimal life is more strange tlkan the history of the tapeworm, and as the
&ct8 haTe not been in this Journid, we dte a few paragraphs on the
snlject

^Eyerj buteher is acquainted with the disease in the mnsdes of the
domesticated hog, denominated * measles,* and calls the flesh of such a
hoe 'measly pou/ It has long been known that those pea-like whitish
globides (measles) contain a curious animal, namely, the perfect head
and neck of a tapeworm, ending howeyer, not m the long, jointed body
of the regular tapeworm, but in a water-bladder. No traoes of repro^
duotive organs are to be seen. Such measles are found not only in the
hog, but also in other animals, where they are better known under the
name of Hydatids. For example, they are very often met with in the
liver of rats and mice ; in the mesentery of the hare ; and eren, though
more rarely, in the muscles of man ; and those of the latter have turned
out to be of the same species {Cysticeretu CeUulosiB^ Ruddphi) as those
found in the hog. All the different species of this sort of hydatids are
known in science under the generic name of CysHeertus. *

Again, other hydatids, varying from the siae of a pea to a diameter of
several inches, are occasionslly found in the lungs, the liver, and other
orgBXiB of man, but more firequently in the liver and lungs of our domes-
ticated Ruminants, such as oxen, sheep, and goats. These hydatids are
roundish bladders of a milky-white color, containing a watery fluid, in
which swim many whitish granules ; each of these granules is, as a good
leoa will show, a well-developed head and neck of a Taenia, iov^rted into
a little bag. This kind of hydatid, also, has been considerea as a dis-
tinct genus of intestinal worms, and called Echinoeoocus.

Again, a disease frequently occurs in the brain of sheep, producing
vertigo (German, Dreker^ French, taumis). This was ascertained, years

X, to DC caused by another sort of hydatid, appearing as a bladder,
n of several inches in diameter ; and, as in Cysticercus and Echino-
ooccus, filled with a watery fluid. On the outside of these bladders are
attached a number (often hundreds) of tapeworm heads, all retractile into
the inside of the bladder by inversion like the finger of a glove. This
hydatid was considered by zoologists as a third genus, called Comurui.

These three genera, CysUcercuSy Edwnccoceus^ and Ccsnurus^ formed
untU rec^% an order in the class of intestinal worms, called Cystica
(Bladder worms, or Vesicular Worms). But we now know that all cf
this group am merely larves of tapeworms^ and that the whole order ci
Cystica^ beinff composed of larves of Oestoidea^ must therefore be dropped
from our zooK)giciu system.

This important discovery was made as follows. Ephraim Odtze, a
German clereyman and naturalist of the last century, had noticed a sin-
gttlar similarity between the heads of some Oysticerci and those oi some
tapeworms. He had particularly noticed this similarity between the
tapeworm of the cat (Tcenia crassicollis^ and the Cysticercus which is
found in the liver of tne rat and mouse (Cysticercw fasciolaris), 0. T.
Ton Siebold, the most noted helmintholoffist now living, had observed the
same thing, and in 1848 had afaready afiuded to the possibility that all
these Cystica might be nothing but undeveloped or larval tapeworms.
hk his sjTstem, however, he still recognized the Cystica as a distmct order
of Helminths.



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5^80 Scientific Intelligence.

In the jear 1851, F. E&chenmeister first proved by ezperimeDt that a
certain hydatid when brought into a suitable place, is developed into a
tapeworm. He fed a dog with the hydatids {Ct/$ticercus pisiformis)
found in the mesentery of the hare, and on dissecting the dog, after a
number of weeks, found these Ct/sticerci alive in the small intestine.
They had^ however^ lost their tail-bladder^ and the neck had begun to
form the joints of a true tapeworm^ which worm had been loag well
known as Tamia serrata, and as common in the dog. Now, one dis-
covery followed another. Governments, scientific institutions, and wealthy
farmers furnished the money and animals to carry on the experiments on
a large scale. Siebold fed a dog with the JSchinococeus of the ox, and
thus raised the Tcenia Echinococcus^ Siebold. It was also found in the
same way that the Coenurus from the brain of sheep is the larve of
another Tcenia of the dog, Tcenia Coenurus^ Siebold.

Now the question, whence does man get his tapeworm ? was ready to
be answered. It had been observed that the hydatids of the hog, cooh
TOonly called " measles" (in the zoological system, Cysticercus Celluloses^)
have exactly the same head as the common tapeworm of man {Tcenia
Solium, L.) ; and after the experiments mentioned above, in relation to
the different tapeworms of dogs, a doubt could hardly exist that Cysti-
cercus Celluloses of the hoy was tlie larve of the common human tapewjrm
{Tcenia Solium). K&chenmeister, who wished to make sure of the fact,
made the experiment upon a criminal who was soon to be executed, and,
as was to be expected, with perfect success. Measles taken from fresh
pork, and put into sausages which the criminal ate raw, at certain inter-
vals before his death, were found again, in the post-mortem examination,
as tapeworms in his intestine, and in different stages of development,
according to the intervals in which the measles had been taken.

Thus it became clear, that all hydatids are tapeworm larves, which,
when swallowed with the animal, or a portion of it, in which they live,
by another animal, develop in the intestine of the latter. * • * *

Now the opportunity for experiments was again open in another direc-
tion. If the tapeworm embryo developed its scolex or head by interior
budding, it was likely that those animals having hydatids got them by eat-
ing the effgs of the species of tapeworm to which those hydatids belonged.
And this has been proved by experiment Goats fed with eggs of the
Tcenia Echinococcus got the Echinococcus ; sheep fed with the eggs of
Tcenia Ccenurus, got the CoBuurus in their brain ; healthy young hogs fed
with the eggs of the human tapeworm got the measles, Eiichenmeister,
Siebold, Van Beneden, Gurlt, Luschka, Wagener, Leuckart, Eschricht,
and others, have the merit of tracing this interesting development From
their further investigation, it became moreover evident, that the Ccenurus
also, with its many heads, originated from one embryo, which, enlarging
greatly, throws out as buds from its interior, not one, but many scolices ;
moreover, that the process is also exactly the same in Echinococcus, ex-
cept that in this hydatid the scolices free themselves after a while from
the internal walls of the bladder, and thus swim in the fluid contained in
the bladder, the latter itself being simply the enlarged embryo.

But the zeal of these investigators did not rest here. If Hiq sheep
gets by chance the eggs of the Tcenia Ccenurus of the dog into its stom-



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Botany and Zoology.



981



ach, how do the embryos hatching firom those eggs reach a suitable place
for their development into hydatids, which place is, in the sheep, the
brain t It had been erroneously assumed mat they bored with their
spines recta via from the stomach through all the tissues and organs until
they reached the brain. Accordingly, in the hog, the embryos of the
Taenia would have to go from the stomach into the muscles ; in the rat,
into the liver ; and in the ox, into the lungs ; for it is only in these par-
ticular organs that these hydatids are found.

R. Leuckart, however, discovered the way in which the embryos actu-
ally reach their destined resting places. On feeding rabbits with the eggs
of Toenia serrata, he found that, some hours after the feeding, the egg-
shells were already dissolved into prismatic granules by the juices of the
Mtomach, and the embryos set free. But on putting the eggs immediately
in the intestine (through an artifical opening,) they were not hatched, it
was clear, therefore, that only the gastric juice could hatch the embryos ;
and this accounts at once for the strange fact, that the embryo never
hatches in the intestine of the animal where the tapeworm itself lives.
Moreover, he found that they do not pass from the stomach into the
intestine, and hence, as had been supposed, through the bile-ducts into
the liver, but that Uiey pierce the blood-vessels, and thtis come into the
circulation. He even, after a long search, found four perfect embryos in
the blood taken from the vena portce. It is by the blood that the emhryot
of tapeworms are carried to the organs in which they develop into hyda-
tids. It now at once became obvious how easily th^y reach the muscles,
the brain, the lungs, etc. But it is to be supposed that only those which
reach the destin^ organ will develop themseves, while the rest, which
are carried to other organs, must perish."

The subject is continued with a full description of the common tape-
worm and of other species. The extreme length is stated by Diesing at
twenty-four feet

4. Depth of Molluscs of Peconic and Gardiner's Bays^ Long Island^
N. T. ; by Sanderson Smith. (Communicated for this Journal.)



Name.


Depth.


Remarks.


♦Loligo illecebrosa,*




Large and abundant


Ranella caudata.


— tolOfl


Moderately abundant


Pyrula caualiculata,




Abundant


Pyrula carica, ^
*ftuccinum plicosum,
♦Nassa obsoleta,


uw.tolOf.


((


H.w.tolOf.


Large and abundant


Littoral.


Very abundant


♦Nassa trivittata,


2 f. to 10 f.


Abundant


♦Columbella avara.


uw.tolOf.


Moderately abundant


*Columbel]a Gouldiana,




Rare.


Columbella lunata.


L.w.tolOf.


Mod. abundant


Pleurotoma cerinum,*




Rare.


Pleurotoma plicatum,


2f.


Not so rare as preceding.


*Natica hcros.


10 f.


Rare and small.


♦Natica duplicata.


10 f.


(( a u


♦Natica triseriata,


2 £ to 10 f.


Mod. abundant


l^atica pusiila,*




One dead specimen.



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283



Sdentifie Intelligmiee.



Names.



Deptk



♦Natica immaculata,




One dead specimen.


Eulima subangulata,*




Rare.


Chemnitzia producta,*




M


^Ghemnitzia fbsca,




U


♦Chemnitzia seminuda,


2f.


Only once found, nuuieiov*
Moderatdy abmidant


Chemnitzia trifida,


Low water.


♦Chemnitzia bisuturalis,*


Low water.


Rare.


♦Chemnitzia intemipta,


4 or fi f.


M


Scalaria clathrus,^




One dead speoimeo.


Scalaria lineata,^




u u a


Cerithium Saji,


L. w. to 2 f.


Extremely abimdaiit


Cerithium nijCTOcinctum,^
♦Cerithium Greenii,^


L.W.tolOf.


Rare.


L. w. to 2 t


u


Cerithiopsis Emersonii,^


4 f. to 10 f.


Moderatetr abundant*


Cerithiopsis terebellum,^


4 f. to 10 f.


« M


Caecum pulchellum f ♦


htaadatlOf.


Abundant.


Vermetus radicula,^






♦Littorina rudis,


Littoral


Very abtmdaat


♦Littorina littorah'fl Tanimal whiteV
Littorina ** (animal Wack),


Littoral.


Abundant


Littoral.


u


♦Lacuna vincta,


Low water.


Moderately abundantr


«♦ " var. fusca,


a u


u «


♦Rissoa minuta,


Low water.


Extremely abundant.
One dead specimen.


Skenea? n. s.^




♦Calyptrea striata,




u u u


♦Crepidula fomicata,


H.w.tolOfl


Very abimdant


♦Crepidula convexa,


L-w.tolOf.


Abundant.


♦Crepidula unguifomus,


L.W.tolOf.


tt


♦Tectura testudinalis,


Low water.


Moderately abund«xtr


Chiton apiculatus,


4 f. to 10 £


tt tt


♦Melampus comeus,


Littoral.




Actseon punctoetnatus,




Rare;


♦Bulla solitaria,




tt


♦Bulla canaliculata,





Not so rare as prece&q;;


JMiBy n. 8. ?


Low water.


One specimen.


Ostrea borealis,




Rare.


♦Anomia ephippium,


H.w.tolO£


Very abundant and large.


^ vara, electrica and squamula.






♦Anomia aculeata,^




Rare.


♦Pecten irradians,


L.w.iaSor4£


Extremdy abmidant


♦Mytilus edulis,


Littoral.




♦Mytilua modiolw^


— tolOf.


Abundant


♦Mytilus plicatulus,


Littoral.


tt


Area transTersa,


8 £ to 10 £


tt


Arcapexata,




Rare.


♦Nucula proxima,^


2 £ to 10 £




♦Leda limatula,^


2 £ to 8 £


Rare.


♦Leda sapotiUa,^





tt


♦Solemya velum,


4 £ to 10 £


tt



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Betany and Zoology.



263



Remarks.
A fragment
Abundant and large.
One valve.

Dead specimens abundant.
Moderately abundant
One valve.
Very abundant
Rare.



2lU>Bt

10 t Rare and small.



One valve.
Moderately abundant



it
u



Kamei. Depth.

*8olemya borealis,*

Cardium M<Mrtoni, II. w. to 1 £

^Cardium pinnulatum I
Astarte maotracea,*
^Venua mercenaria,
*Cytherea convexa,

*VeBU8 gemma, 1 — to 2 f.

Petri<x>la dactylus,
*Petrioola pholadiformki
*Mactra lateralis,
*Maotra solidiasima,
^Eellia planulata,
^Montacuta devata,*

*Tellina agilis <St), 2 fl to 6 £

Tellina tenta,* — to 6 f.

*Tellina fusoa, — to 4 f.

Cumingia tellhioides,*
^Solenensis,
Solecurtus bidens,*

*Mya arenaria, [ittond.

Corbula eontracta,

^Anatiaa papyracea, 3 t

*Cochlodesma leanum, S t

*Lyonsia hyalina, — to 6 £

♦Thrada Conradi *

^Pandora trilineata, 3 £. to 6 f.

*Sazicava distorta,

Turdo, Theca, Ascidia, a Cynthia, a Molgula, two or three Aplysise, and
six or seven Botrylli and Polyclina.

Becapittdation. — One Oephalopod, forty-three Prosibranchs, one Pul-
monifer, three Tectibranchs, one Nudibranch, forty-one Lamellibranchs,
and fifteen Tunicates, altogether one hundred and five marine species.
Besides these, ^Astarte castanea, *(>||rprina islandica,* ^Mesodesma arc-
tatom, ^Purpura lapillus, and ^Buccmum undatum, occur on the Sound
and about Montauk Point, making a total of one hundred and ten spe-
cies for the eastern end of Long Idand. Twenty-nine of these (marked
with a * after them) excluding the Tunicata, are additional to those
stated by Dekay to occur in the waters of the State, though many of
them are surmised by him to exist there. I have no access to a library,
to determine how many have since been described as coming from them.
Including the Tunicata, the number would rise to forty-three or forty-four.
Bixtv-two species (marked with a * before them), or sixty-five per cent,
(exduding the Tunicata,) pass Cape Cod. Only twenty-nine other spe-
cies are stated by Mr. Stimpson, in nis ^ Shells of New England,^ to pass
the Cape, so that 68*1 per cent of the whole number occur here ; and a
little dredging about Montauk would probably discover nearly all the
others.



Kot very abundant

Rare.

Very abundant

Abundant

Two specimens.

Rare.

Moderately abundant

A few odd valves.

Rare.



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284 Scientific Intelligence.



IV. ASTRONOMY.

1. Ftfly-fourth and ffty-fifth A8tei*oid$, — The asteroid discovered Sept
10, 1858, by M. Goldschmidt at Paris, has been Darned Alexandra^ and
is numbered as the fifty-fourth of the series. The asteroid discovered on
the same night, by Mr. George Searle at Albany, N. Y., has been named
Pandora, and is numbered the fifly -fifth,

2. Another Asteroid, — In 1857, Mr. E. Schubert of Washington, un-
dertook a series of observations of the asteroid Daphne, On computing
his observations he was surprised to discover that he had not found
Daphne but had observed for it a new asteroid in the neighborhood.
He has computed its elements, and it is to be hoped that the body will
be redctected.

3. Review of Gilliis's Astronomical Observations in Chili* (from
Gould's Astronomical Journal, 1868, p. 168). — ^This volume, though bear-
ing the date of the year in which the observations were printed, has only
been issued a few weeks. It contains 3*32 pages of observations of Mars
and Venus during two oppositions of the former and inferior conjunctions
of the latter, made at Santiago by Lieut Gilliss or under his superintend-
ence. These series comprise both micrometric comparisons with the equa-
torial, and absolute determinations with the meridian circle. These are
followed by 60 pages from the Washington Observatory, containing a de-
scription of the equatorial and a scries of micrometric observations by
Mr. Ferguson of each of the four oppositions or conjunctions. A portion
contributed by Mr. Bond of the Cambridge Observatory contains 43
pages of observations of Mars during the opposition of 1840-50, chiefly
micrometric determinations of right- ascension. Finally, Mr. Maclear, of
the Royal Observatory at the Cape of Good Hope, has furnished an ex-
tensive series of micrometer-comparisons with the preselected stars, dur-
ing the first opposition of Mars,

These 402 pages of observations and accompanying remarks are pre-
ceded by introductory remarks upbn tlie origin and operations of the ex-
pedition, with a description of the instruments and method of observation
employed, by Lieut. Gilliss ; and by a detailed discussion of the entire
mass of observations by the editor of this Journal. This discussion occu-
pies 264 pages.

The plan of the expedition contemplated micrometric comparisons of
the limbs of the planets, with stars previously selected by Lieut Gilliss
for the purpose, simultaneously made m the northern and southern hemi-
spheres; but the extremely small number of northern observations pre-
cluded all hope of attaining any valuable addition to our knowledge of
the Solar Parallax by this method.

In the earnest desire that so extended and costly a series of careful
observations should not prove futile for the attainment of the desired end,
a method of discussion has been employed, which, though entailing an
inordinate amount of toil, seemed to afibrd the only adequate means of
rendering the observations serviceable for the fulfilment of their design.
The method may be briefly described.

* The IT. 8. AstroDomical Expedition to the Southern Hemisphere, during the
Tears 1849-52. Vol III : Observations to determine the Solar Parallax^ by JUeat
J. M. Gilliss, LL.D., Superintendent. Washington, 1866. 4to.



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Astronomy. 285

A catalogue of the coroparison-stars haviDg been prepared, their de-
clinations were obtained from a thorough examination of all the available
sources, and from the combination hy weights of the positions as given
by the several authorities. Regard being had to the existence of any
possible proper motion, the positions obtained were referred to the mean
equinox of the beginning of the year in which the comparisons were
made, and a final list of comparison-stars thus constructed, containing
not only the declinations of each star, but the relative value of the de>
termination.

The complete reduction of all the observations was then repeated, and
the several comparisons with each star consolidated with care into a single



Online LibraryIrving Browne Isaac Grant ThompsonThe American journal of science and arts → online text (page 33 of 111)