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tbick-waUed ceUs; 4, parenchyma cells; 5, alearone layer; 5-6, endosperm;
7, cells of embryo. B. sinapistram: c, mncilage cells expanded; 4, endos-
perm in figure to tbe leHi, embryo in figure to the ri^Ht.

II. September frontispiece (Reprint, page 12). Sisymbrinmaltissimam,
S. officinale and Capsella bursa-pastoris: The upper row of cells consists of
mucilage cells; the lower row contains embryos; about midway between
may be seen the endosperm.

III. September text (Reprint, page 13). Lepidiam virginicum. 1, mucil-
age cells; 3» 4, endosperm; 5, cells of embryo; b, mucilage cells when
moistened.

IV. October frontispiece (Reprint, page 15). Brassica alba: Upper row,
mucilage cells; third and fourth rows, endosperm. Camelina sativa: upper

♦Harz. I. c p. 924. Fig. 71.



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 313

row, macilage cells; third row, thick-walled cells; fourth row, alearone cells;
lower row, cells of embryo. Figares on right of plate, macilage cells when
moistened.
All the figares were drawn to the same scale. — X320.



A Partial Bibliography on Mustard Seeds.

The writer wishes to express his obligations to Prof.
Wm. Trelease of the Missouri Botanical Garden, who
allowed free access to the library of the garden for the
purpose of completing this list.

1. Abraham, Max; Bau und Btwickelungsgeschichte
der Wandverdickungen in den Samenoberhautzellen ein-
iger Cruciferen. Inaugural Dissertation. Separate from
Pringsheim's Jahrbuecher fur wissenschaftliche Botanik,
vol. xvi. pp. 45.

2. Arbaumont, J. D., Nouvelles observations sur les
cellules a mucilage des graines de Cruciferes. Ann. des
sciences naturelles Ser. 7, 1893, Vol. II. Separate, pp.
60. One plate (9).

2a. Baillon. Histoire des plantes. Vol. Ill, p. 220.

3. Behrens, The Microscope in Botany. English
translation by A. B. Hervey, Boston, 1885, pp. 327-367.

4. Berg. Anatomischer Atlas zur pharmaceutischen
Waarenkuude, Berlin, 1865.

5. Caspary, R., Genera Plantanim, Flor. Germ. xvii.
Bonn, 1853.

6. Caspary, R., Bot. Zeit, 1852, p. 663.

7. Caspary, R., Bot. Zeit. 185i, p. 390.

8. Dahmen, Max, Anatomische und Physiologische
Untersuchung uber den Funiculus der Saraeu. luagu-
ral Diss. Erlangen. Separate from Priugslieim's Wiss.
Bot. Vol. xxiii, Heft 3, pp. 38. PI. xx, xxi, xxii.

8a. DeCandoUe. Memoire sur la Famiile des Cruci-
feres, p. 39.

9. Detmer, W., Physiologische chemische Unter-
euchung uber die Keiniung oelhaltiger Samen und die



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314 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Oct.

Vegetation von Zea Mays. Dissertation. Jena. 1875.

10. Flueckiger, F .A. Lehrbuch der Pharmakognosie
des Pflanzenreiches. Berlin, 1867.

11. Flueckiger and Hanbury, Pharmacographia; A
History of the Principal Drugs of Vegetable Origin met
with in Great Britain and British India. Loudon,
Macmillan & Co., 1879, pp, 565-69.

12. Flueckiger and Tschirch. The Principles of Phar-
macogonosy (English translation by Prof. Power), New
York, Wra. Wood & Co. 1887, pp. 163 70.

13. Frank, A. B., Ueberdie Anatomische Bedeutung
und die Entstehun^ der vegetabilischen Schleirae. Pring-
sheini's Jahrbuecher fur wissenschaftliche Botanik. 1866,
Vol. V. p. 161.

14. Garcke, A., Pharmakognosie des Pflanzen-und
Theirreiches, von Dr. 0. Berg, 4 Aufl. von Dr. A. Garcke.

15. Grew, N., Anatomie des plantes, 2nd. Ed. Paris,
lr)79.

16. Guignard, L., Recherches sur la localisation des
principes aciifs des Cruciferes. Journal de Botaniques,
1890, p. 385, p. 412, p. 435.

17. Guignard, L., Recherches sur le developpeinent
de la graine.

18. Hager : Botanischer Unterricht in 160 Sectionen
fur angehende Pharmaceuten und studirende Mediciner,
3rd edition, Berlin, 1885. p. 450. Fig. 675.

19. Hanausek, T. If. Die Nahrungs-und Genussmittel
aus dem Ptlanzenreiche, Berlin, Kassel, 1884, pp. 485,
100 wood cuts. Vol. V. of allegemeine Waarenkunde una
RohstofFe.

20. Ilarz, C. I). Lnndwirthschaftliche Samenknnde,
2 vols., Paul Parey, 1885, vol. ii. p. 555.

21. Ilenkel : Ilandbuch der Pharmakognosie ^^'^
Pflanzen- und Theirreiches. Tuebingen, 1867.

22. Heraud : Nouvelle Dictionnaire des planter,
Medicinales, Paris, 1875.



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 316

23. Hof meister, W. Ueber die zu Gallerte aufquellen-
(len Zellen der Aussenflaeche von Samen und Perikarpien.
Ber. d. Koen. Saechs Gesellsch. d. Wissensch. Sitzungsbe.
20 Feb. 1853. pp. 18-37.

24. Iloehnel: Ban der Samenschalen der Cultivirten
Brassica-Arten. Wissenscbaftliche praktiscbe Unter-
suchung aiif dem Gebiete des Pflanzenbaiies. Fr. Haber-
landt. Vol. i, p. 171.

26. Holfert, Johannes. Die Naehrschicht der Samens-
chalen. Inaugural diss. pp. 36. Univ. of Erlangen,
Separate from Flora, 1890, Heft 7.

26. Kiaerskou : Om Frokallens Bejggning bos Nogle
"Indiake Raps-Sorter'* Botanisk Tidsskrift Vol. xiv, 1885,
p. 249.

26a. Sur la Structure du testa de quelques de "Colza
indien." Botanisk Tidssk. Vol. xiv, pp. 17-21.

27. Klencke : lUustrirtes Lexikon der Verfaelscbun-
gen der Nahrungsmittel und Getraenke, etc., 2nd. edition,
pp. 750. 424 figs. Leipzig, 1879. See pp. 389-393, figs.
222, etc.

28. Kratzmann : Die Lehre von Samen der Pflanzen.

29. Kuetzing, F. T. Grundzuege der philosophischen
Botanik, 2 vols. Leipzig, F. A. Brockhaus, Vol. ii. p, 237.

30. Luerssen, Chr. : Handbuch der Sysiematischen
Botanik. Vol.1. Phanerogamen, Leipzig, H. Haessel, pp.
1229. See p. 642.

31. Marek, G. : Das Saatgut und dessen Einfluss nuf
Menge und Guete der Ernte. pp. 193, figs. 74. Vienna,
1875, Carl Gerold's Sohn.

32. Moeller, Josef. : Mikroskopie der Nahrungs- und
Genussmittel aus dem Pflanzenreiche, Berlin, Julius
Springer, 1866, p. 173, figs. 144, 145.

33. Xobbe, Friedrich : Handbuch der Samenkunde,
See p. 72, p. 631. Berlin, 1876.

34. Oudemann : Pharinacopa*a Xeerlandica, Rotter-
dam, 1864-56.



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3/4 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Oct.

36. Popovici, Al. P.: Ueber Struktur und Eatwicke-
lung Waudverdickungen, Bonn, A. Henry. 1893, pp.31,
plates II.

36. Royleand Headland: A Manual of Materia Med-
ica and Therapeutics of the British Pharmacopoea, Lon-
don, 1868.

37. Sachs, Julius: Experimental Physiologie der
Pflanzen, p. 368.

38. Schenk: Botanische Notizen, Wuerzburger Natur-
wissenschaftliche Zeitung, Vol. ii.

39. Schimper: Anleitung zur MikroskopischenUnter-
suchung der Nahrungs- und Genussmittel, Jena, 1886,
G. Fischer, pp. 140 and 79 wood cuts. See pp. 79, 94,
98, 110, figs. 52, 58, 74.

40. Schroeder:Untersuchung der Samen der Brassica
Arien nnd Varietaten. Landwirthschaftliche Versochs.
Station, 1871, Vol. xiv, p. 179.

41. Sempolowski: Uber den Bau der schale land-
wirthschaftliche wichtiger Sameu. Landw, Jahrbuecher.
Vol. iii, pp. 824-866. PI. vii.

41a. Sempolowski: Beitraege zur Kenntniss desBaues
der Samt^nschale, Inaugural Dissertation. Leipzig, 1874.

42. Spatzier, Wilhelm: Ueber das Auftrelern und
die physiologische Bedeutung des Myrosins in der
Pflanze. Inaugural Dissertation. Univ. Erlangen.
Separate, pp. 40, plates III. Pringsheim's Jahrbuecher
fur Wissensch. Botauik. XXV, Heft 1.

43. Strandmark: Bidrag till Kaennedomenom froska-
lels byggnad.

44. Tietschert, Carl.: Keimungsversuche rait Roggeu
und Raps bei verschiedeu tiefer Unterbringung. Halle,
1872.

45. Tschirch, A.: Angewandte PflaDzenanatomie: ein
HaDdbuch zum Studieren des anatomischen Baaes der in
der Pharmacie den Geweben der landw. und den bans-



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 317

shalte benatzten pflanzlichen Rohetoff. Vol. I, pp. 648
614, YieuDa und Leipzig.

46. Tschirch A. and Oersterle. Anatomischer Atlas der
Pharmakoguosie und Nahrungsmittelkande. Leipzig,
Hermann Tauchnitz, F. 0. Weigel.

47. Uloth : Ueber Pflanzenschieime und seine Ent-
tehang in den Samenepidermis von Plantago maritima

und Lepidium 8ativum,Flora 1876, pp. 193-409, PI. iv.

48. Vogl : Nahrungs- und Genussmittel, p, 116, fig.
97.

49. Wiesner, J. : Rohstoffe des Pflanzenreiches, p. 721
Leipzig, Engelmann 1873, pp. 846.



A Cause of Foul Water in Reservoirs.

By ARTHUR M. EDWARDS, M. D.,

KEWABK, N. J.

To the presence of a bacillarian, a diatom in fact, is
due a certain fouling of drinking water. Prof. Leeds, of
the Stevens Institute of Technology has given to it the
name of Asterionella flavor. In the report on the city
water of Brooklyn, N. Y. it is detailed. The results
arrived at are microscopically and technically of great
value.

By order of the board constituting the department of
the city works, on September 4, 1896, the Engineer was
requested *Ho make such examination of the Brooklyn
'Water supply as he should deem necessary, in order to
determine the cause of the complaints made in regard to
its quality, and the remedy to be applied.

Daily examinations showed that immediate action was
nec^-'Ssary. The objectionable appearance, taste and
odor during the raid-summer periods has been essentially
due to the protista, a plant growth known as Asterionella.



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318 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Oct.

It has nothing whatsoever to do with artificial causes
like drainage, sewage or contamination. It is due to
purely natural causes, the first being the microscopical
chemical constituents of the water, and the second, and
even more important, being the physical conditions in
which the water is placed after entering the reservoirs.
The important questions to consider are :

I. What is the Asterionella, and what is peculiar
about it ?

II. What is there in the composition of the Brooklyn
water, or the mode of handling and storing it, that has
fitted it especially for the development of the Asterio-
nella?

III. How can growth of this organism be prevented ?

I. Asterionella derives its name from its form, being
a star-shaped organism usually 3- or 4-rayed. It is a
diatom, a bacillarian, usually called an alga, although
more properly called a protiston. The latter is distin-
guished from most other algaB by being enclosed or hav-
ing a skeleton or envelope capsule of silica, or soluble
silica hydrate. This particular genus has the further
peculiarity of secreting a substance in the nature of an
oil which possesses a taste and odor so characteristic
that, for lack of a better name, is is called Asterionella
flavor. It is a combination of fishy, salty and oily tastes,
its odor resembling that of certain varieties of geranium.

Although some of the samples of the reservoir water
contained as many as twenty million individuals to the
gallon, yet it would require many hundred gallons of the
water to get enough of the oily product which imparts
taste and odor, to work upon in the laboratory to accu-
rately determine its nature. In many of its properties
it resembles trimethylamine.

In the month of August, when the trouble was at its
worst, the water had a white appearance and was filled



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 319

with minute white threads. On standing, it threw down
a iloculent deposit of a stringy, whitish or yellowish
white matter. Under the microscope, this deposit was
found to consist of innumerable Asterionella matted
togetehr with other diatoms strung together in threads
the other diatoms, being more especially Melosira, Tabel-
laria and Synedra. These thread-like forms have not
been noticed to produce the objectionable taste and odro
secreted by the Asterionella, and, moreover, they were
vastly less abundant. The water itself was colorless, the
apparent color being due to the suspended organisms.
The oily taste-producing substance is volatile and cannot
be gottou rid of by distillation. It distills over with the
steam, giving to the distilled water a faint whitish
appearance or opalescence, and communicates to it the
same characterislic taste and smell.

Neither can it be got rid of by filtration through paper
or cotton or a thin layer of sand. Sand will arrest nearly
all the Asterionella and then on being washed with pure
water, the water used in washing and containing the
plant will be found to have taken up the taste and odor.
To remove both the Asterionella and all thd taste and
odor arising from it, it is necessary to filter through
animal charcoal or thorough a properly constructed sand
filter of sufficient depth.

The most characteristic feature of the diatom is its
envelope of silica. There are many other kinds of mic-
roscopic organisms represented in the different portions
of the Brooklyn water supply, such as green alg», the
bluish green algSB and the fungi, Rhizopods, Rotifers,
Crustaceans, etc., but none of these are characterized by
the presence of silica, and do not in the same sense im-
peratively demand it as a constituent of their food.
Moreover, the number of non-silex-secreting organisms
is insignificant when compared with the stupendous
number of diatoms. Thus Prof. Leeds says, but he for-



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320 THE AMBBICAN MONTHLY [Oct.

getH that the silica in the Ioric» of bacillaria^ or diatoms,
is in a very soluble form and bacillaria are also present
in all water, marine, brackish and fresh, the world over.
Silica can also be dissolved when in the crystaline form,
as clear, transparent rock crystal. It is very likely that in
this manner silica comes into solution and not by the ac-
tion of alkali, potash or soda, which are also common in
all soils. But, he says, ''such being the case there must
be a great abundance of dissolved silica in the Brooklyn
water, and something in the nature of the water-shed
which enables it to impart the silica. As a matter of
fact, the ponds and streams contributing to the Brooklyn
supply have sides and bottoms of sand, which is silica in
an undissolved form." But silica is always soluble!
''Moreover all the water has an alkaline reaction and is
capable, therefore, of dissolving silica and holding it in
a soluble form. The wells, indeed, are the chief source of
the silex of the Brooklyn water. The complete analysis
of the mineral constituents given later shows the wells to
contain 1.5 parts per 100,000 of silica. But by dilution with
the surface waters containing relatively less, the silica in
the combined supply is only about half as much. But
even then, it amounts to 9 per cent of the total mineral
matter present. This large amount is more than ample
for the nutriment of the enormous number of silicious
algsB which thrive and multiply in the Brooklyn resevoirs
and distributing mains.

Where do these Bacillaria come from? A microscop-
ical examination of the water from several Brooklyn shal-
low wells, shows a few Bacillaria, the Asterionella, how-
ever, being found but once. From one basin however
they were plentiful, b^ing 6,400 per cubic centimetre.
The sample taken from the centre, but at the bottom of
the resevoir, at the same time, contained 11,616 and the
efflux 9,552 Asterionella.

Besides the silica, what else in the way of food do the



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1897] MICE08C0PICAL JOURNAL. 321

Bacillaria require? Multiplied observations in many
localities have shown that such a stupendous growth as
the reservoirs exhibited last summer is possible only
when there is present an abundant supply pf food in the
form of assimilable nitrogen.

Why should this transformation of ammonia, nitrites
and nitrates into nitrogen and the immense multiplica-
tion of Asterionella take place in the reservoir, and not
in some pond or stream where Asterionella are found,
and where abundance of food is likewise present? To
explain this it is necessary to have recourse to what is
known of the habits of life of the Asterionella in cases
where its enormous multiplication^ along with the ac-
companying taste and odor have been observed. Its
multiplication isvcssentially favored by abundant access
of light; by a gentle, tremulous motion in the water, and
by storage in shallow reservoirs. All of these conditions
exist in an convenient degree in the Brooklyn reservoirs.
Together with the kind and quantity of food they are
ample to explain what occurred in an aggravated form
last summer, what is observable now, although to a far
lesser extent, and what will occur at different seasons in
the future until the physical conditions that render the
occurrence possible have been removed.

So far as is known the only remedy which has proved
effectual has been that of excluding the light, and con-
verting the reservoir into a substantially subterranean
basin. The proposal to aerate the water, which was ad-
vocated last summer, was fortunately, not entertained.
Prof. Leeds speaks with the more positiveness upon the
subject inasmuch as he introduced the mechanical aera-
tion of water supplies, and has seen its introduction
followed by the happiest results in cases where condi-
tions favorable to stagnation were dominant. But the
reverse of such conditions exists in the present instance,
and the aeration of the water in the Brooklyn reservoirs



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322 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Oct.

with its accompanying large expense, would result only
m intensifying the trouble. Neither will filtration of
the waters before they enter the reservoirs answer. In
fact he thinkfii^that the Asterionella is the chief cause of
the trouble. I have taken the above facts from Prof.
Leed's report and commend it to the attention of every
one interested in pure drinking water.

Prof. Leeds says that the Asterionella flavor is from a
substance which in many of its properties resembles
trimethylamine, and trimethylamine occurs somewhat
widely distributed in nature. Thus, for instance, it is
found in various plants, as the Chenopoderium vulvaria,
Annica montana, Murcurialis annua, the bloom of the
hawthorn, that of the wild cherry, and of the pear, a.s
well as in ergot, and other fungi parasitic on cereals. It
also occurs in various animal liquids, and especially in
herring-brine. It is likewise found as a product of de-
composition of various alkaloids, and amongst the pro-
ducts of dry distilUation of nitrogenous, organic matter
and of wood. It has a powerful and penetrating char-
acteristic fish-like smell. I have found it as a character-
istic twice of Asterionella in the season when ovulation
takes place and it seems to be characteristic of the en-
largement of the oil globules as they are called, or ova
as I designate them.

The reproduction of the Bacillaria seems to be this:
As the individual is found, it contains, besides endo-
chrome, or olive-colored matter, large oil globules which
are transparent and look extremely like drops of oil.
These are colorless and permanent so that when the
Bacillarian individual is dried up the endochrome withers
away but the oil globule stays and when the individual
is acted upon by acid, the oil globule is not so readily
acted upon. These I shall show are ova or female organs,
as the individual opens there appear certain minute dots
which are extremely active in motion. They increase in



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1897]



MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL.



323



quantity and at one stage occupy a large part of the in-
terior of the frustule, the endochrome withering away
or being crowded to the sides. As the breeding season
approaches the interior is often dotted by innumerable
active little globules and two or sometimes more ova or
oil globules. Then in some way the contact of the an-
thozoa, as I have called these active little globules, and
the ova takes place. How, I know not for they are ex-




AsterioneUa flavor.

tremely minute and the contact is only momentary. But
sometime, I think that I shall see how the contact takes
place. At this time, or evolution, the characteristic odor,
the formation of trimethylamine smelling, takes place.
This is the ovulation of Bacillaria. It takes place in all
forms more or less, but is most rapid in forms which
occur in such enormous quantities. This form I have
found to be as rapid as any in coming and going. Per-
haps it is more so than other Bacillarian.



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324 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Oct.

The Microbe of Yellow Fever.

BY GIUSEPPE SANARELLI, M. D.

MONTBVIDBO, URUGUAY.

The best way to demonstrate not only the presence,
but also its special tendency to arrange itself in small
groups, preferably in the blood capillaries, consists in
placing in the incubator, at 37° C. for twelve hours, a
fragment of the liver taken from a fresh cadaver in order
to favor the multiplication of the specific microbe. The
yellow-fever bacillus grows sufiBciently well in all the
ordinary culture media. In common gelatin it forms
rounded colonies, transparent and granular, which dur-
ing the first three or four days present an aspect analog-
ous to that of leucocytes.

The granulation of the colony becomes more and more
pronounced, appearing ordinarily as a nucleus, central or
peripheral, completely opaque; in time the whole colony
grows entirely opaque. It never liquefies gelatin.

In beef bouillon the bacillus grows quickly, without
forming either pellicles or deposits.

On blood serum solidified it grows in a manner almost
imperceptible.

Cultures on agar-agar represent for the "bacillus icter-
oides'* a means of diagnosis of the first order; but the
demonstration by this means of diagnosis is eflBcacious
only under certain determined conditions.

When the colonies grow in the incubator, they present
an appearance that does not differ from that of the maj-
ority of the other species of microbes; they are rounded,
of a slightly iridescent gray color, transparent, even in
surface, and regular in outline.

If, instead of causing the colonies to grow in the incu-
bator at a temperature of 37° C, they are allowed to
evolve at a temperature of from 20° - 22° C, they appenr
like drops of milk, opaque, projecting, and with pearly



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1897] MICROSCOPICAL JOURNAL. 326

reflections; that is to say, they are completely distinct
from those grown in the incubator.

These diflFerent modes of evolution can be used for
diagnosis by exposing cultures, first, for from twelve to
sixteen hours to the temperature of the incubator, and
afterward ior other twelve to sixteen hours to the temper-
ature of the air.

This done, the colonies show themselves to be con-
structed with a flat central nucleus, transparent and
azure, having a peripheral circle prominent and opaque.
This peculiarity, which may be considered specific, may
be made evident in less than twenty-four hdurs, serving
thus to establish the bacteriological diagnosis of the
"bacillus icteroides."

Apart from this morphological characteristic, which
suffices of itself to differentiate the microbe of yellow
fever from all others previously known, the "bacillus
icteroides" is endowed with some interesting biological
qualities.

It is a facultative anaerobe, and does not resist the
Gram stain; it ferments insensibly lactose, more actively
glucose and saccharose, but is unable to coagulate milk;
it does not produce indol, and is very resistant to drying;
it dies in water at 60*^ C. or after being exposed for seven
hours to the solar rays, and lives for a long time in sea
water.

The microbe of yellow fever is pathogenic for the
greater number of the domestic animals. Few microbes
have a pathological dominion so extended and so varied.
Birds are completely refractory, but all the mamniiferous
auimals upon which I have experimented have shown
themselves more or less susceptible.

But of all the animals, that which lends itself best to
showing the close analogy, anatomically and nosologi-
cally, between experimental yellow fever and human yel-
low fever, is the dog.



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326 THE AMERICAN MONTHLY [Oct

The virus shoald be injected iuto a vein. The morbid
process that results manifests itself almost immediately,
with a violence of symptoms and an assemblage of les-
ions which recall the picture, clinical and anatomical, of
human yellow fever.

The lesions found after death are extremely interest-
ing, as they are almost identical with those observed in
the human cadaver.

Attention is called before everything to the intense
fatty degeneration of the liver. The hepatic cell, exam-
ined in a fresh state with a little osmic acid, appears
completely turned into fat, as it is in human victims of
yellow fever; the yellow-fever toxin, as we shall see
later is a true specific poison to the hepatic cell, as are
phosphorus and arsenic. A complete fatty degeneration
of the liver may be affected by injecting directly into it,
through the abdominal parietes, a fresh culture of the



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