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that which gave rise to them is done away. In fact,
the professors of those times used this text to prove the
all-sufficiency of the Scriptures. Our Friends, who had
learned the pre-excellence of the cause before the effect,
opposed them on their own ground ; and while both par-
ties allowed that something was supposed to be prefer-
red to the voice on the mount, they had reason on their
side in asserting that it could not be the Scripture. It
is with diffidence and fear, I presume to conclude, that
such eminent men were not fully aware of the true
meaning of the passage ; but if the words, rightly trans-
lated, are literally these, " And we have more sure the
prophetic word,"* the comparison " more sure" (which



* Ktci iXt^^y-ii fie^ecfoTtpoi rh w^ip«»]T/xoi' Aoy«>'. Isaac Pening-



OF ISAAC PENINGTON. 173

probably means, more confirmed) will relate to the in-
creased confirmation which the primitive Christians had
of prophecy, by having seen its accomplishment. I
think the subsequent verses are also clearer by this
means, and accord better with the scope of the whole
passage.

There is a postscript to this work on the 18th verse
of Rom. ix. " Therefore hath He mercy on whom He
will have mercy, and whom He will He hardeneth."
This text the author attempts to rescue from the service
of the Predestinarians : and contends against the doc-
trine which is generally drawn from this and other
parts of that famous chapter: showing, 1. from the na-
ture of God, 2. from his sending his Son, 3. from the
universality of the covenant of light and life, and 4.
from Scripture testimony, that the Almighty would have
none to perish.

51. Naked Truth, or Truth nakedly manifesting itself,
in several particulars, for the removing of hin-
drances out of the way of the simple hearted, that
they may come to true knowledge, life, liberty, peace,
and joy in the Lord, through the virtue and power of
his precious truth, revealed and working in them.
Given forth by way of question and answer. Where-
unto are added some experiences, with some scrip-
tures, very sweet, and necessary to be experienced
in the gospel-state. As also a few words concerning
the true Christ. And a few words in the bowels of
tender love and goodwill to my native country. By
a long mourner and traveller after, but at length a
happy experiencer of, the Truth, as it is in Jesus.
8vo. 1674. Seven sheets and a half.



ton has noticed that the Greek has ' prophetic word ;' but he does
not seem to have observed that our translators have transposed the
words of the sentence, nor to have noticed the definite article
Tor, the, which our translators havo rendered, a.

p 2



174 REVIEW OF THE WRITIITGS

This is arranged under the following heads :

1. Concerning understanding the holy Scriptures truly
and aright. 2. The illuminating and sanctifying Spirit. 3.
The Holy Spirit of God, and the Holy Scriptures. 4. The
law of the Lord which is perfect, and converts the soul.
5. David's longings, as expressed in Psal. xlii. xliii. cxix.
and other places. 6. The sun or fountain of spiritual
light. 7. The word's being a tire and a hanmmer, to
burn up the chaff and break the rocks in pieces. 8.
God's writing his law in the heart. 9. The inward
Light of God's Spirit. 10. The Ministers and Ministry
of the Gospel. 11. Trying of spirits and searching the
heart. 12. Things necessary to Salvation. 13. The
true Gospel-church or society. 14. The way to sal-
vation. 15. Christ's saving the soul. 16. Regenera-
tion. 17. True Holiness. 18. Christ's works outward-
ly in the days of his flesh, and inwardly in the day and
inward shining of the light of his Spirit in the heart.
19. The yoke or Cross of Christ. 20. Making our
Calling and Election sure. 21. Prayer. 22. Repent-
ance. 23. Faith. 24. Obedience. 25. Justification.
26. Good Works. 27. Love. 28. Meekness and Pa-
tience. 29. The knowledge of the New Covenant. 30.
Its Fear. 31. Hope. 32. Peace. 33. Joy. 34. Po-
verty of Spirit and Huniility.

The Experiences are on the several subjects of L
The Seed of the Kingdom. 2. The Soul's Food. 3.
God's power. 4. Temptations. 5. Prayer. 6. Justi-
fication and Sanctitication. 7. Faith. 8. Obedience.
9. The Cross of Christ. 1 0. The Mystery of Life, and
the Mystery of the Fellowship that is therein. 11.
Judging according to appearance, and judging righteous
judgment. The scripture passages, which our author
truly terms sweet, and on each of which he comments,
are the following : John xvii. 3. 1 Cor. xii. 3. John vi.
45. 1 John V. 12. John vi. 55, 56. Psalm xxxvi. 9. Isa-
iah Iv. 1—3. John iv. 14. 1 John i. 2, 3. Matth. xi. 28



OF ISAAC PENINGTOrf. 175

— 30. 1. John V. 20. 2 Cor. iv. 6. also iii. 14. John viii.
31, 32. Rom. vi. 14. Isaiah iv. 5. also xii. 1 — 3. Rev.
iii. 18. 1 John ii. 27. Psalm Ixxxv. 9, to the end. Rev.
iii. 20.

For a small specimen, an extract from the section on
Joy may suffice.

" Quest. Which is the true Joy ? Answ. The joy
which flows from God's presence, and the work of his
power in the heart, and the assured expectation which
He gives of the full inheritance and glory of life ever-
lasting. When the Bridegroom is present, when the
soul is gathered home to Him, married to Him, in union
with Him, in the holy, living fellowship ; when He ap-
pears against the enemies of the soul, rising up against
them, breaking, scattering them ; and giving of his good
things, filling with life, tilling with love, filling with
virtue, feasting the soul in the presence of the Father ;
oh ! what sweet joy ! oh ! what fulness of joy is there
then in the heart ! ' In thy presence is fulness of joy, and
at thy right hand are pleasures for evermore."

52. The Flesh and Blood of Christ, in the mystery and
in the outward, briefly, plainly, and uprightly acknow-
ledged, and testified to ; for the satisfaction and bene-
fit of the tender hearted, who desire to experience
the quickening, healing and cleansing virtue of it.
With a brief account concerning the people called
Quakers, in reference both to principle and doctrine.
Whereunto are added some few other things, which,
by the blessing of God, may be experimentally found
useful to the true pilgrims and faithful travellers out
of the nature and spirit of this world. Written in
true love and tenderness of Spirit. 8vo. 1675.
Four sheets.

In the narrative at page 85, some account of this
work is given. It may be added, that the 'Brief ac-
count concerning the people called Quakers,' is couched



176 REVIEW OF THE WRITINGS

in the assertion, and in the answer to the questions,
which are here subjoined :

Assert. " We are a people of God's gathering,
who (many of us) had long waited for his appear-
ance, and had undergone great distress for want there-
of."

Q,uest. 1. " But some may say, What appearance of
the great God and Saviour, did ye want 1

• 2. " How did God appear to you ?

3. " How did God gather you ?"



There are " a few words," concerning the Way of
Peace mentioned Rom. iii. 17. and also, in the postscript,
concerning the doings and sufferings of the despised
people called Quakers : and lastly, " An Exhortation
to true Christianity," having this assertion prefixed :

" It is easy to pretend to Christ ; but to be a true
Christian is very precious, and many tribulations and
deep afflictions are to be passed through before it be
attained unto, as those who are made so by the Lord
experience."

53. To the Jews natural, and to the Jews spiritual :
with a few words to England, my native country, &c.
Some sensible, weighty queries, concerning some
things very sweet and necessary to be experienced in
the truly Christian state. Whereunto is added a
postscript, containing some queries on Isaiah 1. 10,
11. a scripture of deep counsel and concern to the
darkened and distressed states of some among those
that fear and obey the Lord. Whereunto are added,
two or three queries touching the River and City of
God, and the pure stillness, wherein God is known
and exalted. As also some questions answered con-
cerning the true church, ministry, and, maintenance.



OF ISAAC PENINGTON". 177

under the Gospel; and about the Lamb's war.
Written in travailing bowels. 8vo. 1677. Four
sheets and a tialf, and one and a half; or six
sheets.

** It is the joy of my heart," says our author in his
preface, " to receive good from God, to be filled with
his blessings, to have my cup overflow ; and that others
may be helped, refreshed, and gladded therewith ; and,
by the sweet taste thereof, led to wait for the opening
of the same root and fountain of life in themselves, to
yield Hving sap, and send forth living streams in them
day by day." This sentence seems to set forth the
spring and tendency of gospel-communications ; the
temper of the pastor, and the purpose of being fed.
The reader may ask the question. Why should not the
purpose be fulfilled in me ?

It is not easy to abridge the address to the Jews na-
tural. The author seems not to expect the restoration
of their outward estate. Some may therefore ask. To
what end have they been miraculously preserved a
distinct people in their dispersion, through almost eigh-
teen centuries? It is easier to ask than to answer, to
doubt than to solve ; but whichever may be the termi-
nation of their long outward captivity ; either a glorious
restoration to Palestine, and conversion to Christianity :
or simply an inward redemption into its faith ; they
serve in the mean time as a grand monument of the
truth of the things recorded of them in ancient time;
and as a clear, though indirect testimony to the truth
even of the religion which they refuse to embrace. Our
author thus expresses his loVe to them. "You Jews,"
says he, " of the outward line of Abraham, whose re-
turn to the Lord my soul most earnestly desire th after,
and for which I have most vehemently, and wrestling-
ly prayed to the Lord." The bent of the book is to
show them that all the occurrences which befell their
forefathers were typical. The Scripture references



178 REVIEW OF THE WRITINGS

are of course to the Old Testament. Eight queries, in
our author's Socratic way, are propounded for their
consideration. One of them is thus : " Query 3. Did
not the Messiah come at the set time, at the time set by
the holy Spirit of prophecy ? Did He not come in the
prepared body to do the will, and did He not do the
will ? And after his obedience to his Father, was He
not cut off, though not for Himself? And after his cut-
tings off, were not ye made desolate ? Why were ye
made desolate ? Why did such a stroke come upon you,
as never before ? Oh ! consider it. Read Dan. ix. 24,
to the end of the chapter, and let him that readeth,
understand."

The address to the Jews spiritual, sets out upon the
passage in Gen. xlix. 10. " The sceptre shall not de-
part from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet,
until Shiloh come ; and unto Him shall the gathering of
the people be." This piece treats of the gathering of
the Gentiles, and concludes with a warm, pathetic ex-
hortation to the spiritually-minded. I cast my eye on
the following : " Oh ! who would lose the precious fear
of the covenant, which is clean, and endureth for ever,
and keepeth clean and chaste to the Lord for ever!
And who would miss of one law which God hath to
write in the hearts of his children, when every law is a
law of life."

There are in this piece three queries upon Psalm
xlvi. 4, 5. 10; not specified in the title. In Penington's
works a new title and preface is given with the '* Sen-
sible, weighty Queries," and those on Isaiah 1. Most
of these queries are short. The reader, by turning to
the place, may see the weightiness of the passage in
Isaiah : and will find our author's queries on it weighty
also, and of great concernment to every religious pro-
fessor.

54. The Everlasting Gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ,



or ISAAC PENIN-GTON". 179

and the blessed effects thereof, testified to from ex-
perience. 4to. 1678. One sheet and a half.

This is the short piece dated from Astrop, from which
an extract is given at page 84.

55. A further testimony to Truth, revived out of the
ruins of the Apostacy ; or several things opened from
the Spirit of Truth, touching the way of Life and
Salvation ; which will reach to the witness in the
hearts of those whose spirits are quickened, and
whose ears and understanding are opened by the Spi-
rit and power of the Lord. Written in a deep sense,
and tender love. 4to. 1680. i. e. posthumous.

The reader will find this piece divided into the fol-
lowing sections, though not denominated such :

" Some queries concerning Christ's righteousness,
how it justifieth ; whether as inwardly revealed and
dwelling in the heart, or only as imputed, or both."

" Concerning the true Church and Ministry."

" An objection, concerning the newness of the way
of Truth, answered ; with a tender expostulating ex-
hortation."

" A caution to those who are at any time touched
with the power of Truth, how they afterwards hearken
to and let in the enemy, and so thereby have the good
seed stolen away, the true sense lost, and the mind
filled with prejudices and stumbling-blocks instead
thereof."

" An objection against the principle, which, in faith-
fulness to God, and in love to souls, we bear witness to,
briefly answered."

" Some questions and answers concerning the new



180 REVIEW OF THE WRITINGS

covenant ; opening the nature and way of it, as it is ex-
perimentally felt in the heart, and witnessed to in the
holy Scriptures."

" A question or two, relating to Election, answered.'*

" A question answered concerning the ground of men's
misunderstanding and wresting of Scriptures."

" Some questions, answers, and queries, concerning
deceit and deceivers ; as what they are, what disco-
vers them, how man may come out of them, and be pre-
served from them," &c.

" That the way of life and salvation is freely held
forth by God to all ; and there is nothing in Him to let,
stop, or discourage any man from receiving his truth,
and giving up to Him in the faith and obedience of it ;
but very much to invite and encourage."

" Some questions answered concerning the Spirit of
of Christ, and the spirit of the Scribes and Pharisees."

" Some questions answered concerning blasphemy
and blasphemers."

" A question concerning miracles answered." This
relates to the objection that our Friends wrought no mi-
racles in support of their mission.

" Some further questions answered concerning the
new covenant."

" A brief account concerning Silent Meetings ; the
nature, use, intent, and benefit of them."

This last is an informing section, on the subject re-
ferred to ;— but hear our author, in his preface, respect-
ing the information on religious subjects received mere-
ly by reading. " Dwell not in the notion, delight not



OF ISAAC PEiVIxYGTON", 181

in the outward knowledge of the thing itself (though
the knowledge be ever so sweet, pleasing, satisfactory,
and demonstrative to the mind) ; but come to the ever-
lasting spring. Feel the measure of life in thy particu-
lar, and that will lead thee to the spring of life, from
whence the measure comes as a gift from the Father to
thee, to bring thee to the Father. And singly for this
end have been drawn to write what follows, in service
to the Lord, in faithfulness to Him, in dear love to the
souls of men."

The next is also a posthumous publication, which
first appeared in the Folio edition of Isaac Fenington's
works, though written so long before as 1671. It is one
of his longest works, viz.

56. Life and Immortality brought to light through the
Gospel. Being a true discovery of the nature and
ground of the religion and kingdom of Christ : in se-
veral weighty queiies propounded, and other serious
matters treated of, highly importing the eternal sal-
vation of souls. Written by Isaac Peninglon, in the
time of his imprisonment in Reading gaol. The date
of this is 1671. As it was never separately publish-
ed, the form and size cannot be given.

This work is in thirty sections. The first eight are
queries — " 1 . On the state of the Church as it was in
the Apostle's days, and was to be afterwards. 2. On
Deut. xxix. and xxx. compared with Rom. x. 3. On
Destruction and Salvation. 4. On Col. i. 27 — 29,
(translating ;y To7f i6n<nv, in the Gentiles). 5. On the
Way of Life, and mystery of the Gospel. 6. On right-
eousness or Justification. 7. Being under the Law, and
under Grace. 8. For the professors of Christianity to
consider of, and try their states by." These are inter-
esting. The first begins thus : •' Is thy spirit, heart,
mind, soul, and body a temple for God to dwell in ?



182 REVIEW or THE WRITINGS

Who dwells in thy heart ? Doth the Holy Spirit, or
the unclean spirit ?'

The 9th section is about " preaching the Gospel after
the apostasy. 10. Concerning others not learning what
God teacheth us [Friends] and concerning the way of
his teaching us. 11. Of the three-fold appearance of
Christ ; under the law, in a body of flesh, and in his
Spirit and power. 12. and 13. On Mounts Sinai and
Sion. ] 4. The temple and sacrifices under the Gospel.
1.5. Questions concerning the light of Christ's Spirit an-
swered, according to the Scriptures, and experience.
16. The way to know one's election, and to be fully as-
sured of it ; as also concerning election itself. 17.' Con-
cerning the priesthood of Christ, fronri Hebrews. 18. A
brief relation of the estate or condition the Lord found
many of us in, when He came to visit us, and make
known to us the blessed ministration of his Spirit and
power ; and, of some of his dealings with us, in instruct-
ing and nurturing us up therein; with a few words of
exhortation. 19. Concerning the Gospel-state. 20.
Baptism, from Mark xvi. 16. 21, Some questions con-
cerning the Gentiles' doing by nature the things con-
tained in the law. 22. The rule of the children of the
new covenant. 23. Queries concerning the law, or
word, statutes, testimonies, judgments, &c. which David
was so delighted in. 24. Observations on 2 Pet. iii. 14
— 16. 25. On the Gospel-ministry, or right teaching
and learning the mystery of life and salvation. 26. On
the old and new Covenant. 27. Queries on Rom. vi.
vii. and viii. 28. A further testimony concerning the
work of God upon our hearts, who are called Quakers.
29. A brief account of the ground of our worship, and
how it cometh to pass that we cannot conform to the
spirit of this world, or to the wills of men therein, but
only to the Spirit and will of our God. 30. Some que-
ries concerniiig knowing and owning the Lord Jesus
Christ truly and aright, who hath been the only Sa-



or ISAAC PENINGTON. 183

viour and Redeemer in all ages and generations ; and
there never was, and never shall be any other."

Such are the subjects which are investigated in this
book. In the eleventh section (to give a few touches
of some of them), under the division treating of Christ's
appearance under the law, there is probably as full a
testimony to the oneness of the Son and Father, as can
any where be met with. This is however a subject
to be spoken and thought of with reverence. The
same subject is spoken of with equal confidence, though
on a different occasion, in the eighteenth. Thus, " very
deep and weighty was that answer of Christ to PhiHp.
When Philip said, ' Show iis the Father, and it sufficeth.
Hast thounot seen * me Philip,'' said Christ. ''How is it
that thou sayest, Shozu us the Father ? He that hath
seen me, hath seen the Father also /' Are they not one
nature, one wisdom — one pure eternal Being ? Can
the one possibly be seen, and not the other ? Though
they may be distinguished in manifestation, in the
hearts where they are received; is it possible they
should be divided and separated the one from the other ?
Those that thus "apprehend, plainly manifest, that they
never received the true knowledge of the Father and
Son : but have only notions and apprehensions of man's
wisdom concerning them."

To the objection that the Friends do not use the
Lord's Prayer, is this reply : " Truly, Christ, our Lord
and Master, who taught his disciples to pray formerly,
hath taught us also to pray that very prayer ; though
not to say the words outwardly in the will of men, or
in our own will. He hath taught our hearts to breathe
after the same things, even that the name of our hea-
venly Father might be hallow^ed or sanctified more and



* I apprehend this is a typographical error, for known. The
edition has not a few, if they abound in proportion with the parts I
have examined.



184 REVIEW OF THE WRITINGS

more, — that He might reign more in men's spirits, and
the kingdom of sin and Satan be thrown down ; and
that his will might be done even in our earth, as it is
done in heavenly places, where all the hosts of God
obey Him ; and that we might have every day a por-
tion of the heavenly bread, whereby our souls may live
to Him, and convenient food and provision outward al-
so, according as He seeth good, who careth for us.

" Now as we are kept in the light, and watch to the
light which discovers things, we see what we are kept
out of, and what we are at any time entangled in, and
so trespass against the Lord ; and then we are taught
to beg pardon, and wait where pardon is to be received,
through our Advocate, even as God hath taught us to
forgive. Yet this doth not embolden any of the little
ones to sin ; but they pray that they may not be led (or
fall) into temptation ^ but may witness deliverance from
the evil, which the enemy watcheth to betray and in-
snare them with. And these cries are put up to Him
who is ready to hear ; and who can answer and fulfil
the desires of them that love and fear Him ; and indeed
not only so, but they are also put up in faith that, in
the way of God, the soul shall obtain and receive what
it prayeth and waiteth for."

From the section on " the Gospel-state," a part of
the summing-up or conclusion, after a glorious descrip-
tion* of that state, may serve as a specimen.

" Now if any one doubt concerning the truth of these
things, this word is in my heart to such. Come and see.
Oh ! come and see the glory of the Lord, and the power
of his life, and righteousness of his kingdom, which is
now revealed, after the long night of darkness ! Oh !
blessed, blessed, be his name, who hath caused his



* Glorious things are spoken of thee, O city of God, Psalm
Ixxxvii. 3.



OF ISAAC PENINGTOJf. 185

light to shine, and opened the eye which was once
blind to see it !"

" Quest. But how may I come to see the glory of the
Grospel-state ?"

" Answ. Come to the seed, and wait to feel and re-
ceive the power which raiseth the seed in the heart;
and bringeth the heart, soul, mind, and spirit, into
union with the seed."

" Quest. But how may I come to the seed ; and how
may I wait aright, to feel and receive the power which
raiseth it?"

" Answ. Mind that in thee which searcheth the heart,
and what it reacheth to, and quickeneth in thee ; what
it draweth thee from, what it draweth thee to ; how it
showeth thee thine own inability to follow, and how it
giveth ability when thou art weary of toiling and la-
bouring of thyself."

" The Lord make thee sensible of the

visits, drawings, and leadings of his Holy Spirit ; and
guide thy feet thereby into the way of truth and peace.
Amen."

The section on Baptism will be easily conceived to
recommend spiritual, and not water-baptism. On this
subject much has been written by Friends ; but those
who wish to investigate the subject deeply, as it may
be supported by Scripture authority, would do well to
peruse this dissertation on it.

After the series of the thirty sections, there is a que-
ry, " Concerning Imputation," a famous subject, the oc-
casion of much debate in the Christian world, and con-
cerning which no view of our author's belief has yet
been given in these pages. With this query therefore ,

Q 2



186 REVIEW OF THE WRITINGS

may be concluded this short review of the important
and instructive work, " J^ife and Immortality brought to
light by the Gospel."

" In what state was Abraham when faith was imput-
ed to him for righteousness ? Was he in the ungodly
state ; in the state of unbelief and disobedience to the
Spirit and power of the Lord : or was he in the sense of
God's power, in the belief of Him who could raise up
his son from the dead ; and, in the performance of obe-
dience unto Him, giving up his son at the Lord's com-
mand ?"


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